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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
gender bender
gender bias
gender inequality
▪ Gender inequality starts at home and in school.
political/gender/racial etc bias
▪ political bias in the press
racial/class/gender etc division
▪ The old class divisions had begun to break down.
sex/gender differences (=between men and women)
▪ gender differences in levels of criminality
sexual/gender stereotypes
▪ Feminists justifiably object to these sexual stereotypes.
the gender gap (=the difference between men and women)
▪ The gender gap was visible in the way men and women voted during the presidential elections.
▪ The connotations are also quite different according to gender and property relations.
▪ For example, be a different gender from your neighbor because he or she will probably turn out to be your mate.
▪ Teachers lack the skills necessary to incorporate and transform ethnic or gender cultures into a form which is educationally relevant.
▪ On some occasions she had the female gender symbol painted on both cheeks.
▪ We can see this very clearly if we consider the grammatical category of gender.
▪ The nineteenth century Germanic philologist Jakob Grimm believed that grammatical gender was in some sense a more advanced form of natural gender.
▪ All these possibilities exemplify the phenomenon of grammatical gender because items are classified according to their form.
▪ Failure to select a suitable candidate because of age is often a covert form of racial and gender discrimination.
▪ Jackson called on them to keep up the fight to retain racial and gender preferences in federal hiring.
▪ He was untiring in his efforts to overcome racial divisions and gender inequalities.
▪ It would ban racial and gender preferences in all state government hiring, contracting and education programs.
▪ Earlier, he opposed Prop. 209, which would ban racial and gender preferences in state programs.
▪ At least a dozen lawsuits filed recently illuminate the racial and gender friction within the agency.
▪ But the way a method works depends on social differences apart from gender.
▪ There is in this du Transvestites and transsexuals do not challenge the social construction of gender.
▪ Changing the Subject pays continuous attention to psychological, psychoanalytic, and social discourses of gender.
▪ Theories of socialization also tend to provide implicitly biological explanations of social relations other than gender.
▪ On the complex differences of social class, gender and ethnicity, Ramp ton was conspicuously silent.
▪ The sharia resurgence has created social complications and gender discrimination.
▪ The combination of these two factors - social class and gender - means that many one-parent families live in poverty.
▪ Theoretically it should contribute to an understanding of the social construction of gender ordering of institutions.
▪ Its concern with celebrating femininity encourages it to pass over more of traditional psychology's gender biases than egalitarian feminist psychology does.
▪ This underlying biologism allows them to preserve traditional concepts of gender.
▪ Androgynous women who do not blend their behaviour are less affected by traditional ideas of gender.
▪ Since these women too had traditional gender roles, how was their greater use of this vernacular feature to be explained?
▪ Children separate parents and define their roles along traditional gender lines.
▪ It may be hard to move away from traditional gender roles at a time of unemployment.
▪ At times, feminist invocations of psychology ignore or even reproduce traditional psychology's gender biases.
▪ In Amalgamemnon the technique of mimétisme is generalized as the awareness of gender bias becomes more prominent.
▪ Is this clear evidence of gender bias in the manual?
▪ Psychological theories support two main forms of gender bias.
▪ Procedural gender biases are a source of serious anxiety in a science as powerfully dependent on method as psychology.
▪ Sociobiology's gender biases emerge more generally in its selectivity about genetics.
▪ Woman-centred psychologists also criticize the gender bias of traditional psychological method.
▪ Their attempts to provide more objective methods do not challenge the gender bias involved in psychological notions of objectivity.
▪ As a feminist, I am interested in the role that gender categories play in any process of self-constitution.
▪ Potentially the hermaphrodite dissolves gender difference and, at least in its associated idea of androgyny, has become acceptable.
▪ Past research has looked at how the age of puberty affects subsequent risk of problems and found sharp gender differences.
▪ Another issue, as yet little studied or confronted, is that of gender differences in access to education and achievement at school.
▪ Why are there such gender differences?
▪ In contrast, Piaroa minimize gender differences and maintain the same normative code of non-violent behaviour for both males and females.
▪ Federman said this gender difference is consistent with that in the general public.
▪ Equally, gender differences are probably not as straight forward as they first appear.
▪ The gender differences explored here are social constructions that have had influence in certain mainstream discourses.
▪ Women's groups also resented the imposition of limits for gender discrimination while damages for racial bias were unlimited.
▪ They started out as a radically inclusive spiritual fellowship in which race and gender discrimination virtually disappeared.
▪ Failure to select a suitable candidate because of age is often a covert form of racial and gender discrimination.
▪ Justice Ginsburg has actually built her career on pushing for stricter standards on gender discrimination.
▪ The sharia resurgence has created social complications and gender discrimination.
▪ In the process, Clementsen has become a talking point in the debate over gender discrimination.
▪ Some large private companies are also quietly adjusting their pay structure to remove race and gender discrimination.
▪ Only those strategies used to overcome difficulties arising from gender distinctions will be commented on.
▪ The gender distinction nevertheless exists in some semantic areas and in the person system.
▪ In some languages, such as Arabic, gender distinctions apply to the second- as well as third-person pronouns.
▪ I mentioned earlier that the gender distinction in Arabic applies to the second as well as third person.
▪ The gender distinction is avoided by using a totally different structure throughout the whole set of instructions.
▪ During the 1970s sociologists were beginning to think about how to incorporate gender divisions into sociological theory.
▪ The gender division is reducible to biology.
▪ In a case like this, gender divisions interact with inheritance patterns to produce particular forms of relationship between brothers and sisters.
▪ The third stage - Utopian at this point - was to transcend gender divisions altogether.
▪ The gender divisions are, if anything, even more entrenched.
