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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
a computer virus (=a program that secretly destroys information stored on computers)
▪ Computer viruses do a lot of damage every single day.
a flu virus/bug
▪ the spread of the flu virus
computer virus
deadly disease/virus
mystery virus
▪ a mystery virus
▪ This is a real bonus considering that anti-virus software is often responsible for slowing down your computer.
▪ The mechanism responsible for secretion or intracellular retention of pre-S peptides in chronic hepatitis B virus infection is uncertain.
▪ The association between chronic hepatitis C virus infection and hepatocellular carcinoma has been described, although the exact oncogenic mechanism is unknown.
▪ Ashe has known since 1988 that he had the deadly virus.
▪ For those who are not yet infected with this deadly virus, remaining uninfected is very important, and very possible.
▪ Together with other treatments -- in a so-called drug cocktail -- they can reduce levels of the deadly virus to near zero.
▪ He is the man carrying the deadly virus.
▪ In fact, the Ebola virus might get a friendlier reception.
▪ They distort his speeches and offer simplistic interpretations of his equating the HIV virus with poverty and inequality.
▪ Combination therapies, including protease inhibitors, offer new hope for thousands with the HIV virus.
▪ It is about Aids, and the way the HIV virus is devastating his country.
▪ Researchers found that therapy can significantly reduce the amount of HIV virus in gay men suffering from the disease.
▪ The earliest known specimen of the human immunodeficiency virus was found long after the death of its victim.
▪ The human immunodeficiency virus is not airborne; it is not easily spread.
▪ It remains to be seen whether vaccines or chemotherapy will play a greater part in controlling the human immunodeficiency virus.
▪ They said there needed to be more research done, especially on people recently infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.
▪ HIV-1, human immunodeficiency virus type 1.
▪ However it began, the human immunodeficiency virus must be far older than any of its extant strains.
▪ It is particularly important to check about vaccinations because many of them contain live virus.
▪ They had to cultivate the live virus so they could fully study it.
▪ Some of the first batches were thrown out because tests showed they may have contained live virus.
▪ Yet they are the only animal known in whose bloodstream the AIDS virus survives for any length of time.
▪ Evidence shows that the AIDS virus may also attack the nervous system, causing damage to the brain.
▪ They are the 8 % of the population who have the Aids virus.
▪ He draws a blood sample from Dan and heads out to have it tested for the AIDS virus.
▪ Blood that has been collected for use is tested for the presence of antibody to the AIDS virus.
▪ The more partners you have, the greater the risk of becoming infected with the AIDS virus.
▪ Nevertheless, the theoretical risk of oral transmission of the AIDS virus exIsts and needs to be considered.
▪ A computer virus A watch with a second hand doing double time.
▪ In Wiltshire, a doctor has died from the flu virus.
▪ One of the best natural examples of this is the ability of the flu virus to keep cropping up in new forms.
▪ The earliest known specimen of the human immunodeficiency virus was found long after the death of its victim.
▪ The human immunodeficiency virus is not airborne; it is not easily spread.
▪ It remains to be seen whether vaccines or chemotherapy will play a greater part in controlling the human immunodeficiency virus.
▪ They said there needed to be more research done, especially on people recently infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.
▪ HIV-1, human immunodeficiency virus type 1.
▪ However it began, the human immunodeficiency virus must be far older than any of its extant strains.
▪ This rules out the possibility that autoantibodies are merely a consequence of hepatitis C virus infection.
▪ This resurgence of measles disease underscored the need for new assays to characterize measles virus infections.
▪ When the disk is found to be free from a virus infection it is given an electronic signature code.
▪ He is suffering from an ankle injury and a virus infection.
▪ But some virus infections can follow another path, other than the acute cycle of replication.
▪ The mechanism responsible for secretion or intracellular retention of pre-S peptides in chronic hepatitis B virus infection is uncertain.
▪ There is at present no reliable marker to determine whether autoimmunity or hepatitis C virus infection is the major disease process.
▪ Over half the patients who acquire acute hepatitis C virus infection develop chronic hepatitis.
▪ It can be triggered by viruses, including those that cause upper respiratory infections, such as the influenza virus.
▪ The mystery virus, it was thought, would spread into the healthy tree, causing that too to become diseased.
▪ When the blisters burst, they release virus particles that infect healthy animals.
▪ Before a virus particle is prepared for the electron microscope it must be made static.
▪ Virion: synonym for virus particle.
▪ For every virus particle cleared, however, at least one new one replaces it.
▪ At one time, and I became adversaries over the selection of polio virus strains to be used as oral vaccines.
▪ First, how many types of polio virus existed?
▪ The polio virus first invades the intestines, where it lives, replicates, and usually establishes harmless infection.
▪ So, a polio vaccine tricks our body into making antibodies to the polio virus.
