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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
contemporary culture/science etc
▪ Science is an important part of contemporary culture.
corporate culture (=the way the people in a big company think and behave)
▪ A company should trust its employees and have an open corporate culture.
culture shock
▪ India is where I first experienced real culture shock.
cultured pearl
enterprise culture
pop culture
youth culture
▪ The suggestion seems to be that integration is desirable and possible if the obstacles posed by black culture were removed.
▪ And black culture could have benefitted tremendously.
▪ The contribution of black urban culture to the modern aesthetic remains underestimated.
▪ He states that everything originated in black culture.
▪ Which aspects of black or female cultures are or could be incorporated into high status knowledge?
▪ Collegeeducated and schooled in black culture, Williams's more urbane style was characteristic of many of the early black deejays.
▪ There was a Black culture until 1938.
▪ Because black culture is supposed to be positive, political and so on.
▪ This distinction is useful in the consideration of contemporary postmodern culture.
▪ She is a thoughtful, articulate woman shaped by contemporary pop culture.
▪ In an attempt to do this, Featherstone, for example, develops a useful composite picture of contemporary consumer culture.
▪ What is evident is that the age of electronic records opens numerous possibilities that will enrich the understanding of contemporary culture.
▪ We considered media education largely as part of the exploration of contemporary culture, alongside more traditional literary texts.
▪ Though the novel is not the sole domain of either narrative or fiction, in contemporary Western culture it exemplifies both.
▪ Pupils should have the opportunity to apply their critical faculties to these major parts of contemporary culture.
▪ The exhibition became a milestone in feminist analysis of contemporary culture.
▪ They are people dedicated to seeing that corporate goals and cultures do not deviate from the chosen path.
▪ This distinctive corporate culture flourishes in an environment in which independence is more a matter of convention than anything else.
▪ Flocks of executives entered the company from competing firms, bringing different styles, values, and corporate cultures with them.
▪ What is less clear is whether these are national cultural differences, differences in the use of language and/or corporate culture influences.
▪ Some corporate cultures are so rigid that they require absolute obedience to the corporate line.
▪ The management of corporate culture is expensive of time to do it - the endless meetings that people participate in.
▪ All this is happening in a corporate culture where work from home has been rare.
▪ Last summer, I had an opportunity to live and work in rural Czechoslovakia, a very different culture.
▪ Unlike such symbols as the cross or spiral, the labyrinth seems too complicated to appear independently in different cultures.
▪ Yet the degree to which this goal is important to people varies widely within societies and among different cultures.
▪ In many different cultures the captives taken in war have tended to be women rather than men.
▪ If they had been born into a different culture they would have believed something quite different.
▪ What happens when people of different cultures come in contact with one another?
▪ I want to go to the United States to experience a different culture.
Different criteria of mate preference develop in different cultures at different times.
▪ This women's protest was received with expressions of outrage and puzzlement by men within the dominant political culture.
▪ Or instead there may be a major or dominant culture, with a series of sub-cultures clustering around it.
▪ Their behaviour patterns may be consistent with the dominant culture or may differ from it.
▪ Two summary points can be made about dominant and subordinate cultures.
▪ Within our own dominant culture, probably more of the latter group will be men than women, though not exclusively so.
▪ These complexities are totally lost to the dominant culture.
▪ Consider two kinds of ambivalent transgressive reinscription within gay culture, camp and machismo.
▪ To recognize that the transformation of gay culture begins at home.
▪ But of course such differences have always been erotically invested, not least in lesbian and gay cultures.
▪ These standards are built right into gay culture, and operate in thousands of ways.
▪ One of the most basic ways to make gay culture more sustainable is to create an honored place for relationships and fidelity.
▪ But I do take my own role in the acceptance of gay culture in society as one with pride and responsibility.
▪ So perhaps another way to foster a more sustainable gay culture would be to create institutions that promote intergenerational interaction.
▪ Yet urban gay culture works against such regulation in many ways.
▪ There were deliberate attempts to develop elements of both high and popular culture in music, poetry, dance, and games.
▪ The artists employ the airbags to address the risks of high-tech culture.
▪ For the Committee chaired by Lord Robbins, there was an essential link between higher education and culture.
▪ It has often been asked how barbarity could triumph so quickly in such a high culture.
▪ It's the high quality Profitboss culture.
▪ The political significance of the vulgarization of high culture is exemplified in the more complicated case of Andy Warhol.
▪ But in the prevailing higher education culture they seem to represent neither one thing nor the other.
▪ Parents, never teach your children to love folklore, for folklore and high culture can never be friends.
▪ Perhaps the easiest way to begin to explain this is to consider design as a model in practice of human culture in general.
▪ The Beginnings of Agriculture Writers on early human culture offer different times and places for the beginnings of deliberate planting and harvesting.
▪ The new soup is the soup of human culture.
▪ The point is that religious innovation is a fact of human culture.
▪ By that, I do not simply mean the gods, but human culture itself as well.
▪ They represent a movement of human culture away from the direct cycles of nature and towards human institutions.
▪ Cultural and social anthropology was then concerned with the evolution of human society and culture.
▪ But human culture is disturbingly frail.
▪ The aim is to identify the principal aesthetic sources of the continent, both within local culture and the modern world.
