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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
Doctor of Philosophy
moral philosophy (=the study of moral principles and rules)
▪ a class in moral philosophy
natural philosophy
▪ They cut right across the basic philosophy of rugby football - that is, to go forward and make ground.
▪ It can be very disruptive to the marriage if the two partners are in therapies with different basic philosophies.
▪ His party has now signed up to Mr. MacSharry and his basic philosophy.
▪ There was, of course, another motivating factor: that most basic and powerful philosophy of all, the pursuit of wealth.
▪ In many cases this has involved rewording of Learning Outcomes but little change to the basic philosophy of the module.
▪ Yet an overview of practice suggests that different political philosophies mould very different approaches to educational integration.
▪ Now, I have a different philosophy, a philosophy that is fair, but not equal.
▪ Situating herself within the Anglo-Saxon analytic tradition, she looks at different conceptions of philosophy, its content and methods.
▪ It can be very disruptive to the marriage if the two partners are in therapies with different basic philosophies.
▪ They include substantive conclusions about what would be different in philosophy if it were influenced by feminine rather than by masculine assumptions.
▪ Call it better stock selection or different criteria or different philosophy.
▪ Staff have also been able to learn from each other through exposure to different philosophies of teaching and assessment in other disciplines.
▪ Newcomers Tom D'Agosta and Ed Gallo approach their jobs with different philosophies.
▪ The basic ideas dominating the educational philosophy of Highlander are two-fold.
▪ Even more fundamental than these pragmatic constraints, however, is the educational philosophy underlying the two initiatives.
▪ These projects include curriculum development, educational philosophy and goals, teacher upgrading and in-service training.
▪ Within each teacher's subject area there are competing approaches that conflict in educational philosophy as well as in teaching style.
▪ It is difficult to argue against this general philosophy, but there is also a need for specialists.
▪ Any verdict we pass on punishment must be soundly based on an acceptable general moral philosophy.
▪ The latter are worth noting as typical of the general philosophy claimed by many schools to underpin their project involvement: 4.
▪ They focus on general directives and priorities, set targets and leave detailed planning and administration to subordinates. General philosophy Similarities.
▪ For a few it is, more significantly, a general philosophy and regime of departmental management.
▪ Unfortunately, our modern philosophy of art does not always recognise the dependence of art on this balance between tradition and change.
▪ Though an opponent of the more rigid scholastics, Weigel sought a reconciliation of modern philosophy with that of Aristotle.
▪ But he would be the alley-fighter who could argue over modern philosophy and quote the poets of the Augustan age.
▪ Kant Kant's moral philosophy is sharply opposed to the moral sense approach of Hutcheson and Hume.
▪ Smith began to teach logic and moral philosophy at the University of Glasgow.
▪ Any verdict we pass on punishment must be soundly based on an acceptable general moral philosophy.
▪ He had just been appointed professor of moral philosophy at the University of Glasgow.
▪ His early research was in moral and religious philosophy, two interests which never left him.
▪ It is plain from all of this how moral philosophy is taken to depend on natural philosophy.
▪ I am surprised that he did not cite as evidence in support of his case the moral philosophy of his own Monklands District Council.
▪ Of course, not everyone is well versed in moral philosophy.
▪ The anti-Aristotelianism and the newly emerging concept of natural philosophy were, then, not private but public developments.
▪ A separation of science from religion has also been seen in a diminished authority for the Bible in matters of natural philosophy.
▪ But it would be misleading to speak of separation given the religious foundations of his natural philosophy.
▪ It is plain from all of this how moral philosophy is taken to depend on natural philosophy.
▪ Aristotle too claims in several places that natural philosophy and medicine go hand in hand and are studied by the same people.
▪ His natural philosophy was dominated by the idea of the permanence of the cosmos.
▪ They were by far outnumbered by recent volumes on chemistry, electricity, galvanism, and natural philosophy.
