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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
a carbon/nitrogen/sulphur etc compound
▪ Use a copper compound to protect the trees from pests.
carbon copy
▪ The robbery is a carbon copy of one that took place last year.
carbon credit
carbon dating
carbon dioxide
carbon footprint
▪ There are lots of ways you can reduce your carbon footprint.
carbon monoxide
carbon neutral
▪ Costa Rica wants to be the first developing country to become carbon neutral.
carbon offsetting
▪ There are websites that let you buy carbon offsets.
carbon paper
carbon sink
carbon tax
▪ carbon taxes on fossil fuels
reduce...carbon footprint
▪ There are lots of ways you can reduce your carbon footprint.
sulphur dioxide/carbon dioxide/greenhouse gas etc emissions
▪ The treaty calls for a 30% reduction in sulphur dioxide emissions.
zero carbon
▪ a zero carbon house
▪ The residue, a carbon-based char, can be used instead of activated carbon in, for instance, sewage works.
▪ For chemical filtration, which usually means packing with an absorptive medium such as activated carbon or some sort of resin.
▪ Some potential uses of conventional biological reactors, insitu bioremediation, and activated carbon adsorption are summarised in Table 1.
▪ Chemical filtration - for keeping butterfly and angelfish - means activated carbon.
▪ The life of activated carbon is limited - factors like gallonage and stocking levels affecting it.
▪ Make sure the protein skimmer is working properly and renew the activated carbon.
▪ I would also advise a canister filter fitted with activated carbon.
▪ As levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane increase, the greenhouse effect will trap increasing amounts of heat.
▪ Estimating the future rate of energy growth is of critical importance for predicting future concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide.
▪ Disturbed soils are an additional major source of atmospheric carbon.
▪ The estimated global emissions of carbon from fossil fuels alone have tripled since 1950.
▪ But hardly anyone has looked at the global carbon budget in detail.
▪ The frescos also had high carbon levels, and these were responsible for the darkening of the paintings.
▪ The residual gases including nitrogen, higher hydrocarbons carbon dioxide, etc. constitute about 2 percent.
▪ Cast Iron Iron with a high carbon content.
▪ The mixture's high carbon monoxide content makes it extremely lethal.
▪ This is because of the higher levels of carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired stations compared with natural gas.
▪ Under high pressure, carbon can turn into diamonds.
▪ It is closely related to peat and has a relatively low carbon content and high moisture content.
▪ The tyres contain only low levels of carbon and no dioxins; potentially harmful products of burning tyres are to be recycled.
▪ Existing catalytic converters can produce extremely low hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide outputs only in optimal conditions.
▪ Wrought Iron Iron possessing a very low carbon content, which makes it tough and malleable.
▪ Total organic carbon is made up of non-hazardous materials.
▪ Oil, gas, and coal, composed of organic carbon compounds, are found as economic deposits in sedimentary rocks.
▪ Reactivation facilities thermally destroy organic contaminates on carbon so that the carbon can be reused.
▪ The government has committed itself to reducing carbon dioxide emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2000.
▪ Traditionally, this cooling requirement has been accomplished using slices of solid carbon dioxide, better known as dry ice.
▪ Again, solid carbon is made as a byproduct.
▪ A sink is a natural way of capturing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and turning it back into solid carbon.
▪ In that way, all the oxygen can be recovered, with solid carbon dust as the only byproduct.
▪ Thus, unlike water, the solid carbon dioxide is denser than the liquid.
▪ An increase of applied pressure thus favours formation of solid carbon dioxide.
▪ Blown rubber forefoot outsole with solid carbon rubber heel.
▪ Buckyballs, of buckminsterfullerene, are soccer-ball-shaped assemblages of 60 carbon atoms.
▪ Any molecule with this group attached to a carbon atom is called an alcohol.
▪ The two substances differ from each other only in the geometric pattern with which the carbon atoms are packed.
▪ In this group of ions the carbon atom is surrounded by three oxygen atoms in a planar triangle.