▪ Maybe it is just a totally different perspective so far away from home and being immersed in the local culture.
▪ The redevelopment of Docklands ignored the local culture and destroyed the local pubs.
▪ But each of us has also been educated to a specific local culture system.
▪ A first criterion might be that the treatment at least has to be considered acceptable to the majority of the local culture.
▪ She mocked the local culture and fell into dark moods.
▪ Once the experience of local life and culture has been assimilated, the traveller moves on, a more complete person.
▪ The local culture they fitfully encountered was a source of bewilderment, even revulsion.
▪ Distinction does not provide a theory of either consumption or material culture as the form of modern culture.
▪ For the civic culture is not a modern culture, but one that combines modernity with tradition.
▪ They take iconic and commonplace elements from modern material culture to create new social metaphors.
▪ Steiner and Sontag are in a sense correct about the centrality of homosexuality to modern culture.
▪ Up to the present day, modern culture has been almost totally Alexandrian.
▪ But modern culture is now proving to be vulnerable on two counts, one social, one intellectual.
▪ Such inroads as modern culture made into the village tended to fortify this conviction.
▪ In addition, use will be made of a series of articles concerning the nature of modern culture.
▪ Absence of status consciousness is worth commenting on further as an effect of national culture on scores.
National Public Radio is singularly effective in promoting a national culture nationwide, reaching where no other institutions penetrate.
▪ If radio is to contribute effectively to the national culture, its material needs to be presented in an attractive manner.
▪ They do work successfully in that wide array of national cultures.
▪ Suffused by a kind of fashionable search for the Key to All Mythologies but also with Breton national identity and culture.
▪ Others note the difficulty of trying to expand through acquisitions, especially those that meld differing national cultures.
▪ The intelligentsia has an enhanced role in creating and transmitting the new national culture through a national educational system.
▪ From their perspective, schools are repositories of the authentic national culture which they transmit between generations.
▪ The second force defining the modern West has been the intensive and intense encounter with other cultures brought about by imperialist expansion.
▪ In other pre-modern cultures, however, it has not been usual to give all this information.
▪ But whatever they assimilated from other cultures and traditions, they applied in a specifically Judaic context.
▪ Will the next millennium see man obsessed by athletic entertainment to the exclusion of other kinds of culture?
▪ An international attitude and frame of mind are important, including an ability to understand, accept and work with other cultures.
▪ What we are really talking about of course is entitlement - sharing the privileges of being able to be in touch with other cultures.
▪ At other times cultural groups regard themselves in a superior relationship to other cultures.
▪ As the political culture changed so, it seemed, did the power of their critique.
▪ When we compare the political cultures of our five countries we shall have the occasion to discuss these questions again.
▪ Various political scientists have sought to define and identify different types of political culture.
▪ We have already made the point that most political cultures are heterogeneous.
▪ It is a political culture in which the strong man dominates a series of lesser men through intimidation and debt.
▪ This threefold classification of political cultures does not assume that one orientation replaces the others.
▪ And the political culture is one that provides government with the breathing space necessary to address itself to those problems.
▪ Experts also blamed Sri Lanka's cutthroat, winner-take-all political culture.
▪ That today's pop culture isn't up to scratch?
▪ Trust me, the pop culture handwriting is on the wall.
▪ Who knows, his storytelling skills may even have something to do with the current pop culture trends.
▪ She is a thoughtful, articulate woman shaped by contemporary pop culture.
▪ Nevertheless, it made a large splash in the pop culture.
▪ Besides, the Falklands had a huge impact on popular culture.
▪ In another single-room installation, 15 photographs by Diane Arbus explore the psychology of popular culture.
▪ However, despite this frontal Puritan assault, the popular religious culture of the pre-war period survived.
▪ Poetry, popular culture and self-respect.
▪ The elision of the divisions between high art and popular culture is one of the much-vaunted ambitions of postmodernism.
▪ Both define the popular culture, and in my life, movies and fashion are constantly crossing over.
▪ Moreover, popular culture was the subject, and arguably the condition of existence, of high modernist culture.
▪ His embrace of popular culture extended to the movie musicals of the time, which provided lucrative employment.
▪ This often meant, of course, depriving the indigenous peoples of the very essence of their traditional culture and religious practices.
▪ These few will desperately cling to traditional structures and culture.
▪ The result has been a deep and growing commitment to the project, combined with a rediscovery of traditional culture.
▪ As she suffers the constrictions of a traditional culture in transition, she also discovers her answering voice.
▪ Perhaps Conroys misreads traditional North-East culture.
▪ The demanding style adopted by the chief executive and his team went against the grain of the board's traditional culture.
▪ They were an adjunct to and lubricant for existing activities rather than part of the supplanting of a traditional culture.
▪ In traditional cultures both are at an exceptionally low level.
▪ Personal photography has played a different but equally important role in the modernisation of Western culture.
▪ But Western culture was very reluctant to authenticate reports of meteorite falls.
▪ But again Western culture is failing us.
▪ This weird, wonderful concept still dominates Western culture and overshadows world civilization.
▪ For example, thrift, saving and economy were the traditional hallmarks of western cultures.
▪ Biblical writings, which lie at the root of Western culture, make numerous mention of portents in the heavens.
▪ The architectural style of the region was derived partly from Kiev but was also influenced by Novgorod and by Western Byzantine culture.
▪ Trying to force people into unwanted roles violates the most basic tenet of Western culture.
