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The Collaborative International Dictionary

DNA \DNA\ (d[=e]"[e^]n*[=a]`) n. (Biochemistry, Genetics) abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid; -- more commonly used than the full name. See also RNA. [acronym]

Syn: deoxyribonucleic acid, desoxyribonucleic acid, deoxyribosenucleic acid.


macromolecule \mac`ro*mol"e*cule\, n. (Chem., Biochem.) A very large molecule, especially a polymer having from hundreds to many thousands of atoms, such as DNA, RNA, protein, polysaccharide, polyethylene, polycarbonate, etc.


deoxyribonucleic acid \deoxyribonucleic acid\ n. a nucleic acid, usually of very high molecular weight, consisting of a linear sequence of monomer units of deoxyribonucleotides, occurring in most organisms in pairs of strands, wound together in the form of a double helix; it is the main component of chromosomes and contains the genetic information which is the basis of heredity, transmitted from parent to progeny, and found in all living organisms except for certain viruses which have RNA as their basic genetic material; -- usually referred to by the acronym DNA.

Syn: DNA, desoxyribonucleic acid.

Note: The monomer units making up the DNA each contain one of four heterocyclic bases: thymine, adenine, cytosine, or guanine. The genetic information is contained in the precise sequence of these monomer units, which ultimately specify the sequence of proteins to be made by the organism's biosynthetic processes, mediated through the synthesis of RNA having a base sequence corresponding to that of the DNA. The DNA sequence also specifies the sequence of the various RNA molecules the RNA base sequence being a copy of that on one of the DNA strands. Most of the RNA synthesized is involved in protein synthesis. In the double-helical form of DNA, the thymine on one strand is paired with the adenine on the opposite strand, and cytosine of one strand is paired with guanine on the opposite strand. There is in DNA also certain controlling information concerning the timing and amount of RNA to be made, encoded within the sequence of the DNA in ways that are still being elucidated. When this structure is replicated in the course of cell multiplication, two identical double-helical molecules are formed, each containing one strand from the original molecule. Each resulting molecule is distributred to either the parent or progeny organism, and this is the basic mechanism for transmission of hereditary information. In RNA-based viruses, or those having single strands of DNA (as certain viruses), the genetic information transmission occurs through a double-stranded intermediate by a similar mechanism. In some organisms slight modifications of the bases of DNA are found, such as methylcytosine or, in some viruses, uracil or hydroxymethyluracil; these unusual bases act analogously to the normal bases in their genetic coding function. A small percentage of methylcytosine is found in many organisms, and it serves in some cases as a special signal, as for restriction enzymes.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

1944, abbreviation of deoxyribonucleic acid (1931).

DNA (duo)

DNA was the pseudonym taken by two English electronic music producers Nick Batt and Neal Slateford, best known for releasing a remix of Suzanne Vega's " Tom's Diner" in 1990.

As well as "Tom's Diner", the duo remixed another second Suzanne Vega track, "Rusted Pipe", and a radio mix of "Rosemary" in 2000. After a brief lull, DNA reappeared with a mix of the Loreena McKennitt track " The Mummers' Dance", which reached number one on the US Billboard Hot 100 Airplay chart in 1997.

Batt has worked extensively with Goldfrapp on Felt Mountain, Black Cherry, and Supernature; he also received an Ivor Novello Award for co-writing "Strict Machine" from Black Cherry.

DNA (film)

DNA is a 1997 American science fiction action horror film starring Mark Dacascos and Jürgen Prochnow, and directed by William Mesa. Filming took place in the Philippines. The film was retitled ADN - La menace for its French DVD release, and Scarabée for its television showing. It is also known as Genetic Code in some areas of Europe.

DNA (Wanessa Camargo album)

DNA is the seventh studio album by Brazilian recording artist Wanessa, released on July 28, 2011 by Sony Music Entertainment.

DNA (Last Live at CBGB's)

DNA (Last Live at CBGB's) is a live album by DNA, released in 1993 through Avant Records.

DNA (Empire of the Sun song)

"DNA" is a song recorded by Australian electronic duo Empire of the Sun. It was released as the second single from their second studio album, Ice on the Dune on 5 September 2013.

DNA (Matthew Shipp album)

DNA is an album by American jazz pianist Matthew Shipp with bassist William Parker, which was recorded in 1999 and released on Thirsty Ear. It was their second duo recording, the first was Zo. The album includes two traditional pieces, " When Johnny Comes Marching Home" and " Amazing Grace".

DNA (Ian Yates album)

DNA is the third studio album by Ian Yates. 7 Core Music released the album on 21 July 2014.


Deoxyribonucleic acid (; DNA) is a molecule that carries the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. DNA and RNA are nucleic acids; alongside proteins and complex carbohydrates ( polysaccharides), they are one of the three major types of macromolecule that are essential for all known forms of life. Most DNA molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix.