▪ In diamonds, the carbon atoms are packed in a tetrahedral pattern which is extremely stable.
▪ The hydrogen-to-carbon atom ratio is perhaps a better index.
▪ This leaves one electron on each carbon atom unaccounted for.
▪ This is illustrated in Figure 4. 2 which shows the hydrogen-to-carbon atom ratio of various hydrocarbon.
▪ It is closely related to peat and has a relatively low carbon content and high moisture content.
▪ Cast Iron Iron with a high carbon content.
▪ It would be based on the carbon content of fuels and would have the biggest effect on the coal industry.
▪ The total carbon content has, therefore, been taken as the carbon content and quoted as a percentage weight.
▪ The percentage carbon content of a coal is important because the calorific value depends on it.
▪ Half the new tax would be on the carbon content of fossil fuel and half on the energy content.
▪ The legal arrangements for the transfer are virtual carbon copies of those agreed for Hong Kong.
▪ The new Bernard's is not a carbon copy of the original.
▪ Photocopy or make carbon copies of all transcribed texts.
▪ He found two carbon copies of such a list, neatly typed.
▪ To her annoyance Holly pushed the carbon copy on to Rain's desk and went away with the other.
▪ After the card has been used, ask for carbon copies and destroy them.
▪ It was a carbon copy of an attack 18 months ago.
▪ He was as near as dammit to being a stylistic carbon copy of Hell.
▪ Atmospheric carbon dioxide in the northern hemisphere is increasing measurably.
▪ The failure of the Martian greenhouse effect is obviously not due to any shortage of carbon dioxide!
▪ It estimates that in that time it cut its carbon dioxide emissions by more than 20 percent.
▪ They produce bubbles of carbon dioxide gas, which push the cake or bread batter up.
▪ When we breathe we take oxygen into the body and expel the waste gas, carbon dioxide, or CO2.
▪ And it probably always will, since no conceivable technology can prevent petroleum combustion from producing carbon dioxide.
▪ The corresponding carbon dioxide emissions were down by a similar amount.
▪ Additionally, carbon dioxide is produced as a result of continued metabolism.
▪ Some attacked the fact that faster growth has been environmentally unsound, creating excessive carbon emissions and destroying natural habitats.
▪ Their purpose is to encourage countries to ratify the Kyoto protocol on reducing carbon emissions.
▪ He has also proposed yearly progress reports updating targets on everything from recycling to carbon emissions.
▪ Can energy efficiency and a greater dependence on natural gas cut carbon emissions sufficiently on their own?
▪ Levels have fallen from 60.2 percent of total national carbon emissions to 49.5 percent in 1989.
▪ The report was commissioned from scientists in five countries in order to assess the impact of dramatic reductions in carbon emissions.
▪ The government predicts that on current trends carbon emissions will rise from 160 million tons to 170 million tons in the 1990s.
▪ The canopy, which hinges forwards, is made of flat sheets of poly-carbonate, framed with carbon fibre for stiffness.
▪ The body is aluminium and carbon fibre, and the chassis is glued together for extra fly-away lightness.
▪ These carbon fibre rollers are used by firms manufacturing machines for a variety of uses including films, textiles and paper.
▪ They are made by winding resin-laced strands of carbon fibre round a mandrel and then curing in an oven.
▪ One of them big mining companies did it, only they used carbon fibre.
▪ These chitin fibres are embedded in matrix materials, making the wall material like a carbon fibre composite.
▪ And because the body is made from light carbon fibre, the result is a staggering 380 brake horsepower per ton.
▪ The architects say the carbon fibre structure is a design for the nineties.
▪ The World Health Organisation has published guidelines for safe emissions of carbon monoxide.
▪ This surface reaction of oxygen and carbon releases carbon monoxide which migrates outward and upon encountering oxygen burns to carbon dioxide.
▪ Other fires Gas or paraffin heaters should only ever be used in well ventilated rooms as they give off carbon monoxide.
▪ Hauserman said a First Alert detector sounded in his office, where the only source of carbon monoxide is the nearby interstate.
▪ The products of coal gasification include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, methane and nitrogen.
▪ The standard requires detectors to sound before carbon monoxide levels exceed 100 parts per million for 90 minutes.