▪ He is the author of numerous books and pamphlets on capitalism, industry and the enterprise culture.
▪ The culture of dependency has to be replaced by the enterprise culture.
▪ The government has promoted the small firm and the enterprise culture as important contributions to workforce flexibility, and the restructuring process.
▪ But there was no such enterprise culture in Britain in those days.
▪ The enterprise culture was born and the number of new paper millionaires mushroomed from around 5,000 to 18,000.
▪ They came to places like Southend, Thurrock and Basildon, and found it a bit of a culture shock.
▪ Their children, however, were born into such a state of culture shock that they were afraid to budge.
▪ Because of the language barrier and culture shock, such insights are far too rare.
▪ He has so many antidotes for culture shock.
▪ Meadowlark-his first name is used just once-finds himself at the sharp end of all of the culture shock.
▪ I thought Texas would be too much of a culture shock for Annie.
▪ Even my Mississippi spouse was in culture shock for years.
▪ They may also be seen as payments to compensate for culture shock.
▪ It can remove the deposits of pigment that clutter up old cells whether in tissue culture or in the brain.
▪ What is tissue culture and how might it be used?
▪ Some commentators will ask whether a tissue culture also counts as an entity to be respected.
▪ Observations of toxicity of glutamate in tissue culture are of uncertain relevance invivo.
▪ The alternatives - studying people, tissue culture, computer modelling etc. - are actually used much more than animal studies.
▪ Even if these cells are removed from the body and kept in tissue culture, they retain their characteristics through many cell divisions.
▪ The laboratories have extensive tissue culture facilities and there is a flow cytometric unit equipped with both analytical and cell sorting instruments.
▪ Designate a set of spatulas for dispensing tissue culture chemicals only and ensure that they are cleaned after every use.
▪ From the perspective of youth culture and pop music two aspects of this are significant.
▪ But this remedy fails to confront the reality of a male youth culture nearly immune to all the blandishments of established society.
▪ There has been a national style revolution in Britain which has influenced and been influenced by the youth culture of football spectatorship.
▪ Femininity, masculinity and youth cultures are also discussed in chapter 10, sections 10.2 and 10.5.
▪ Evidence for such qualities might come from other areas of youth culture.
▪ They asked: were there really no girls in youth cultures and street gangs or had sociological accounts made them invisible?
▪ The long, hot summer of 1976 saw the rise of an extraordinary new youth culture, the punks.
▪ But expectations had been raised, and the resulting outrage found vent in youth culture.
▪ He believes the inspector should ensure children are reasonably well looked after, not change a school's culture.
▪ Yet, Fox still managed to change television and popular culture, for better and for worse.
▪ Again, changing the culture of business is no easy task.
▪ The solution seemed obvious to me: Change the culture.
▪ Our mandate does not change from culture to culture.
▪ You have to change the culture to counteract the market model that defines such ferocious ambitions for young people.
▪ How do you change culture, behaviour and leadership style in easy stages?
▪ Reagan understood that the best way to change the culture is to change law and public policy.
▪ The result has been the first bold experiment in creating a global political culture.
▪ Social knowledge is knowledge about things created by cultures.
▪ A similar, selective approach has characterized the way the Government has attempted to create an incentive-based culture.
▪ They had to create formal societies and cultures at the expense of looser indigenous ways.
▪ Tourism creates its own culture for consumption.
▪ The West can create a universal culture if it renounces its flags.
▪ Understanding of values Within organisations and even within departments there are values which take priority and create the culture.
▪ The war and the expansion that followed created a culture of mobility and middle-class affluence unmatched in the history of the world.
▪ The output of these groups may fail to develop, or their culture may disintegrate or disappear.
▪ But the shift may stabilize at a point that falls short of a fully developed subject culture.
▪ Local authorities have the opportunity to develop processes and cultures based on mutual inquiry into today's problems.
▪ Even the most fully developed participant cultures will contain surviving strata of subjects and parochials.
▪ A species capable of learning can develop a culture, consisting of behaviour patterns passed among individuals by imitation.
▪ Beyond the financial problems, there is new concern that historically tolerant California is developing a culture sharply divided along racial lines.
▪ Cultural Achievements Charles made serious efforts to develop the learning and culture of his court and society.
▪ Different criteria of mate preference develop in different cultures at different times.
lad culture
▪ In what ways do British and Australian culture differ?
▪ Johnson's mother stressed intellectual and artistic achievement, while his father considered intellect and culture to be unmanly.
▪ Old San Juan is rich in history and culture.
▪ rice culture
▪ The culture of the classroom should encourage children to be curious.
▪ the Ancient Greek and Roman cultures
▪ The doctor ordered a throat culture.
▪ The magazine is devoted to rock music, fashion, and other aspects of youth culture.
▪ The trip offers you a unique opportunity to experience the culture of the remote hill tribes of the north.
▪ Throughout the book they give you examples of different cultures and how they do things.
▪ youth culture
▪ But a culture which is frozen, locked into its contradictions.
▪ By 1992, Walcott had been able to name his landscape and define the culture of the region.
▪ For the people, it was the exposure of their culture and arts that mattered the most.
▪ Often, in fact, the television culture celebrates incompetence.
▪ The norms of citizen behavior found in these texts stress the participant aspects of political culture.
▪ They came to places like Southend, Thurrock and Basildon, and found it a bit of a culture shock.
▪ They live in a culture in which the heroes are actresses and football players rather than teachers and physicians.
▪ You've created a society with no history, no culture.
The Collaborative International Dictionary