▪ Countries that have pursued gender equality over the past three to four decades have grown faster and become more equal societies.
▪ But they admit that gender equality in New Zealand is still a long way off.
▪ Because the welfare state is not neutral with respect to gender equality, it also takes sides on the question of language.
▪ The gender gap is the difference between these two margins: 16 percentage points.
▪ Conscious of the gender gap, even more are pursuing initiatives targeted specifically at women.
▪ Apart from some narrowing of the gender gap, this situation largely persisted through the eighteenth century.
▪ Some analysts say the possible effect of the gender gap is being overblown.
▪ A large gender gap is not necessarily good news for Democrats, of course.
▪ They show that he has a huge task ahead if he is to reverse the gender gap by November 7.
▪ Growing or not, the gender gap is intriguing.
▪ Polls indicated education was one of the top voter issues, contributing to the pro-Clinton gender gap among women.
▪ Brown said Chapdelaine would live for a year in her new gender identity before surgery could be considered.
▪ Some aspects of gender identity also take longer to acquire than socialization theory predicts.
▪ Interviews were the obvious method for researching the interlinked topics of gender identity and subject specialization.
▪ This would have involved giving the criterion of gender identity precedence over physiological criteria.
▪ We are told that irresponsible women get pregnant solely to reinforce their gender identity.
▪ While the above are possibly reinforcing features, school curricula, may also evoke tensions in gender identities.
▪ Yet finding out what happens in higher education is of utmost importance in understanding the patterns of gender inequality that exist.
▪ Whatever changes may be occurring in their work as marketers, this gender inequality persists.
▪ According to Angie Romorola, gender inequalities are very well entrenched.
▪ He was untiring in his efforts to overcome racial divisions and gender inequalities.
▪ She demonstrates that policies of amelioration will do in more than touch the surface unless fundamental gender inequalities are addressed.
▪ The significance of the class and gender inequalities which are intertwined with the racism that black students encounter is thus underplayed.
▪ However, it is generally recognized that gender inequality in education is in many respects different from inequality of class.
▪ Women-for the most part psychologists-have organized to attempt to affect gender issues.
▪ This model, too, is silent on gender issues, although it leaves more space for their inclusion.
▪ I enjoy science fiction, written by women, dealing with gender issues.
▪ However, it was also claimed that feminism and gender issues were not treated seriously by the senior management.
▪ Are men not helping more at home because of gender issues?
▪ And at times it criticizes class-based politics, for its omission and marginalization of gender issues.
▪ Does attention to unconscious wishes and conflicts necessarily produce a more careful gender politics?
▪ Also excluded are the currently fashionable workshops and seminars on such provocative topics as diversity, group sensitivity, and gender politics.
▪ The traditional monument has tended to confound gender politics.
▪ Sometimes the emphasis on gender politics sounds more predictable or heavy handed.
▪ But this doesn t fit the media obsession with gender politics.
▪ Jackson called on them to keep up the fight to retain racial and gender preferences in federal hiring.
▪ It would ban racial and gender preferences in all state government hiring, contracting and education programs.
▪ Earlier, he opposed Prop. 209, which would ban racial and gender preferences in state programs.
▪ It is easy to assume that any significant, gender-linked difference should be attributed to the general operation of gender roles.
▪ The data suggest that gender role is influential.
▪ We need to look, then, for the specific practices that produce gender roles rather than stopping at the roles themselves.
▪ He clearly portrays the pressures that changing gender roles exert on family life.
▪ Since these women too had traditional gender roles, how was their greater use of this vernacular feature to be explained?
▪ But what it correlates with is not a gender role but more specifically a child-rearing role.
▪ It may be hard to move away from traditional gender roles at a time of unemployment.
▪ Also present within civil society are various other social groupings, particularly those based on gender, race, generation and nation.
▪ If elected, Buchanan promised, he would end all hirings based on race and gender.
▪ There were similar inequalities based on gender and region among those who had completed primary and secondary school cycles.
▪ Proposition 209 bars preferences based on race and gender in public employment, contracting and education in state and local government.
▪ Discrimination based on race, gender or nationality would also be barred under the proposed guidelines.
▪ Woman-centred psychology, like egalitarian feminist psychology, needs to address theory if it is really to change psychological discourses of gender.
▪ The replacement jurors, a male and female, changed the gender makeup of the panel to eight men and four women.
▪ He clearly portrays the pressures that changing gender roles exert on family life.
▪ When he dies, the largest female simply changes gender.
▪ And if the comparison is changed, the gender may change as well.
▪ The first task is to sight the deer, then determine the species and gender.
▪ But it is notable for another reason: It has a peculiar way of determining the gender of its babies.
▪ There are at least three different and better ways to determine your gender.
▪ It means determining the gender for breeding purposes.
▪ A second way of determining gender is to leave it to the environment.
▪ The Mason-Dixon poll shows a significant gender gap for Dole.
▪ With the exit polls Tuesday showing an unprecedented gender difference of 17 points, Clinton stretched the gap into a gulf.
▪ an interesting study on gender bias in the classroom
▪ Hiring employees on the basis of gender or race is not permitted.
▪ Sociologists believe that gender differences in voting will gradually disappear.
▪ The job is open to any suitably qualified person regardless of age, gender, or race.
▪ It would ban racial and gender preferences in all state government hiring, contracting and education programs.
▪ Professional relationships for women are those which are characterised among other things as not acknowledging the gender of the people involved.
▪ Restrictions on and beliefs about language may be part of the construction of gender rather than a simple reflection of it.
▪ The nation was organized not only in class terms but also in terms of gender and age.
▪ We are interested in these questions, of course, because we are also interested in gender.
The Collaborative International Dictionary