▪ Membranous expression of pre-S1 also correlated significantly with the status of hepatitis B virus replication.
▪ The other is use of protease inhibitors, a class of drugs with an unusual ability to quell virus replication.
▪ There is no risk to human health from meat carrying the virus.
▪ It is not really possible to know whether a person is carrying the virus or not.
▪ He is the man carrying the deadly virus.
▪ An acupuncturist at the clinic was found to be carrying the virus, which infects the liver.
▪ The nuns say there is insufficient evidence that the chickens carry the virus.
▪ The odds are that at least one of them carries the virus.
▪ In that shop she had caught the virus of curiosity about the feeling of power over possessions.
▪ They might be avoiding feeble males lest they catch a virus from them.
▪ She skated off abruptly, called to service by customers who had caught the virus of her mood and were equally annoyed.
▪ Feline leukaemia is caused by a specific virus, for which a vaccine is available.
▪ They can not check the damage caused by the virus, which is by then present in large numbers in the body.
▪ Any outbreak there, warn experts, would cause the virus to multiply enormously.
▪ When caused by a virus, pneumonia is usually mild.
▪ These can be inherited with other members of the family also having them, but are sometimes caused by the rubella virus.
▪ A blood test can be used to find out whether a person's blood contains antibodies to the virus.
▪ Some of the first batches were thrown out because tests showed they may have contained live virus.
▪ It is particularly important to check about vaccinations because many of them contain live virus.
▪ One in four million doses contains a virus that has reverted to its contagious and paralytic state.
▪ Then his horses contracted a virus.
▪ When he tried to return in 1992, several players said they were concerned about contracting the virus by playing against him.
▪ He does not know when he contracted the virus.
▪ Finally, D Roodman etal recently reported finding measles virus transcripts in cells derived from cultured pagetic bone.
▪ Ludwig became convinced that he might find evidence of borna virus in humans expressing abnormal behavior.
▪ On the other hand, aphids can infect raspberries with incurable virus diseases, and blackcurrant reversion is spread by big-bud mites.
▪ No one knows how humans even become infected with the animal virus.
▪ The genetically modified saplings will in due course be infected with the virus to test their resistance.
▪ It also said some farmers had falsely claimed that their farms were infected with the virus to claim compensation.
▪ Traditionally, that has meant injecting people with a weakened or killed version of the virus itself, triggering antibodies.
▪ The enzymes of the mouth and the digestive acids of the stomach would very likely kill the virus.
▪ Larvae thus become infected and are killed by the virus.
▪ As drugs kill off the virus most susceptible to them, they leave behind the more resistant strains.
▪ When some one gets a virus and becomes ill, the helper cells kill off the virus and usually they get better.
▪ The hot water in a home or restaurant dishwasher easily kills the virus.
▪ Once infected, people remain infectious all their lives and can pass the virus on to others.
▪ Even before the antibody test is positive, the victim can pass the virus to others by methods that will be explained.
▪ Any infected person can pass the virus to others.
▪ And had not that song passed like a plague virus to every one of his fellow men in succeeding generations?
▪ Variants slow to kill were favoured because their bearers lasted long enough to pass the virus on.
▪ But the militants at grassroots level ruthlessly exploited discontent over pay and strikes spread like a virus.
▪ But a very few aphids transmitting a virus can cause havoc to sugar beet, for instance.
▪ But the bear might have transmitted the rabies virus.
▪ Perhaps I have an asymptomatic case and transmitted the virus to him.
▪ People who know they are positive will not willfully transmit the virus.
▪ a vaccine which protects against Hepatitis B, a highly infectious virus which is transmitted sexually or by sharing infected needles.
▪ A warning has gone out about a new virus that could wipe everything off your hard disk.
▪ an anti-virus program
▪ Computer users from around the world reported that the virus had invaded their systems.
▪ He could be carrying the AIDS virus.
▪ It is estimated that over thirty million people are now infected with the virus.
▪ She thinks she picked up some kind of mystery virus while she was on vacation.
▪ the virus that causes the common cold
▪ the common cold virus
▪ The disk was accidentally infected with a virus called "Stoned III."
▪ There's a virus going around - four people in my office were sick last week.
▪ You cannot get a virus from an email message alone.
▪ It is a medical problem to attack the virus without attacking the normal cells.
▪ Less than 5 percent seem to tolerate the virus without ever getting sick.
▪ Once a person is infected they may recover naturally or they may become a chronic carrier of the virus.
▪ One final, explosive question remains: Why did a virus that was once so rare suddenly burst into a global pandemic?
▪ The virus opened the door for an onslaught of illnesses Pieters lists casually: hepatitis, pneumonia, shingles.
▪ They are the 8 % of the population who have the Aids virus.
▪ To retain Britain's disease-free status, we are told, we should not vaccinate livestock against the virus.
The Collaborative International Dictionary