Culture \Cul"ture\, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Cultured (-t?rd; 135); p. pr. & vb. n. Culturing.] To cultivate; to educate.

They came . . . into places well inhabited and cultured.


Culture \Cul"ture\ (k?l"t?r; 135), n. [F. culture, L. cultura, fr. colere to till, cultivate; of uncertain origin. Cf. Colony.]

  1. The act or practice of cultivating, or of preparing the earth for seed and raising crops by tillage; as, the culture of the soil.

  2. The act of, or any labor or means employed for, training, disciplining, or refining the moral and intellectual nature of man; as, the culture of the mind.

    If vain our toil We ought to blame the culture, not the soil.

  3. The state of being cultivated; result of cultivation; physical improvement; enlightenment and discipline acquired by mental and moral training; civilization; refinement in manners and taste.

    What the Greeks expressed by their paidei`a, the Romans by their humanitas, we less happily try to express by the more artificial word culture.
    --J. C. Shairp.

    The list of all the items of the general life of a people represents that whole which we call its culture.

  4. (Biol.)

    1. The cultivation of bacteria or other organisms (such as fungi or eukaryotic cells from mulitcellular organisms) in artificial media or under artificial conditions.

    2. The collection of organisms resulting from such a cultivation.

      Note: The growth of cells obtained from multicellular animals or plants in artificial media is called tissue culture.

      Note: The word is used adjectively with the above senses in many phrases, such as: culture medium, any one of the various mixtures of gelatin, meat extracts, etc., in which organisms cultivated; culture flask, culture oven, culture tube, gelatin culture, plate culture, etc.