The two DNA strands are known as polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler units called nucleotides. Each nucleotide is composed of a nitrogen-containing nucleobase—either cytosine (C), guanine (G), adenine (A), or thymine (T)—as well as a sugar called deoxyribose and a phosphate group. The nucleotides are joined to one another in a chain by covalent bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of the next, resulting in an alternating sugar-phosphate backbone. The nitrogenous bases of the two separate polynucleotide strands are bound together (according to base pairing rules (A with T, and C with G) with hydrogen bonds to make double-stranded DNA. The total amount of related DNA base pairs on Earth is estimated at 5.0 x 10, and weighs 50 billion tonnes. In comparison, the total mass of the biosphere has been estimated to be as much as 4 TtC (trillion tons of carbon).

DNA stores biological information. The DNA backbone is resistant to cleavage, and both strands of the double-stranded structure store the same biological information. Biological information is replicated as the two strands are separated. A significant portion of DNA (more than 98% for humans) is non-coding, meaning that these sections do not serve as patterns for protein sequences.

The two strands of DNA run in opposite directions to each other and are therefore anti-parallel. Attached to each sugar is one of four types of nucleobases (informally, bases). It is the sequence of these four nucleobases along the backbone that encodes biological information. RNA strands are created using DNA strands as a template in a process called transcription. Under the genetic code, these RNA strands are translated to specify the sequence of amino acids within proteins in a process called translation.

Within eukaryotic cells, DNA is organized into long structures called chromosomes. During cell division these chromosomes are duplicated in the process of DNA replication, providing each cell its own complete set of chromosomes. Eukaryotic organisms ( animals, plants, fungi, and protists) store most of their DNA inside the cell nucleus and some of their DNA in organelles, such as mitochondria or chloroplasts. In contrast, prokaryotes ( bacteria and archaea) store their DNA only in the cytoplasm. Within the eukaryotic chromosomes, chromatin proteins such as histones compact and organize DNA. These compact structures guide the interactions between DNA and other proteins, helping control which parts of the DNA are transcribed.

DNA was first isolated by Friedrich Miescher in 1869. Its molecular structure was identified by James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953, whose model-building efforts were guided by X-ray diffraction data acquired by Rosalind Franklin. DNA is used by researchers as a molecular tool to explore physical laws and theories, such as the ergodic theorem and the theory of elasticity. The unique material properties of DNA have made it an attractive molecule for material scientists and engineers interested in micro- and nano-fabrication. Among notable advances in this field are DNA origami and DNA-based hybrid materials.

DNA (American band)

DNA was a no wave band formed in 1978 by guitarist Arto Lindsay and keyboardist Robin Crutchfield. Rather than playing their instruments in a traditional manner, they instead focused on making unique and unusual sounds. Their music was described as spare, noisy, and angular and was compared to some of Captain Beefheart's output as well as the works of Anton Webern.

DNA (disambiguation)

In biochemistry, DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is a molecule encoding the genetic instructions for life.

DNA may also refer to:

DNA (magazine)

DNA is an Australian monthly magazine targeted at the gay male audience. The magazine features stories, celebrity profiles, pop culture reviews, fashion tips/reviews, grooming tips and photography. The magazine is available at most newsagencies in Australia, as well as larger book stores. Launched in Australia in 2000, the magazine is now available in many countries, including Canada, the United States, New Zealand, United Kingdom and several other countries in Europe.

DNA (Red Dwarf)

"DNA" is the second episode of the science fiction sitcom Red Dwarf Series IV and the twentieth episode in the series run. It was first broadcast on the British television channel BBC2 on 21 February 1991, although it was planned to be broadcast as the fifth episode, it was moved forward in the schedule by the BBC. Written by Rob Grant and Doug Naylor, and directed by Ed Bye, the episode revolves around the genetic engineering technology that the crew discover.

DNA (Little Mix album)

DNA is the debut studio album by British girl group Little Mix. It was released on 19 December 2012 in the United Kingdom via Syco Music. The group began work recording the album in December 2011 and concluded in September 2012. Throughout the recording process, Little Mix worked with several producers, including TMS, Future Cut, Steve Mac, Jarrad Rogers, Richard "Biff" Stannard, Ash Howes, Jon Levine, Xenomania, Fred Ball and Pegasus. The album was co-written by Little Mix and they stated that they were involved in the development of the album as much as possible. Sonically, the album is primarily a mixture of pop and R&B records, with influences from dance-pop, pop rock and hip hop found on specific songs as well. The album's lyrical content explores empowerment, relationships and heartbreak. Songs on the album were also co-written by members of other girl groups, including Nicola Roberts of Girls Aloud, Shaznay Lewis of All Saints and T-Boz of TLC.

DNA received mixed reviews from music critics. The album's lead single, " Wings", was released on 26 August 2012, reaching number one in UK and Ireland as well as charting in Australia, New Zealand, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Belgium, Canada and the US. The second single, " DNA", was released on 11 November 2012, peaking at number three in the UK. Two post-album singles were released: " Change Your Life" on 3 February 2013, and a remix of " How Ya Doin'?" featuring American rapper Missy Elliott was released on 17 April 2013; both songs reached the top 20 in the UK.