▪ He inherited wealth and could have lived a leisured life but preferred to pursue his earlier interest in natural philosophy.
▪ Art, poetry and the new philosophy flourished not least in Ionia.
▪ He had gotten a new job teaching philosophy at Rutgers.
▪ Casaubon was not alone in his criticisms of the new experimental philosophy for its atheistical tendencies.
▪ The new poets were also interested in the new linguistic philosophies of structuralism and post-structuralism.
▪ They were to be the basis of a new natural philosophy, and were advocated both by practising experimenters and by theoreticians.
▪ I still have a lot of respect for myself, but this team needs a change of direction, a new philosophy.
▪ The members of the two branches felt no need to formulate a new philosophy or design an ideological camera.
▪ We were determined to do this record with a new philosophy.
▪ A personal philosophy is something which all people have nomatterwhat their background, class, or educational attainment.
▪ The women use their personal philosophy and experiences to illustrate fundamental principles of financial planning.
▪ Injunctions are Ingredient X. They are beliefs, buried in people's personal philosophies, about personal worth.
▪ Nevertheless, our personal philosophy and artistic goals must always play their important part in shaping our destiny.
▪ These are tasks which confront legal theory and political philosophy together.
▪ No matter our actual ethnic background or political philosophies, we are all Protestant capitalists longing for permission to play.
▪ For him, as for Neruda and others, Communism was less a political philosophy than a metaphysical need.
▪ He was speaking in terms of political philosophy.
▪ Yet an overview of practice suggests that different political philosophies mould very different approaches to educational integration.
▪ Modern political philosophy locates all legitimacy in the modern nation-state.
▪ Locke is anxious to defend his political philosophy against the accusation that it encourages rebellion.
▪ Whatever their differences in generational outlook and political philosophy, Ronald Reagan shared the same youthful encounter with hell.
▪ Despite their distinctive lifestyle, Puritans do not appear to have shared any distinctive social philosophy or consistent political outlook.
▪ His pacifism, like his social philosophy, was a slow growth.
▪ This programme does not seem so radical in terms of social philosophies to warrant Lévi-Strauss's optimism for its effects.
▪ This was based on an explicit philosophy of preserving the dignity and independence of patients.
▪ The particle approach to writing is based on a philosophy of teaching and learning that has been likened to an assembly line.
▪ It was within this milieu that the thinkers of New Liberalism sought to develop a self-consciously modernist philosophy.
▪ Clements was an influential writer who developed a philosophy of ecology that differed fundamentally from the reductionism of Warming and Cowles.
▪ The specific task which Comte set himself was to develop a positive philosophy.
▪ Entered University of Chicago at 15 to study mathematics and philosophy.
▪ This woman of noble birth chose to study philosophy rather than relish in her beauty.
▪ He studied philosophy and religion and by all accounts was quite brilliant.
▪ She had studied philosophy and hated it but believed that she should have liked it.
▪ A plaque revealed Marx had taught in the philosophy faculty there in 1841.
▪ He taught philosophy at a small Catholic college on Staten Island, so he was familiar with most of the students.
▪ He had gotten a new job teaching philosophy at Rutgers.
▪ As a senior research fellow, he has made a second career of writing, lecturing and teaching philosophy.
▪ Smith began to teach logic and moral philosophy at the University of Glasgow.
▪ He began teaching philosophy at Harvard in 1882 and lived out his life as an eastern intellectual.
▪ Eastern religions and philosophies
▪ My philosophy is, I leave work at 5 o'clock and forget all about it till the next day.
▪ the philosophy of Nietzsche
▪ In many ways, their philosophy was similar to that which guided Loeb and his successors.
▪ No longer does our political process discuss philosophy and issues.
▪ Our production philosophy requires all operations to be safe, and we apply innovative techniques alongside proven technology.
▪ Piaget moved from biology to philosophy and eventually to psychology early in his life.
▪ They had a different philosophy, one that she really believed in.
The Collaborative International Dictionary