Virus \Vi"rus\, n. [L., a slimy liquid, a poisonous liquid, poison, stench; akin to Gr. ? poison, Skr. visha. Cf. Wizen, v. i.]

  1. (Med.) Contagious or poisonous matter, as of specific ulcers, the bite of snakes, etc.; -- applied to organic poisons. [Archaic]

  2. the causative agent of a disease, . [obsolescent]

  3. any of numerous submicroscopic complex organic objects which have genetic material and may be considered as living organisms but have no proper cell membrane, and thus cannot by themselves perform metabolic processes, requiring entry into a host cell in order to multiply. The simplest viruses have no lipid envelope and may be considered as complex aggregates of molecules, sometimes only a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) and a coat protein. They are sometimes viewed as being on the borderline between living and nonliving objects. They are smaller than living cells in size, usually between 20 and 300 nm; thus they pass through standard filters, and were previously referred to as filterable virus. The manifestations of disease caused by multiplication of viruses in cells may be due to destruction of the cells caused by subversion of the cellular metabolic processes by the virus, or by synthesis of a virus-specific toxin. Viruses may infect animals, plants, or microorganisms; those infecting bacteria are also called bacteriophages. Certain bacteriophages may be non-destructive and benign in the host; -- see bacteriophage.

  4. Fig.: Any morbid corrupting quality in intellectual or moral conditions; something that poisons the mind or the soul; as, the virus of obscene books.

  5. (Computers) a program or segment of program code that may make copies of itself (replicate), attach itself to other programs, and perform unwanted actions within a computer; also called computer virus or virus program. Such programs are almost always introduced into a computer without the knowledge or assent of its owner, and are often malicious, causing destructive actions such as erasing data on disk, but sometime only annoying, causing peculiar objects to appear on the display. The form of sociopathic mental disease that causes a programmer to write such a program has not yet been given a name. Compare trojan horse[3].

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

late 14c., "venomous substance," from Latin virus "poison, sap of plants, slimy liquid, a potent juice," probably from PIE root *weis- "to melt away, to flow," used of foul or malodorous fluids, with specialization in some languages to "poisonous fluid" (cognates: Sanskrit visam "poison," visah "poisonous;" Avestan vish- "poison;" Latin viscum "sticky substance, birdlime;" Greek ios "poison," ixos "mistletoe, birdlime;" Old Church Slavonic višnja "cherry;" Old Irish fi "poison;" Welsh gwy "fluid, water," gwyar "blood"). Main modern meaning "agent that causes infectious disease" first recorded 1728 (in reference to venereal disease). The computer sense is from 1972.


n. 1 (context archaic English) venom, as produced by a poisonous animal etc. 2 (context pathology microbiology virology English) A submicroscopic, non-cellular structure consisting of a core of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat, that requires a living host cell to replicate, and often causes disease in the host organism.

  1. n. (virology) ultramicroscopic infectious agent that replicates itself only within cells of living hosts; many are pathogenic; a piece of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) wrapped in a thin coat of protein

  2. a harmful or corrupting agency; "bigotry is a virus that must not be allowed to spread"; "the virus of jealousy is latent in everyone"

  3. a software program capable of reproducing itself and usually capable of causing great harm to files or other programs on the same computer; "a true virus cannot spread to another computer without human assistance" [syn: computer virus]

Virus (KMFDM song)

"Virus" is a KMFDM song from their fifth album, Naïve. In 2008, KMFDM Records re-released this as a 7" vinyl single, limited to 250 copies.

Virus (Hypocrisy album)

Virus is the tenth studio album by the death metal band Hypocrisy, released on September 19, 2005. This is the first Hypocrisy album recorded with their new drummer, Horgh (Reidar Horghagen), from the black metal band Immortal and second guitarist, Andreas Holma. A video was made for the song "Scrutinized".