▪ The only raw materials needed are carbon monoxide and methanol.
▪ The air in El Paso is arguably the dirtiest in Texas, violating federal standards for ozone, carbon monoxide and particulates.
▪ Carbonless paper coated with chemicals and dye which will produce copies without carbon paper.
▪ A final covering of aluminium foil or carbon paper reduces the risk of detection by X-ray machines.
▪ They use that magic carbon paper.
▪ The flattened shape is transferred to a sheet of leather by mangling carbon paper between the two.
▪ A smell I had waited all day to smell-old and sweet, the carbon paper.
▪ Books and papers were either remembered or copied, sometimes ten typed sheets at once, on carbon paper.
▪ That failure will most likely be papered over with creative accounting, shifting definitions of carbon sinks, and so on.
▪ The biggest source of contention is carbon sinks.
▪ But the science of carbon sinks is terrifyingly imprecise, scientists warn.
▪ What about plans for a carbon tax?
▪ The carbon tax could lead to a doubling of prices for fossil fuels.
▪ Proposals for a worldwide carbon tax and the phasing out of coal-burning generators appear to have been ruled out.
▪ But internationally agreed carbon taxes, permits and rising global temperatures may push the world along the road towards accepting the unacceptable.
▪ The other strand of the community's policy, a carbon tax, now looks unlikely to be approved by ministers.
▪ The chemical industry, however, is opposed to a carbon tax for several reasons.
▪ Is it expected that that will be the embryo for a carbon tax to pay for more investment in renewable energies?
▪ Collor has spoken favourably of the idea of an international carbon tax.
▪ A failure of a centrifugal pump, also in February, resulted in a small release of carbon tetrachloride.
▪ Alan Townshend, professor of analytical chemistry at Hull, agrees that phasing out carbon tetrachloride is a minor worry.
▪ And so, too, do carbon tetrachloride and methyl chloroform.
▪ It was feared the burning Alloprene was producing phosgene gas, carbon tetrachloride and hydrochloric acid.
▪ These plants absorb the carbon dioxide released by the corals and so help to keep the water oxygenated.
▪ Rainforests absorb carbon dioxide and produce the oxygen essential for all life, including our own.
▪ For plants to photosynthesise and produce sugars in their leaf cells, they need to absorb large amounts of carbon dioxide.
▪ One way of absorbing the extra carbon dioxide would be to plant more trees.
▪ Living tropical forests also absorb carbon dioxide.
▪ A forest on this scale would absorb large amounts of carbon dioxide.
▪ It would be based on the carbon content of fuels and would have the biggest effect on the coal industry.
▪ The Echo investigation highlighted a series of deaths caused by carbon monoxide poisoning from faulty gas fires.
▪ There is no evidence to suggest that the chimney was capped deliberately to cause carbon monoxide poisoning.
▪ Washington continues to challenge the scientific claim that global warming is in part caused by emissions of carbon dioxide.
▪ The end product contains mainly carbon monoxide and hydrogen from the gasification step plus a little methane from the carbonisation.
▪ The very weakest meteors also contain large amounts of carbon, far more than we see in even the most carbon-rich meteorites.
▪ The fog, apart from being a mutated organism, now contains carbon dioxide and various other impurities.
▪ The resulting products usually contain carbon double bonds.
▪ Carbon dioxide invariably contains 27.37% carbon and 72.73% oxygen, by mass.
▪ Carbohydrates in pure form contain only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
▪ The device contains a carbon dioxide cylinder which released gas into a coiled chamber.
▪ In general coals contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur with various other trace elements.
▪ The new standards cut emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, gaseous hydrocarbons and particulate matter.
▪ It estimates that in that time it cut its carbon dioxide emissions by more than 20 percent.
▪ Doubling rail traffic would cut carbon dioxide emissions by only about 3 percent.
▪ Speeding up urban traffic could save 10 percent of fuel, and so cut back on carbon dioxide.
▪ They are demanding that richer countries cut back their carbon emissions to compensate.
▪ Combustion: Benzene burns to form carbon dioxide and water.
▪ When they are burned, their carbon combines with oxygen from the atmosphere to form carbon dioxide gas.