Philosophy \Phi*los"o*phy\ (f[i^]*l[o^]s"[-o]*f[y^]), n.; pl. Philosophies (f[i^]*l[o^]s"[-o]*f[i^]z). [OE. philosophie, F. philosophie, L. philosophia, from Gr. filosofi`a. See Philosopher.]

  1. Literally, the love of, inducing the search after, wisdom; in actual usage, the knowledge of phenomena as explained by, and resolved into, causes and reasons, powers and laws.

    Note: When applied to any particular department of knowledge, philosophy denotes the general laws or principles under which all the subordinate phenomena or facts relating to that subject are comprehended. Thus philosophy, when applied to God and the divine government, is called theology; when applied to material objects, it is called physics; when it treats of man, it is called anthropology and psychology, with which are connected logic and ethics; when it treats of the necessary conceptions and relations by which philosophy is possible, it is called metaphysics.

    Note: ``Philosophy has been defined: -- the science of things divine and human, and the causes in which they are contained; -- the science of effects by their causes; -- the science of sufficient reasons; -- the science of things possible, inasmuch as they are possible; -- the science of things evidently deduced from first principles; -- the science of truths sensible and abstract; -- the application of reason to its legitimate objects; -- the science of the relations of all knowledge to the necessary ends of human reason; -- the science of the original form of the ego, or mental self; -- the science of science; -- the science of the absolute; -- the science of the absolute indifference of the ideal and real.''
    --Sir W. Hamilton.

  2. A particular philosophical system or theory; the hypothesis by which particular phenomena are explained.

    [Books] of Aristotle and his philosophie.

    We shall in vain interpret their words by the notions of our philosophy and the doctrines in our school.

  3. Practical wisdom; calmness of temper and judgment; equanimity; fortitude; stoicism; as, to meet misfortune with philosophy.

    Then had he spent all his philosophy.

  4. Reasoning; argumentation.

    Of good and evil much they argued then, . . . Vain wisdom all, and false philosophy.

  5. The course of sciences read in the schools.

  6. A treatise on philosophy.

    Philosophy of the Academy, that of Plato, who taught his disciples in a grove in Athens called the Academy.

    Philosophy of the Garden, that of Epicurus, who taught in a garden in Athens.

    Philosophy of the Lyceum, that of Aristotle, the founder of the Peripatetic school, who delivered his lectures in the Lyceum at Athens.

    Philosophy of the Porch, that of Zeno and the Stoics; -- so called because Zeno of Citium and his successors taught in the porch of the Poicile, a great hall in Athens.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

c.1300, "knowledge, body of knowledge," from Old French filosofie "philosophy, knowledge" (12c., Modern French philosophie) and directly from Latin philosophia and from Greek philosophia "love of knowledge, pursuit of wisdom; systematic investigation," from philo- "loving" (see philo-) + sophia "knowledge, wisdom," from sophis "wise, learned;" of unknown origin. Nec quicquam aliud est philosophia, si interpretari velis, praeter studium sapientiae; sapientia autem est rerum divinarum et humanarum causarumque quibus eae res continentur scientia. [Cicero, "De Officiis"]\n

\n[Philosophical problems] are, of course, not empirical problems; but they are solved through an insight into the workings of our language, and that in such a way that these workings are recognized -- despite an urge to misunderstand them. The problems are solved, not through the contribution of new knowledge, rather through the arrangement of things long familiar. Philosophy is a struggle against the bewitchment (Verhexung) of our understanding by the resources of our language.

[Ludwig Wittgenstein, "Philosophical Investigations," 1953]

Meaning "system a person forms for conduct of life" is attested from 1771.

n. 1 (context uncountable originally English) The love of wisdom. 2 (context uncountable English) An academic discipline that seeks truth through reasoning rather than empiricism. 3 (context countable English) A comprehensive system of belief. 4 (context countable English) A view or outlook regarding fundamental principles underlying some domain. 5 (context countable English) A general principle (usually moral). 6 (context archaic English) A broader branch of (non-applied) science. 7 (context French printing dated) (altname small pica nodot=1). vb. (context now rare English) To philosophize.

  1. n. a belief (or system of beliefs) accepted as authoritative by some group or school [syn: doctrine, philosophical system, school of thought, ism]

  2. the rational investigation of questions about existence and knowledge and ethics

  3. any personal belief about how to live or how to deal with a situation; "self-indulgence was his only philosophy"; "my father's philosophy of child-rearing was to let mother do it"

Philosophy (disambiguation)

Philosophy is the study of existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

Philosophy may also refer to:

  • A Philosophical system, a larger body of systematic philosophical theory
  • Philosophy (journal), a journal published by the Cambridge University Press
  • Philosophy (album), an album by Coldcut
  • Philosophy: The Best of Bill Hicks, an album by Bill Hicks
  • "Philosophy" (Ben Folds Five song)
  • "Philosophy", a song by Tom Snare
  • A 1640 painting by Salvator Rosa
Philosophy (Ben Folds Five song)

"Philosophy" is a song from Ben Folds Five's 1995 self-titled debut album. It was written by Ben Folds. Folds continues to play the song on various tours as part of his solo career.

Philosophy (journal)

Philosophy is the scholarly journal of the Royal Institute of Philosophy. It is designed to be intelligible to the non-specialist reader and has been in continuous publication for almost 90 years. It is published by Cambridge University Press and is currently edited by Anthony O'Hear.