  5. (Cartography) Those details of a map, collectively, which do not represent natural features of the area delineated, as names and the symbols for towns, roads, houses, bridges, meridians, and parallels.

    Culture fluid, Culture medium a fluid in which microscopic organisms are made to develop, either for purposes of study or as a means of modifying their virulence. If the fluid is gelled by, for example, the use of agar, it then is called, depending on the vessel in which the gelled medium is contained, a plate, a slant, or a stab.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

mid-15c., "the tilling of land," from Middle French culture and directly from Latin cultura "a cultivating, agriculture," figuratively "care, culture, an honoring," from past participle stem of colere "tend, guard, cultivate, till" (see colony). The figurative sense of "cultivation through education" is first attested c.1500. Meaning "the intellectual side of civilization" is from 1805; that of "collective customs and achievements of a people" is from 1867.\n\nFor without culture or holiness, which are always the gift of a very few, a man may renounce wealth or any other external thing, but he cannot renounce hatred, envy, jealousy, revenge. Culture is the sanctity of the intellect.

[William Butler Yeats]

\nSlang culture vulture is from 1947. Culture shock first recorded 1940.\n

n. The arts, customs, lifestyles, background, and habits that characterize a particular society or nation. vb. 1 (context transitive English) To maintain in an environment suitable for growth (qualifier: especially of bacteria). 2 (context transitive English) To increase the artistic or scientific interest (qualifier: in something).

  1. n. a particular society at a particular time and place; "early Mayan civilization" [syn: civilization, civilisation]

  2. the tastes in art and manners that are favored by a social group

  3. all the knowledge and values shared by a society [syn: acculturation]

  4. (biology) the growing of microorganisms in a nutrient medium (such as gelatin or agar); "the culture of cells in a Petri dish"

  5. (bacteriology) the product of cultivating micro-organisms in a nutrient medium

  6. a highly developed state of perfection; having a flawless or impeccable quality; "they performed with great polish"; "I admired the exquisite refinement of his prose"; "almost an inspiration which gives to all work that finish which is almost art"--Joseph Conrad [syn: polish, refinement, cultivation, finish]

  7. the attitudes and behavior that are characteristic of a particular social group or organization; "the developing drug culture"; "the reason that the agency is doomed to inaction has something to do with the FBI culture"

  8. the raising of plants or animals; "the culture of oysters"

Culture (band)

Culture are a Jamaican roots reggae group founded in 1976. Originally they were known as the African Disciples. The one constant member until his death in 2006 was Joseph Hill.

Culture (disambiguation)

Culture may refer to:

  • Culture, several meanings related to objects and processes which we respect as material or spiritual values.
Culture (Bottom)

"Culture" is the second episode of the second series of British TV sitcom Bottom. It was first broadcast on 8 October 1992. It is the second episode to feature only the two main characters.


Culture is, in the words of E.B. Tylor, "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." Alternatively, in a contemporary variant, "Culture is defined as a social domain that emphasizes the practices, discourses, and material expressions, which, over time, express the continuities and discontinuities of social meaning of a life held in common."

Cambridge English Dictionary states that culture is "the way of life, especially the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time." Terror Management Theory posits that culture is a series of activities and worldviews that provide humans with the basis for perceiving themselves as "person[s] of worth within the world of meaning"—raising themselves above the merely physical aspects of existence, in order to deny the animal insignificance and death that Homo Sapiens became aware of when they acquired a larger brain.

As a defining aspect of what it means to be human, culture is a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies. The word is used in a general sense as the evolved ability to categorize and represent experiences with symbols and to act imaginatively and creatively. This ability arose with the evolution of behavioral modernity in humans around 50,000 years ago. This capacity is often thought to be unique to humans, although some other species have demonstrated similar, though much less complex abilities for social learning. It is also used to denote the complex networks of practices and accumulated knowledge and ideas that is transmitted through social interaction and exist in specific human groups, or cultures, using the plural form. Some aspects of human behavior, such as language, social practices such as kinship, gender and marriage, expressive forms such as art, music, dance, ritual, religion, and technologies such as cooking, shelter, clothing are said to be cultural universals, found in all human societies. The concept material culture covers the physical expressions of culture, such as technology, architecture and art, whereas the immaterial aspects of culture such as principles of social organization (including, practices of political organization and social institutions), mythology, philosophy, literature (both written and oral), and science make up the intangible cultural heritage of a society.