▪ In combination with oxygen it forms the gas carbon dioxide.
▪ The products of coal gasification include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, methane and nitrogen.
▪ Reducing agents used for this purpose include carbon or other metals.
▪ Cigarettes increase the carbon monoxide level in the blood.
▪ As irradiance increases the carbon dioxide supply becomes more important and eventually limiting.
▪ At that point, however, the still increasing emissions of carbon dioxide will begin the upward spiral once more.
▪ That is a neat package for increasing the output of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
▪ Any tissue starved of oxygen increases its carbon dioxide production and the lungs compensate by deep and sighing respirations.
▪ So more and more coal, gas and oil are burned producing more carbon dioxide.
▪ They produce bubbles of carbon dioxide gas, which push the cake or bread batter up.
▪ And burning coal, of course, produces, carbon dioxide as well as sulphur dioxide.
▪ And it probably always will, since no conceivable technology can prevent petroleum combustion from producing carbon dioxide.
▪ The most immediate is that they take up oxygen from water to support their respiration and produce carbon dioxide.
▪ Sodium bicarbonate plus an acid will produce bubbles of carbon dioxide gas.
▪ The yeast feeds on the sugar and produces alcohol and carbon dioxide.
▪ Instead the bubbles are produced by injecting carbon dioxide into the finished wine.
▪ Their purpose is to encourage countries to ratify the Kyoto protocol on reducing carbon emissions.
▪ Other companies have studied ways to offset or reduce emissions of carbon dioxide.
▪ The new plan focused on reducing carbon dioxide emissions by cutting energy consumption.
▪ When carbon monoxide is the reducing agent, carbon dioxide is produced.
▪ This would reduce carbon emissions and would also provide alternative uses for farm surpluses.
▪ It reduces the carbon in carbon dioxide.
▪ The alternative is to reduce carbon consumption by 90 % over the next 10 years.
▪ The higher thermal efficiency resulting from the topping cycle reduces the amount of carbon dioxide produced per unit of power generated.
▪ In addition, the fierce solar heat released further carbon from its surface rocks.
▪ This surface reaction of oxygen and carbon releases carbon monoxide which migrates outward and upon encountering oxygen burns to carbon dioxide.
▪ Because the diesel engine uses so much less fuel it releases substantially less carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
▪ That harmlessly releases 600 litres of carbon dioxide into the air every second.
▪ Simply using energy and fuel efficiently could stop us releasing much of the carbon dioxide we currently emit.
▪ It would feed into, and further exacerbate, global warming by releasing vast amounts of carbon.
▪ Potassium hydroxide is injected into the tube to remove carbon dioxide.
▪ They also remove the carbon and make it available to plants as carbon dioxide.
▪ Traditionally, this cooling requirement has been accomplished using slices of solid carbon dioxide, better known as dry ice.
▪ The process uses small chips of carbon to adsorb the gold dissolved in solution.
▪ The residue, a carbon-based char, can be used instead of activated carbon in, for instance, sewage works.
▪ After the card has been used, ask for carbon copies and destroy them.
▪ Complete the application for an official search using a carbon for the duplicate copy comprised in the one form.
▪ Many outsoles now combine the two and use the carbon rubber in the heel or other high impact points.
▪ Aquifers could be used as carbon stores, if they could be made gas-tight.
▪ They use that magic carbon paper.
oil-based/carbon-based/computer-based etc
▪ But in practice, modern Earthly life is a protege of water, as much as it is of carbon.
▪ In the other two mechanisms, buckminsterfullerene is formed by a combination of specific precursor carbon clusters.
▪ The best way to get that carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is to warm the entire planet.
▪ The more carbon, the more mess.
▪ The plant material itself is converted to black carbon.
▪ The platinum catalyses the reaction of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons with air to give carbon dioxide and water vapour.
▪ This same basic cycle could also operate on the interconversion of carbon dioxide into carbon monoxide plus oxygen.
The Collaborative International Dictionary