Early pressings of the CD were sold with a thirteen-song limited edition live DVD, with 12 songs recorded in Strasbourg on Hypocrisy's 2004 tour as support of Cannibal Corpse, and from a different show they play the song "Total Disaster" by Destruction along with the band's vocalist and bass guitar player Marcel 'Schmier' Schirmer. Some CDs have a bonus track, "Watch Out", which appears to be a demo of a song recorded in 2000.

Some early pressings have an error where a scratch sound can be heard on tracks 6 and 11. The Nuclear Blast record label said it would mail a replacement to anyone who had one of these glitched discs.

Virus (1999 film)

Virus is a 1999 science fiction horror film directed by visual effects artist John Bruno and based on the comic book of the same name by Chuck Pfarrer. Starring Jamie Lee Curtis, William Baldwin and Donald Sutherland. It tells the story of a ship beset by a malevolent extraterrestrial entity that seeks to turn humanity into cyborg slaves.

Virus was promoted with a line of action figures and a tie-in video game. It turned out to be a critical and commercial flop.

Virus (Russian band)

ViRUS! is a Russian band, formed in 1999. Currently it is composed of Olga Laki, Yuri Stupnik (DJ Doctor) and Andrey Gudas. ViRUS! was popular in 1999-2001. The project produced techno-based, Russian pop music, similar to Ruki Vverh! at the time. After several popular songs they disappeared from the mainstream stage of techno-based Russian pop music.

Virus (Argentine band)

Virus is an Argentine new wave music band, led by Federico Moura until his death on December 21, 1988, from AIDS-related complications. His brother Marcelo then became lead singer, until the band gave its final performance on September 29, 1990, in a support slot to David Bowie. Virus reunited in 1994 and has had some sporadic activity, without recovering its previous popularity. Their latest album, Caja Negra (2006) features live versions of their classics, together with 5 new studio tracks, with invited artists influenced by the band: Ale Sergi ( Miranda!), Adrián Dárgelos ( Babasónicos), Pity Álvarez ( Intoxicados) and Ciro Pertusi ( Attaque 77).

Moura was a talented frontman, regarded as one of the best voices in Argentine rock . This, together with an ensemble of talented musicians, allowed the band to revolutionize Argentine rock. Roberto Jacoby wrote the group's lyrics from its beginning. Some of their best-known songs are Wadu Wadu, El rock en mi forma de ser, Hay que salir del agujero interior, Una luna de miel en la mano, Amor descartable, Imágenes paganas and Mirada Speed.

Virus (Norwegian band)

Virus is a Norwegian avant-garde metal band signed to Jester Records. It was formed in 2000 by Carl-Michael Eide. The band is considered by Czral as a continuation of his previous band Ved Buens Ende because of similar musical elements and an avant garde form of unusual experimentation, although the band has its own characteristic sound.

Virus (comics)

Virus is a Dark Horse Comics comic book, written by Chuck Pfarrer, drawn by Canadian artist Howard Cobb and first published in 1992. The story is about an alien life form which takes over a Chinese research vessel and reconfigures it—using both the damaged electronics and the dead bodies of the crew, it propagates itself by making various "creatures" created out of both organic and inorganic parts. When a salvage ship shows up they have to deal with the life form or be taken over as well.

Pfarrer said in an interview that when he wrote the original story as a script in the early 1990s, the special effects for a film adaptation wouldn't have been possible, so he sold the script to Dark Horse as a comic. It was later filmed (in 1999) as Virus.

Virus (Iron Maiden song)

"Virus" is a single from Iron Maiden, released in 1996. It is the first single since 1980's " Women in Uniform" that does not appear on any official Iron Maiden studio album. It was, however, featured as a brand new track on the band's first ever career retrospective — 1996's double-disc Best of the Beast. It is the only Iron Maiden song to be credited to both of the band's guitarists. It has never been performed live by Iron Maiden, but Blaze Bayley performed it several times in his solo career. Lyrically, the song warns of rising business corruption in an increasingly Internet-dependent world.

Virus (Heavenly album)

Virus is the fourth full-length album by the French power metal band Heavenly. The advanced Japanese release occurred on September 21, 2006, by Avalon Records.