Gender \Gen"der\ (j[e^]n"d[~e]r), n. [OF. genre, gendre (with excrescent d.), F.genre, fr. L. genus, generis, birth, descent, race, kind, gender, fr. the root of genere, gignere, to beget, in pass., to be born, akin to E. kin. See Kin, and cf. Generate, Genre, Gentle, Genus.]

  1. Kind; sort. [Obs.] ``One gender of herbs.''

  2. Sex, male or female.

    Note: The use of the term gender to refer to the sex of an animal, especially a person, was once common, then fell into disuse as the term became used primarily for the distinction of grammatical declension forms in inflected words. In the late 1900's, the term again became used to refer to the sex of people, as a euphemism for the term sex, especially in discussions of laws and policies on equal treatment of sexes. Objections by prescriptivists that the term should be used only in a grammatical context ignored the earlier uses.

  3. (Gram.) A classification of nouns, primarily according to sex; and secondarily according to some fancied or imputed quality associated with sex.

    Gender is a grammatical distinction and applies to words only. Sex is natural distinction and applies to living objects.
    --R. Morris.

    Note: Adjectives and pronouns are said to vary in gender when the form is varied according to the gender of the words to which they refer.


Gender \Gen"der\, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Gendered; p. pr. & vb. n. Gendering.] [OF. gendrer, fr. L. generare. See Gender, n.] To beget; to engender.


Gender \Gen"der\, v. i. To copulate; to breed. [R.]

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

c.1300, "kind, sort, class," from Old French gendre (12c., Modern French genre), from stem of Latin genus (genitive generis) "race, stock, family; kind, rank, order; species," also (male or female) "sex" (see genus) and used to translate Aristotle's Greek grammatical term genos.\n

\nThe grammatical sense is attested in English from late 14c.; the male-or-female sense from early 15c. As sex took on erotic qualities in 20c., gender came to be the common word used for "sex of a human being," often in feminist writing with reference to social attributes as much as biological qualities; this sense first attested 1963. Gender-bender is first attested 1980, with reference to pop star David Bowie.


"to bring forth," late 14c., from Old French gendrer, from Latin generare "to engender" (see generation). Related: Gendered; gendering.