Carbon \Car"bon\ (k[aum]r"b[o^]n), n. [F. carbone, fr. L. carbo coal; cf. Skr. [,c]r[=a] to cook.] (Chem.)

  1. An elementary substance, not metallic in its nature, which is present in all organic compounds. Atomic weight 11.97. Symbol C. it is combustible, and forms the base of lampblack and charcoal, and enters largely into mineral coals. In its pure crystallized state it constitutes the diamond, the hardest of known substances, occuring in monometric crystals like the octahedron, etc. Another modification is graphite, or blacklead, and in this it is soft, and occurs in hexagonal prisms or tables. When united with oxygen it forms carbon dioxide, commonly called carbonic acid, or carbonic oxide, according to the proportions of the oxygen; when united with hydrogen, it forms various compounds called hydrocarbons. Compare Diamond, and Graphite.

  2. (Elec.) A carbon rod or pencil used in an arc lamp; also, a plate or piece of carbon used as one of the elements of a voltaic battery.

  3. a sheet of carbon paper.

  4. a carbon copy.

    Carbon compounds, Compounds of carbon (Chem.), those compounds consisting largely of carbon, commonly produced by animals and plants, and hence called organic compounds, though their synthesis may be effected in many cases in the laboratory.

    The formation of the compounds of carbon is not dependent upon the life process.
    --I. Remsen

    carbon copy, originally, a copy of a document made by use of a carbon paper, but now used generally to refer to any copy of a document made by a mechanical process, such as xerographic copying.

    Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide. (Chem.) See under Carbonic.

    Carbon light (Elec.), an extremely brilliant electric light produced by passing a galvanic current through two carbon points kept constantly with their apexes neary in contact.

    Carbon point (Elec.), a small cylinder or bit of gas carbon moved forward by clockwork so that, as it is burned away by the electric current, it shall constantly maintain its proper relation to the opposing point.

    Carbon paper, a thin type of paper coated with a dark-colored waxy substance which can be transferred to another sheet of paper underneath it by pressing on the carbon paper. It is used by placing a sheet between two sheets of ordinary writing paper, and then writing or typing on the top sheet, by which process a copy of the writing or typing is transferred to the second sheet below, making a copy without the need for writing or typing a second time. Multiple sheets may be used, with a carbon paper placed above each plain paper to which an impression is to be transferred. In 1997 such paper was still used, particularly to make multiple copies of filled-in purchase invoice forms, but in most applications this technique has been superseded by the more faithful xerographic reproduction and computerized printing processes.

    Carbon tissue, paper coated with gelatine and pigment, used in the autotype process of photography.

    Gas carbon, a compact variety of carbon obtained as an incrustation on the interior of gas retorts, and used for the manufacture of the carbon rods of pencils for the voltaic, arc, and for the plates of voltaic batteries, etc.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

non-metallic element, 1789, coined 1787 in French by Lavoisier as charbone, from Latin carbonem (nominative carbo) "a coal, glowing coal; charcoal," from PIE root *ker- (4) "heat, fire, to burn" (cognates: Latin cremare "to burn;" Sanskrit krsna "black, burnt," kudayati "singes;" Lithuanian kuriu "to heat," karštas "hot," krosnis "oven;" Old Church Slavonic kurjo "to smoke," krada "fireplace, hearth;" Russian ceren "brazier;" Old High German harsta "roasting;" Gothic hauri "coal;" Old Norse hyrr "fire;" Old English heorð "hearth").\n

\nCarbon 14, long-lived radioactive isotope used in dating organic deposits, is from 1936. Carbon dating (using carbon 14) is recorded from 1958. Carbon cycle is attested from 1912. Carbon footprint was in use by 200

  1. Carbon paper (soon to be obsolete) is from 1895.


n. 1 (label en uncountable) The chemical element (''symbol'' C) with an atomic number of 6. 2 (label en countable) An atom of this element, in reference to a molecule containing it. 3 (label en countable informal) A sheet of carbon paper. 4 (label en countable informal) A carbon copy. 5 A fossil fuel that is made of impure carbon such as coal or charcoal. 6 (label en ecology uncountable) carbon dioxide, in the context of global warming and climate change.