Virus (1980 film)

, literally "Day of Resurrection", is a 1980 Japanese post-apocalyptic science fiction film directed by Kinji Fukasaku, based on the 1964 novel of the same name by Sakyo Komatsu. It stars Masao Kusakari, Sonny Chiba, George Kennedy, Robert Vaughn, Chuck Connors, Olivia Hussey, Edward James Olmos, Ken Ogata, Glenn Ford and Henry Silva. The film is notable for being the most expensive Japanese film ever made at the time.

Virus (Spirou et Fantasio)

Virus, written by Tome and drawn by Janry, is the 33rd album of the Spirou et Fantasio series, and the first to come from this creative team, carrying on the series after the work of previous authors. The story was initially serialised in Spirou magazine before being released by Dupuis as a hardcover album in 1984.

Virus (1995 film)

Virus (also known as Formula for Death) is a 1995 television film starring Nicollette Sheridan, William Devane, Stephen Caffrey, Dakin Matthews, Kurt Fuller, Barry Corbin and William Atherton. It was directed by Armand Mastroianni and written by Robin Cook and Roger Young, based on Cook's novel Outbreak. The film is also known as Formula for Death (the DVD title).

Virus (LaFee song)

"Virus" is a song written by Bob Arnz and Gerd Zimmermann and recorded by German singer LaFee. It was released as the first single from LaFee's debut album LaFee. The single reached fourteen in both the German and Austrian Singles Charts when released in March 2006. An English version of the song, entitled "Scabies", later appeared on LaFee's third studio album Shut Up.

Virus (disambiguation)

A virus is a parasitic agent that is smaller than a bacterium and that can only reproduce after infecting a host cell.

Virus or The Virus may also refer to:

  • Computer virus, a type of malicious computer program
    • Mobile virus, a type of malicious cell phone program
Virus (musician)

Virus (born Andre Michel Karkos in Rochester, New York) is a singer/songwriter, guitarist, producer, most recognized for playing lead guitar for the American industrial metal/ rock band Dope. He is also known for his work with metal band Device.


A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms. Viruses can infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea.

Since Dmitri Ivanovsky's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, about 5,000 virus species have been described in detail, although there are millions of types. Viruses are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth and are the most abundant type of biological entity. The study of viruses is known as virology, a sub-speciality of microbiology.

While not inside an infected cell or in the process of infecting a cell, viruses exist in the form of independent particles. These viral particles, also known as virions, consist of two or three parts: (i) the genetic material made from either DNA or RNA, long molecules that carry genetic information; (ii) a protein coat, called the capsid, which surrounds and protects the genetic material; and in some cases (iii) an envelope of lipids that surrounds the protein coat when they are outside a cell. The shapes of these virus particles range from simple helical and icosahedral forms for some virus species to more complex structures for others. Most virus species have virions that are too small to be seen with an optical microscope. The average virion is about one one-hundredth the size of the average bacterium.

The origins of viruses in the evolutionary history of life are unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids—pieces of DNA that can move between cells—while others may have evolved from bacteria. In evolution, viruses are an important means of horizontal gene transfer, which increases genetic diversity. Viruses are considered by some to be a life form, because they carry genetic material, reproduce, and evolve through natural selection. However they lack key characteristics (such as cell structure) that are generally considered necessary to count as life. Because they possess some but not all such qualities, viruses have been described as "organisms at the edge of life", and as replicators.

Viruses spread in many ways; viruses in plants are often transmitted from plant to plant by insects that feed on plant sap, such as aphids; viruses in animals can be carried by blood-sucking insects. These disease-bearing organisms are known as vectors. Influenza viruses are spread by coughing and sneezing. Norovirus and rotavirus, common causes of viral gastroenteritis, are transmitted by the faecal–oral route and are passed from person to person by contact, entering the body in food or water. HIV is one of several viruses transmitted through sexual contact and by exposure to infected blood. The range of host cells that a virus can infect is called its " host range". This can be narrow, meaning a virus is capable of infecting few species, or broad, meaning it is capable of infecting many.

Viral infections in animals provoke an immune response that usually eliminates the infecting virus. Immune responses can also be produced by vaccines, which confer an artificially acquired immunity to the specific viral infection. However, some viruses including those that cause AIDS and viral hepatitis evade these immune responses and result in chronic infections. Antibiotics have no effect on viruses, but several antiviral drugs have been developed.