In the humanities, one sense of culture, as an attribute of the individual, has been the degree to which they have cultivated a particular level of sophistication, in the arts, sciences, education, or manners. The level of cultural sophistication has also sometimes been seen to distinguish civilizations from less complex societies. Such hierarchical perspectives on culture are also found in class-based distinctions between a high culture of the social elite and a low culture, popular culture or folk culture of the lower classes, distinguished by the stratified access to cultural capital. In common parlance, culture is often used to refer specifically to the symbolic markers used by ethnic groups to distinguish themselves visibly from each other such as body modification, clothing or jewelry. Mass culture refers to the mass-produced and mass mediated forms of consumer culture that emerged in the 20th century. Some schools of philosophy, such as Marxism and critical theory, have argued that culture is often used politically as a tool of the elites to manipulate the lower classes and create a false consciousness, such perspectives common in the discipline of cultural studies. In the wider social sciences, the theoretical perspective of cultural materialism holds that human symbolic culture arises from the material conditions of human life, as humans create the conditions for physical survival, and that the basis of culture is found in evolved biological dispositions.

When used as a count noun, "a culture" is the set of customs, traditions, and values of a society or community, such as an ethnic group or nation. In this sense, multiculturalism is a concept that values the peaceful coexistence and mutual respect between different cultures inhabiting the same territory. Sometimes "culture" is also used to describe specific practices within a subgroup of a society, a subculture (e.g. " bro culture"), or a counter culture. Within cultural anthropology, the ideology and analytical stance of cultural relativism holds that cultures cannot easily be objectively ranked or evaluated because any evaluation is necessarily situated within the value system of a given culture.

Culture (musician)

Culture is a Canadian- Bahamian hip hop rapper and reggae artist. His biggest chart success has been " Africa" with Karl Wolf. The song was recorded for Karl Wolf's second studio album Bite the Bullet. This version is based on the original 1982 " Africa" song by Toto.

The song peaked at number 2 on the March 14, 2009 Canadian Hot 100 chart. It peaked at number 20 on the Japan Hot 100 during the week of Jul 11 2008 and topped MuchMusic Countdown in July 2009.

Usage examples of "culture".

By the end of the Mongol period, the focus of Iraqi history had shifted from the urbanbased Abbasid culture to the tribes of the river valleys, where it would remain until well into the twentieth century.

Hazard, reared in the mighty Absarokee culture, son of a chief and a chief in his own right, reacted poorly to orders from women.

There is no reason in our quest for amplified states of Being that we cannot acculturate the enhancement, technique and knowledge of love to a more sophisticated degree than the culture of militarism has carried the strategies of conflict.

There was a culture in the Bureau that dismissed the work of earnest brick agents like Nancy Floyd and her colleagues in Minneapolis while rewarding the mean-spirited incompetence of supervisors.

Where did we ever get the strange idea that nature -- as opposed to culture -- is ahistorical and timeless?

No one could say for certain, but here were the Ainu, with their distinct physique, language and culture.

I knew these were all symbols of a vanishing culture, for only a few thousand Ainu remained on Hokkaido, and most of these were not pure blooded.

Aldus himself was the first president of the organization, and the members included readers and correctors of the Aldine Press, priests and doctors, the cultured nobility of Venice, Padua, Rome, Bologna, and Lucca, Greek scholars from Candia, and even the great Erasmus from Rotterdam.

To solve these knotty points I shall choose for analysis the culture myths of the Algonkins, the Iroquois, the Toltecs of Mexico, and the Aymaras or Peruvians, guided in my choice by the fact that these four families are the best known, and, in many points of view, the most important on the continent.

And with so many familiar, comforting concepts already lost, Alice naturally begins to sense her frightening isolation, her alienation from the self-defining constructs of above-ground culture.

The hygienic treatment of this form of amenorrhea, then, consists in physical culture, regular bathing, and the regulation of the bowels, if constipated, as suggested in this volume under the head of constipation.

So Splendid, an amateur archaeologist, had expected, before being selected for this experimental mer-colony, to specialize in one of the pre-Columbian American Indian cultures and to trace the connections between it and the prehistoric Mongolian cultures from which the Amerinds derived.

Thus in lower Egypt the transitional Amratian culture -- a Neolithic culture that was acquiring the use of metal -- knew of gold from Nubia before 4000 B.

At the height of the Anasazi culture, the land supported more people than it does today with twentieth-century technology.

For almost two hundred years they had occupied their big piece of the Anatolian heartland, a rich place and roomy, and lived the lives of Gauls, heedless of the cultures surrounding them.