  1. n. an abundant nonmetallic tetravalent element occurring in three allotropic forms: amorphous carbon and graphite and diamond; occurs in all organic compounds [syn: C, atomic number 6]

  2. a thin paper coated on one side with a dark waxy substance (often containing carbon); used to transfer characters from the original to an under sheet of paper [syn: carbon paper]

  3. a copy made with carbon paper [syn: carbon copy]

Carbon, IN -- U.S. town in Indiana
Population (2000): 334
Housing Units (2000): 136
Land area (2000): 0.158337 sq. miles (0.410090 sq. km)
Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km)
Total area (2000): 0.158337 sq. miles (0.410090 sq. km)
FIPS code: 10198
Located within: Indiana (IN), FIPS 18
Location: 39.598974 N, 87.107510 W
ZIP Codes (1990): 47837
Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs.
Carbon, IN
Carbon, IA -- U.S. city in Iowa
Population (2000): 28
Housing Units (2000): 28
Land area (2000): 0.708502 sq. miles (1.835011 sq. km)
Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km)
Total area (2000): 0.708502 sq. miles (1.835011 sq. km)
FIPS code: 10585
Located within: Iowa (IA), FIPS 19
Location: 41.050208 N, 94.825171 W
ZIP Codes (1990):
Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs.
Carbon, IA
Carbon, TX -- U.S. town in Texas
Population (2000): 224
Housing Units (2000): 120
Land area (2000): 1.019955 sq. miles (2.641672 sq. km)
Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km)
Total area (2000): 1.019955 sq. miles (2.641672 sq. km)
FIPS code: 12736
Located within: Texas (TX), FIPS 48
Location: 32.270302 N, 98.828445 W
ZIP Codes (1990): 76435
Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs.
Carbon, TX
Carbon -- U.S. County in Montana
Population (2000): 9552
Housing Units (2000): 5494
Land area (2000): 2047.991068 sq. miles (5304.272289 sq. km)
Water area (2000): 14.195141 sq. miles (36.765246 sq. km)
Total area (2000): 2062.186209 sq. miles (5341.037535 sq. km)
Located within: Montana (MT), FIPS 30
Location: 45.313192 N, 109.087584 W
Carbon, MT
Carbon County
Carbon County, MT
Carbon -- U.S. County in Pennsylvania
Population (2000): 58802
Housing Units (2000): 30492
Land area (2000): 381.037035 sq. miles (986.881348 sq. km)
Water area (2000): 6.197095 sq. miles (16.050401 sq. km)
Total area (2000): 387.234130 sq. miles (1002.931749 sq. km)
Located within: Pennsylvania (PA), FIPS 42
Location: 40.887766 N, 75.704111 W
Carbon, PA
Carbon County
Carbon County, PA
Carbon -- U.S. County in Utah
Population (2000): 20422
Housing Units (2000): 8741
Land area (2000): 1478.457821 sq. miles (3829.188016 sq. km)
Water area (2000): 6.115818 sq. miles (15.839896 sq. km)
Total area (2000): 1484.573639 sq. miles (3845.027912 sq. km)
Located within: Utah (UT), FIPS 49
Location: 39.627056 N, 110.767483 W
Carbon, UT
Carbon County
Carbon County, UT
Carbon -- U.S. County in Wyoming
Population (2000): 15639
Housing Units (2000): 8307
Land area (2000): 7896.138587 sq. miles (20450.904187 sq. km)
Water area (2000): 67.892012 sq. miles (175.839496 sq. km)
Total area (2000): 7964.030599 sq. miles (20626.743683 sq. km)
Located within: Wyoming (WY), FIPS 56
Location: 41.698637 N, 106.906874 W
Carbon, WY
Carbon County
Carbon County, WY

Carbon (from "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. On the periodic table, it is the first (row 2) of six elements in column (group) 14, which have in common the composition of their outer electron shell. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. Three isotopes occur naturally, C and C being stable while C is radioactive, decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years. Carbon is one of the few elements known since antiquity.