The journal was established in 1926 "to build bridges between specialist philosophers and a wider educated public." Each issue contains a "New Books" section and an editorial on a topic of philosophical or public interest.


Philosophy (from Greek , philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. The term was probably coined by Pythagoras (c. 570 – c. 495 BC). Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument and systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real? However, philosophers might also pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust (if one can get away with it)? Do humans have free will?

Historically, "philosophy" encompassed any body of knowledge. From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, " natural philosophy" encompassed astronomy, medicine and physics. For example, Newton's 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy later became classified as a book of physics. In the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize. In the modern era, some investigations that were traditionally part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology, sociology, linguistics and economics.

Other investigations closely related to art, science, politics, or other pursuits remained part of philosophy. For example, is beauty objective or subjective? Are there many scientific methods or just one? Is political utopia a hopeful dream or hopeless fantasy? Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics ("concerned with the fundamental nature of reality and being"), epistemology (about the "nature and grounds of knowledge [and]...its limits and validity" ), ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, logic, philosophy of science and the history of Western philosophy.

Since the 20th century professional philosophers contribute to society primarily as professors, researchers and writers. However, many of those who study philosophy in undergraduate or graduate programs contribute in the fields of law, journalism, politics, religion, science, business and various art and entertainment activities.

Philosophy (album)

Philosophy is an album by the British dance music duo Coldcut released in 1993. Vocals on this album are by Janis Alexander.

Usage examples of "philosophy".

Here Masonry pauses, and leaves its Initiates to carry out and develop these great Truths in such manner as to each may seem most accordant with reason, philosophy, truth, and his religious faith.

Nobody had realized that the male drive to reproduce was still so fierce among the men of the Affluence, educated in the philosophy of Presentism.

Wherever traditional religions are united under the badge of philosophy a conservative syncretism is the result, because the allegoric method, that is, the criticism of all religion, veiled and unconscious of itself, is able to blast rocks and bridge over abysses.

Such allegorists claimed that whoever looked beyond their obvious meaning and read them symbolically could find hidden in them the deeper truths of natural philosophy.

In the above incidents, those gentle moralizers who find the serious philosophy of the music dramas too terrifying for them, may allegorize pleasingly on the philtre as the maddening chalice of passion which, once tasted, causes the respectable man to forget his lawfully wedded wife and plunge into adventures which eventually lead him headlong to destruction.

An anarchist is not necessarily a revolutionary, although it is more common than not that a person who has attempted to rid himself of exterior controls, for the purpose of developing his own philosophy, will find himself oppressed.

In the same way Thackeray keeps up a running comment on his men and women, and these bits of philosophy make his novels a storehouse of apothegms, which may be read again and again with great profit and pleasure.

Instead of asserting his just superiority above the imperfect heroism and profane philosophy of Trajan and the Antonines, the mature age of Constantine forfeited the reputation which he had acquired in his youth.

Hence, according to the selection effected among concepts, and the relative weight which is attributed to them, we get the antinomies between which a philosophy of analysis must for ever remain oscillating and torn in sunder.

While the secrecy afforded our valued clients remains paramount to the Swiss philosophy of banking, a decision has been made to voluntarily comply with the demands of our federal government, the wishes of our citizens, and the requests of the international authorities.

Rapt and prophetic, his plump hands clasped round the handle of his umbrella, his billycock hat a trifle askew, this irascible little man of the Voice, this impatient dreamer, this scolding Optimist, who has argued so rudely and dogmatically about economics and philosophy and decoration, and indeed about everything under the sun, who has been so hard on the botanist and fashionable women, and so reluctant in the matter of beer, is carried onward, dreaming dreams, dreams that with all the inevitable ironies of difference, may be realities when you and I are dreams.

Although the specifics have been updated in light of current technology, and the strategy is all my personal invention, the essential philosophy behind our operation comes courtesy of my late business associate Auric, who rather explosively departed this veil of tears several years ago.

Had pure philosophy, he was speculating, ever advanced beyond the Three Hypostases of Plotinus?

In their primitive state of simplicity and independence, the Germans were surveyed by the discerning eye, and delineated by the masterly pencil, of Tacitus, the first of historians who applied the science of philosophy to the study of facts.

Egan uses this familiar setup to juxtapose two characters of radically different philosophies, based on the British mathematician Alan Turing and the medievalist, fantasist, and popular theologian C.