The album charted in the top 5 in eight countries, including number three in the UK, and at number four on the US Billboard 200; making Little Mix the first girl group since Danity Kane in 2006 to reach the top 5 with their debut album, as well as earning the highest debut Billboard chart position by a British girl group, breaking the record previously held by the Spice Girls' debut album Spice (1996).

DNA (Little Mix song)

"DNA" is a song recorded by British girl group Little Mix for their 2012 debut album of the same name. Released as the album's second single, the song was solicited to contemporary radio stations in the United Kingdom on 1 October 2012. Syco digitally released the single in Ireland and the United Kingdom on 9 November 2012. It was written by TMS, Iain James and Little Mix, while the production was handled by TMS. "DNA" is an electronic pop ballad, which incorporates R&B and techno pop musical styles. Lyrically, the song contains multiple references to scientific vocabulary and is based on themes of love and obsession.

"DNA" garnered positive reviews from music critics, who praised the group's powerful vocals and the song's darker sound. The song received comparisons to Katy Perry's song " E.T." (2011), which was an inspirational factor in its development. "DNA" was commercially successful, debuting and peaking at number three the UK Singles Chart with sales of 72,044 copies, becoming the group's third consecutive top three hit there. It also reached the top ten in Ireland, Hungary and Scotland, and was certified gold in Australia where it peaked at number 48.

The accompanying music video was directed by Sarah Chatfield and was released on 19 October 2012. Filmed in comic book movie style, it portrays Little Mix as female assassins who stalk and then kidnap men who they are obsessed with. Critics noted the similarities from the video with that of comic series Sin City and fictional character Catwoman, and gave it positive reviews for it. Little Mix have performed "DNA" on television shows Loose Women and The X Factor. They also performed the song as a continuation of the music video's storyline on their DNA Tour (2013).

DNA (TV series)

DNA (originally broadcast as DoNovAn) is a British television crime drama, broadcast on ITV, starring Tom Conti and Samantha Bond as the main protagonists, Joe and Kate Donovan. Two series were produced - the first of which is a two-part story - and the second which features three, unrelated, entirely different cases. The initial series follows the work of Donovan, a retired police forensic pathologist, whose life is turned upside down after being called to a crime scene, only to find his own name scrawled on the wall in blood by the victim. In the second series, Donovan comes out of retirement to head up the FIU (Forensics Investigation Unit).

The first series was released on DVD in the UK on 18 May 2009. Despite the blurb, this only contains the two-part first series, not all five episodes as stated. A complete box set containing both series was previously released in the US on 13 May 2008.

Usage examples of "dna".

Blood had DNA, and water had a similar structure that existed only on the aetheric plane.

Beatrice Mangan provide Macrodur with a copy of the Tokyo research confirming eradication of the allomorphic trait in the body through substitution of human DNA.

Yet no geneticist has ever found one scrap of proof that psychology and mind patterns are encoded biochemically into the DNA.

It is from here that behaviour and instinct are determined, providing - automatically - as a reflection of what lies within, the sense organs, the limbs, the DNA, the cell and organ structure, the molecular and bioelectrical patternings - everything with which we are presently familiar and much more which we have yet to uncover.

I figured the killer for an organized offender who washed the saliva out of his bites to prevent recovery of DNA evidence.

Ressler devises a variant on the now notorious Waring Blendor technique to test the supposition that DNA information is transcribed and read like a linear tape.

If Jake had been able to get DNA or pursue other testing, maybe scanning electron microscopy of the calcaneus lesion, we might have learned more.

Both those guys had a thin line of vamp in their DNA, and their not being able to rest truly made Carlos worry.

You are instructed to encourage the appropriate castes of the Human Species to decode DNA and increase Altitude and Mobility.

One of their findings is that the common chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin is particularly effective in killing cancer cells that have a specific defect in their ability to repair their DNA.

You admit to stupid, you cop to thoughtless, you plead brain-dead, you vouchsafe radical DNA damage all the way back to the Mesolithic, including that embarrassing contretemps involving your ancestor Hoockmuh of the Clactonians which resulted in your being minus a lobe or two of brain, and thus you are truly and genuinely contrite about having cut him off.

DNA coding sequence of the D4 receptor, a forty-eight base-pair sequence that controls clozapine and spiperone binding, especially when it appears as an eightfold repeat.

Ressler recognizes: Linus Pauling, Nobel laureate, supreme figure of American chemistry, he of vitamin C and the covalent bond, structural elucidator of any number of organic molecules, and nip-and-tuck runner-up to the three-dimensional solution of DNA.

Bacterial DNA simply sprawls out amid the cytoplasmic goo like a circular double-helix of snarled and knotted Slinkies.

One structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA is a purine, a dicyclic nitrogen-containing molecule.