Carbon is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. Carbon's abundance, its unique diversity of organic compounds, and its unusual ability to form polymers at the temperatures commonly encountered on Earth enables this element to serve as a common element of all known life. It is the second most abundant element in the human body by mass (about 18.5%) after oxygen.

The atoms of carbon can be bonded together in different ways, termed allotropes of carbon. The best known are graphite, diamond, and amorphous carbon. The physical properties of carbon vary widely with the allotropic form. For example, graphite is opaque and black while diamond is highly transparent. Graphite is soft enough to form a streak on paper (hence its name, from the Greek verb "γράφειν" which means "to write"), while diamond is the hardest naturally-occurring material known. Graphite is a good electrical conductor while diamond has a low electrical conductivity. Under normal conditions, diamond, carbon nanotubes, and graphene have the highest thermal conductivities of all known materials. All carbon allotropes are solids under normal conditions, with graphite being the most thermodynamically stable form. They are chemically resistant and require high temperature to react even with oxygen.

The most common oxidation state of carbon in inorganic compounds is +4, while +2 is found in carbon monoxide and transition metal carbonyl complexes. The largest sources of inorganic carbon are limestones, dolomites and carbon dioxide, but significant quantities occur in organic deposits of coal, peat, oil, and methane clathrates. Carbon forms a vast number of compounds, more than any other element, with almost ten million compounds described to date, and yet that number is but a fraction of the number of theoretically possible compounds under standard conditions.

Carbon (journal)

Carbon is a scientific journal published by Elsevier. According to the journal's website, "Carbon publishes papers that deal with original research on carbonaceous solids with an emphasis on graphene-based materials. These materials include, but are not limited to, carbon nanotubes, carbon fibers and filaments, graphites, activated carbons, pyrolytic carbons, glass-like carbons, carbon blacks, and chars."

Carbon (API)

Carbon is one of Apple Inc.'s C-based application programming interfaces (APIs) for the Macintosh operating system. Carbon provided a good degree of backward compatibility for programs that ran on the now-obsolete Mac OS 8 and 9. Developers could use the Carbon APIs to port their "classic" Mac software to the Mac OS X platform with far less effort than a port to the entirely different Cocoa system, which originated in OPENSTEP.

Carbon was an important part of Apple's strategy for bringing Mac OS X to market, offering a path for quick porting of existing software applications, as well as a means of shipping applications that would run on either OS X or the Classic Mac OS. As the market has increasingly moved to the Cocoa-based frameworks, especially after the release of iOS, the need for a porting library was diluted. Apple did not create a 64-bit version of Carbon while updating their other frameworks in the 2007 time-frame, and eventually deprecated the entire API in OS X 10.8, which was released on July 24, 2012.

Carbon (disambiguation)

Carbon is a chemical element with atomic number 6.

Carbon may also refer to:

  • Carbon black, a filler often used to improve the properties of rubber or plastic compounds
  • Carbon chauvinism, a term meant to disparage the assumption that the molecules responsible for the mechanisms of life must be based on carbon
  • Carbon dioxide equivalent, a greenhouse gas measurement
  • Carbon (fiber), can refer to carbon filament thread, or to felt or woven cloth made from those carbon filaments
  • Carbon offset, a reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide
Computers and electronics
  • Carbon (API), a deprecated application programming interface for Mac OS X
  • Need for Speed: Carbon, a computer racing game developed by Electronic Arts
  • ThinkPad X1 Carbon, a notebook computer released by Lenovo
  • Rio Carbon, a product line of digital audio players