Etymology 1 n. 1 (context grammar English) A division of nouns and pronouns (and sometimes of other parts of speech), such as masculine / feminine / neuter, or animate / inanimate. 2 (context informal sometimes proscribed English) Biological sex: a division into which an organism is placed according to its reproductive functions or organs. 3 (context informal sometimes proscribed English) Biological sex: the sum of the biological characteristics by which male and female and other organisms are distinguished. 4 Identification as male/masculine, female/feminine(,) or something else, and association with a (social) role or set of behavioral and cultural traits, clothing, etc typically associated with one sex. (qualifier: Compare ''gender role'', ''gender identity''.) 5 The sociocultural phenomenon of the division of people into various categories such as "male" and "female", with each having associated clothing, roles, stereotypes, etc. 6 (context obsolete English) class; kind. vb. 1 (context sociology English) To assign a gender to (a person); to perceive as having a gender; to address using terms (pronouns, nouns, adjectives...) that express a certain gender. 2 (context sociology English) To perceive (a thing) as having characteristics associated with a certain gender, or as having been authored by someone of a certain gender. Etymology 2

vb. 1 (context archaic English) To engender. 2 (context archaic or obsolete English) To breed.

  1. n. a grammatical category in inflected languages governing the agreement between nouns and pronouns and adjectives; in some languages it is quite arbitrary but in Indo-European languages it is usually based on sex or animateness [syn: grammatical gender]

  2. the properties that distinguish organisms on the basis of their reproductive roles; "she didn't want to know the sex of the foetus" [syn: sex, sexuality]


Sexologist John Money introduced the terminological distinction between biological sex and gender as a role in 1955. Before his work, it was uncommon to use the word gender to refer to anything but grammatical categories. However, Money's meaning of the word did not become widespread until the 1970s, when feminist theory embraced the concept of a distinction between biological sex and the social construct of gender. Today, the distinction is strictly followed in some contexts, especially the social sciences and documents written by the World Health Organization (WHO).

In other contexts, including some areas of social sciences, gender includes sex or replaces it. For instance, in non-human animal research, gender is commonly used to refer to the biological sex of the animals. This change in the meaning of gender can be traced to the 1980s. In 1993, the USA's Food and Drug Administration (FDA) started to use gender instead of sex. Later, in 2011, the FDA reversed its position and began using ''sex ''as the biological classification and gender as "a person's self representation as male or female, or how that person is responded to by social institutions based on the individual's gender presentation."

The social sciences have a branch devoted to gender studies. Other sciences, such as sexology and neuroscience, are also interested in the subject. While the social sciences sometimes approach gender as a social construct, and gender studies particularly do, research in the natural sciences investigates whether biological differences in males and females influence the development of gender in humans; both inform debate about how far biological differences influence the formation of gender identity. In the English literature, there is also a trichotomy between biological sex, psychological gender, and social gender role. This framework first appeared in a feminist paper on transsexualism in 1978.

Gender (stream)

The Gender is a stream in the Dutch province of North Brabant. It originates in originally marshy flatlands near Steensel and flows through Veldhoven and its eastern district Meerveldhoven in a general east-northeast direction towards Eindhoven.

The Gender is one of many small streams that drain what once was the marshy heath and moorland of eastern Noord-Brabant and the Kempen plateau. Similar streams include the Dommel, Kleine Dommel, Keersop, Tongelreep, Aa, Binnen-Dieze and Run. All of these streams at one point or other merge to finally form River Dieze in Den Bosch, which in turn flows into River Maas.

Near Eindhoven, the Gender originally flowed just north of the medieval city walls, serving as the north part of the city moat, to end in confluence with the Dommel stream. As early as the fifteenth century, its course was diverted southward through the city centre, to provide the city with freshwater supplies and fire-extinguishing means. By the 19th century, the stretch within the old city had been filled in and the Gender now ended in De Vest, the city moat, which itself was connected to the Dommel. Archaeological excavations during the 1980s and 1990s before the construction of a new shopping centre have brought several branches of the artificial inner-city section of the Gender to light, including a connection to the moat of Eindhoven Castle, which stood just east of the city walls.

20th-century channelisation and the emergence of large-scale residential areas in the Gender basin have seen the last stretch before the city centre cut off. In order to regulate water levels of the Dommel and Gender streams, which occasionally threatened to flood Eindhoven's inner city area, a drainage canal (Afwateringskanaal) was dug in the late 1930s to connect the Dommel to the newly constructed Beatrix Canal and so dispose of excess water. Into this canal the Gender now discharges. A further downstream section of the Gender between the canal and the Engelsbergen pond remains, but receives little water of the original stream. Two districts of Eindhoven that are situated on its banks were named after the Gender stream: Genderdal ('Gender Dale') and Genderbeemd ('Gender Meadow').