Virus (wrestler)

Ricardo Amezquita Carreño (born December 9, 1968) is a Mexican Luchador, or professional wrestler best known under the ring name, Virus. Amezquita originally worked in Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre's (CMLL) Minis division and held the CMLL World Mini-Estrella Championship under the name Damiancito El Guerrero, but was later moved into the regular division and given the name "Virus". As Virus Amezquita has held the CMLL Japan Super Lightweight Championship, CMLL World Super Lightweight Championship and the Mexican National Lightweight Championship and is currently the leader of Los Cancerberos del Infierno, a group consisting of wrestlers Raziel and Cancerbero.

Virus (automobile)

Virus was a French Automobile.

Pierre Brissonnet was the owner of the Garage Renouvier in the Rue de Renouvier in Paris. He built cyclecars between 1930 and 1935. Designer of the cars was a certain Renaud. The cars had front-wheel drive and a Two-stroke engine with 350 cc. The cars raced at the Bol d'Or.

Virus (2007 film)

Virus is a 2007 Malayalam-language Indian feature film directed by Shankar, starring Abhinay, Sajitha Beti and Shankar himself. The film was critically acclaimed and had a premiere held at Thiruvananthapuram Kalabhavan theatre.

Virus (Björk song)

"Virus" is a song by Icelandic artist Björk released as the third single from the album Biophilia. Each song in the album features a theme related to nature. In "Virus", Björk explores "fatal relationships" such as the one between a virus and a cell, as Björk explained in an interview: "It's a kind of a love story between a virus and a cell. And of course the virus loves the cell so much that it destroys it."

Virus (novel)

, literally Day of Resurrection is a 1964 post-apocalyptic science fiction novel written by Sakyo Komatsu. The film was adopted into a movie of the same name in 1980.

An English translation was released in November 2012.

Virus (How About Now)

"Virus (How About Now)" is a song by Dutch DJ and record producer Martin Garrix and MOTi. It was released as a digital download on 13 October 2014 on Beatport and on 27 October 2014 on iTunes. The song was written by Martin Garrix, Niclas Lundin, Leon Paul Palmen, MOTi and Jenny Wahlström, who also provided vocals for the track.

Virus (Dado Polumenta album)

Virus is the sixth studio album by Montenegrin dance-pop recording artist Dado Polumenta. It was released 25 December 2011 through the record label Grand Production.

Virus (Slank album)

Virus is the tenth studio album works of Indonesian music group, Slank. Which was released in 2001. It contains 13 songs with the song Virus and # 1 as the hits singles this album

Virus (Big Boy album)

Virus is Big Boy's seventh album released in 2000.

Usage examples of "virus".

He possesses the Lovering allele of cold virus paranoia, wearing wool coats in the height of summer.

I have taped a virus ampoule to a simple explosive device which will be detonated at 3.

He was rubbing his depleted anther and chuckling, perhaps at the thought of what his gengineered viruses were doing to the bodies on the floor, perhaps at the thought of how the modified honeysuckle plant that kept them from protesting their transformation might be received in the outer world, if only he would release it, or if it would escape.

A positive HIV result from somebody who is completely symptom-free, on the other hand, means either that the antibody has been carried from birth without the virus ever having been encountered, or that the virus has been successfully neutralized to the point of invisibility.

A survivor was important because he or she would have developed an antibody to combat the virus, or antigen.

If this is a virus infection, we might only need to find an antibody for inoculation to stop it in its tracks.

A specific antibody used against a specific virus should have destroyed the virus or slowed its progress, and there seemed to be no rational explanation for the dreadful response of the uninfected ones who had been inoculated for protection.

Once they gained access to enough nanites, the assimilated ones began transmitting a virus through subspace.

Since Ebola virus is highly infective and since as few as five or ten particles of the virus in a blood-borne contact can start an extreme amplification in a new host, there would have been excellent opportunity for the agent to spread.

He knew about the virus, he knew about the antivirus, now he knows where we are.

This is the genuinely decisive technology of modern medicine, exemplified best by modern methods for immunization against diphtheria, pertussis, and the childhood virus diseases, and the contemporary use of antibiotics and chemotherapy for bacterial infections.

Since they also created a bacteriophage, a bacteria-eating virus, they eliminated the evidence as well.

Wu more or less admitted that the Chi is similar to terrestrial bacteria, it is odd that a mammalian paramyxovirus rather than a bacteriophage was chosen, but Mariella dismisses it as a minor mystery, is more concerned with proving her hypothesis that, after infection, the Chi altered the virus.

So the virus is spreading exponentially and yet completely undetected.

The wildest struggles of his delirium, when the helico virus had raged in his hypothalamus, had not sufficed for him to break the leather thongs securing his wrists and ankles.