  • Carbon, Alberta, a village in Kneehill County

United States:

  • Carbon, California, a former settlement in Mendocino County
  • Carbon, Indiana, a town in Clay County
  • Carbon, Iowa, a city in Adams County
  • Carbon, Pennsylvania
  • Carbon, Texas, a town in Eastland County
  • Carbon County (disambiguation), multiple places
Other uses
  • Carbon (journal)
  • Carbon (Halo team), also known as Team Carbon, a professional Halo team
  • Carbon 15, a family of firearms
  • Carbon Motors Corporation, an American automotive corporation
  • Corral del Carbón, a building in Granada, Andalusia, Spain
Carbon (Halo team)

Carbon, variously known as Team Carbon, was a professional Halo team. Team Carbon won the 2006 Halo 2 championships at MLG Vegas 2006 defeating rivals Final Boss.

Team Carbon was founded in 2006 by former iGS members Scott "Gandhi" Lussier, Ben "Karma" Jackson, Michael "StrongSide" Cavanaugh, and Chris "Shockwave" Smith. After the fourth event of the year at MLG Chicago, StrongSide was replaced by Eric "GH057ayame" Hewitt. xXx became a coach for the team.

Team Carbon won the MLG Las Vegas National Championships 2006 in Halo 2 after upsetting Team Final Boss.

In 2008 they placed 3rd at MLG Vegas 2008.

In 2009 Carbon finished 3rd at MLG Orlando.

In 2010 Team Carbon earned a spot in the MLG Dallas final.

Carbon disbanded in 2012, soon after MLG dropped Halo: Reach from their Pro Circuit.

Usage examples of "carbon".

In yet other cases carbon dioxide transports the subject to the Other World at the antipodes of his everyday consciousness, and he enjoys very briefly visionary experiences entirely unconnected with his own personal history or with the problems of the human race in general.

There are nitrogen and carbon in those masses of sea vegetation, and there are phosphorus and calcium in the bathybic deposit.

The bees brought from Maryville had been subdued with carbon dioxide and separated into two categories - the Afro-Americans and the giant mutant bees.

The energy is used to perform the mechanical work necessary to life, such as the transport and biosynthesis of molecules--mostly carbon molecules.

He is smiling expansively, entranced by the mobile plants which cluster around us, fronds upraised to savour our carbon dioxide, calyces begging our hands for pollination.

As the temperature falls, the iron atoms try to rearrange themselves into a ferrite structure, and the carbons get squeezed out and diffuse to carbon-rich zones.

If I were to persist in treating chicks as Descartes might have wanted me to - and indeed as some schools of behaviourist psychologists would still maintain - as insentient machines, mere logic circuits based on carbon chemistry instead of the more reliable silicon chemistry of the computer, I would soon cease to be able to design sensible experiments or interpret the results that I obtain.

Martian springtimes of flash floods and heavier atmosphere from evaporating carbon dioxide came farther apart, and finally stopped, and the cysts ceased blooming.

There was also an abundance of sulfur vapor, as well as carbon disulfide and sulfur dioxide.

James Renshaw who drilled deep down into the ice looking for thousand-year-old traces of carbon monoxide and other gases.

The essence of this view rests upon the fact previously noted that in the realm of the fixed stars there are many faintly shining aggregations of matter which are evidently not solid after the manner of the bodies in our solar system, but are in the state where their substances are in the condition of dustlike particles, as are the bits of carbon in flame or the elements which compose the atmosphere.

Oxygen and carbon dioxide had to move, and for that we had to insert an endotracheal tube and breathe for him.

We both silently contemplated the enzymatic breakdown of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid.

The gravitational energy released in the collapse would heat the core further, eventually reaching the billion degrees necessary to initiate the fusion of helium nuclei into carbon, with other elements appearing through neutron capture along the lines Gamow had proposed.

A worker with a long rake stirred the surface of the puddle of iron, and carbon monoxide in the gasses would combine with carbon in the iron.