Gender (disambiguation)

Gender refers to the distinction between male and female.

Gender or Genders may also refer to:

  • Grammatical gender, in linguistics, a system of noun classes
  • Voice (grammar), in linguistics, a system of verb classes
  • Gender of connectors and fasteners, in electrical and mechanical trades, the designation of male or female connectors
  • Gender of tonalities, in music, the designation of major and minor keys as masculine or feminine
  • Gender (stream), a stream in the province of North Brabant in the Netherlands
  • Gendér, an Indonesian musical instrument used in gamelan orchestras
  • "Gender", a song by Orgy from Candyass
  • Genders (surname) (a list of people surnamed Genders)

A gendèr is a type of metallophone used in Balinese and Javanese gamelan music. It consists of 10 to 14 tuned metal bars suspended over a tuned resonator of bamboo or metal, which are tapped with a mallet made of wooden disks (Bali) or a padded wooden disk (Java). Each key is a note of a different pitch, often extending a little more than two octaves. There are five notes per octave, so in the seven-note pélog scale, some pitches are left out according to the pathet. Most gamelans include three gendèr, one for sléndro, one for pelog pathet nem and lima, and one for pelog pathet barang.

The gendèr is similar to the Balinese gangsa, which also has an incredible individual resonator under each key, and the saron, which, although trough-resonated, does have a set of tuned metal bars or keys. It is also similar to the Javanese slenthem, which is pitched lower and has fewer notes.

In some types of gamelan, two gendèrs are used, one (called the gendèr panerus) an octave higher than the other. In Gamelan Surakarta, the gendèr panerus plays a single line of melodic pattern, following a pattern similar to the siter. The gendèr barung plays a slower, but more complex melodic pattern that includes more separate right and left hand melodic lines that come together in kempyung (approximately a fifth) and gembyang (octave) intervals. The melodies of the two hands sometimes move in parallel motion, but often play contrapuntally. When playing gendèr barung with two mallets, the technique of dampening, important to most gamelan instruments, becomes more challenging, and the previously hit notes must be dampened by the same hand immediately after the new ones are hit. This is sometimes possible by playing with the mallet at an angle (to dampen one key and play the other), but may require a small pause.

Both types of gendèr play semi-improvised patterns called cengkok, which generally elaborate upon the seleh. These are relatively fixed patterns, but can be varied in a number of ways to suit the style, pathet, irama, and mood of the piece, as well as the skill of the performer. The cengkok repertoire for gendèr are more developed and specific than those for most other elaborating instruments. Similarly, the gendèr barung is likely to give cues for changing parts or irama, especially in the absence of a rebab. It may also play the buka of a piece.

Usage examples of "gender".

If men and women are to be truly equal, should masculinity and femininity merge into one androgynous, indivisible form of gender, or should we seek to remove the sexual connotation from gender altogether?

The sidewalk was filled with anorectic individuals of ambiguous gender, hugging guitar cases as if they were life preservers, dragging deeply on cigarettes and regarding the passing traffic with spaced-out apprehension.

What a berdache is, basically, is someone who adopts a gender other than their biological one.

I heard the girl laughing, and going up to the bed and passing my hand over it I came across some plain tokens of the masculine gender.

The chiastic structure of the sequences and genders amused me, but after a moment another thought occurred to me, clouding my spirits, and I brought it up to her only half in jest.

Gender dysphoria can occur in both heterosexuals and homosexuals, thus indicating that sexual preference is not an overriding factor in the condition.

Council president a fearless little ectotherm of no certain gender or political persuasion.

As often happened in these real estate transactions, the couples were forming alliances along gender lines, leaving me stranded gawkily in the middle.

Flame, ever protective of Wizards no matter their gender or specialty, showed the weary Geomancer to a comfortable guest room above stairs.

Earth genders has more to do with relative power than any other consideration.

If you wish to imply that you are guilty of it, let me assure you that so is he, so am I, so is everyone who has a relation here of the other gender.

Gender was one of the many things about themselves that the Rethe refused to discuss.

One study asked both sexes to describe the experience of orgasm and subsequently removed specific references to body parts and gender.

Alicia is thinking quite hard about gender, at least in her own rather spacey way.

Kabbalah teaches that a distinction does exist between male and female energies, but that the Creator transcends these gender categories.