Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
n. 1 intelligence exhibited by an artificial (non-natural, man-made) entity. 2 (context artificial intelligence English) The branch of computer science dealing with the reproduction or mimicking of human-level intelligence, self-awareness, knowledge, conscience, thought in computer programs.
n. the branch of computer science that deal with writing computer programs that can solve problems creatively; "workers in AI hope to imitate or duplicate intelligence in computers and robots" [syn: AI]
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is intelligence exhibited by machines. In computer science, an ideal "intelligent" machine is a flexible rational agent that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of success at some goal. Colloquially, the term "artificial intelligence" is applied when a machine mimics "cognitive" functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as "learning" and "problem solving". As machines become increasingly capable, facilities once thought to require intelligence are removed from the definition. For example, optical character recognition is no longer perceived as an exemplar of "artificial intelligence" having become a routine technology. Capabilities still classified as AI include advanced Chess and Go systems and self-driving cars.
AI research is divided into subfields that focus on specific problems or on specific approaches or on the use of a particular tool or towards satisfying particular applications.
The central problems (or goals) of AI research include reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects. General intelligence is among the field's long-term goals. Approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence, soft computing (e.g. machine learning), and traditional symbolic AI. Many tools are used in AI, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, logic, methods based on probability and economics. The AI field draws upon computer science, mathematics, psychology, linguistics, philosophy, neuroscience and artificial psychology.
The field was founded on the claim that human intelligence "can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it." This raises philosophical arguments about the nature of the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings endowed with human-like intelligence, issues which have been explored by myth, fiction and philosophy since antiquity. Attempts to create artificial intelligence has experienced many setbacks, including the ALPAC report of 1966, the abandonment of perceptrons in 1970, the Lighthill Report of 1973 and the collapse of the Lisp machine market in 1987. In the twenty-first century AI techniques became an essential part of the technology industry, helping to solve many challenging problems in computer science.
Artificial Intelligence is a scientific journal on artificial intelligence research. It was established in 1970 and is published by Elsevier. The journal is abstracted and indexed in Scopus and Science Citation Index. The 2009 Impact Factor for this journal is 3.036 and the 5-Year Impact Factor is 4.277 (© Journal Citation Reports 2010, Published by Thomson Reuters)
Category:Artificial intelligence publications Category:Computer science journals Category:Elsevier academic journals Category:Publications established in 1970
Artificial Intelligence was a compilation album released on Warp Records on 9 July 1992 (see 1992 in music), and subsequently for America in 1993 on the Wax Trax label. The album is the first release in Warp's Artificial Intelligence series.
According to Warp co-founder Steve Beckett, the album was primarily intended for sedentary listening rather than dancing, and this was reflected in the album art, which depicts an android asleep in an armchair with Kraftwerk and Pink Floyd albums at its side:
Artificial Intelligence is the eleventh album by Welsh musician John Cale, released in September 1985 by record label Beggars Banquet.
Artificial intelligence is the intelligence exhibited by machines and software.
Artificial intelligence may also refer to:
- Artificial Intelligence (journal)
- Artificial intelligence, in fiction an intelligent self-aware artifact
- A.I. Artificial Intelligence, a film directed by Steven Spielberg
- Artificial intelligence (video games)
Artificial Intelligence is a series of albums by Warp Records released from 1992–1994 to exhibit the capabilities and sounds of electronic music. Warp described the new (post- rave electronic) music as "electronic listening music" to clarify that it was meant more for the mind than the body. The sleevenote on the 1992 compilation said "Are you sitting comfortably? Artificial Intelligence is for long journeys, quiet nights and club drowsy dawns. Listen with an open mind." The series is remarkable for its inclusion of groups and individuals who would later become leaders in modern electronic music, techno, and ambient, such as Alex Paterson, Plaid, Richard D. James, Richie Hawtin, and Autechre. Every album in the series, aside from Dimension Intrusion, has its name enclosed in parentheses on its cover.
The original AI series consisted of the following albums, listed in order of release:
- Artificial Intelligence - Various Artists
- Surfing on Sine Waves - Polygon Window
- Bytes - Black Dog Productions
- Electro-Soma - B12
- Dimension Intrusion - F.U.S.E.
- Ginger - Speedy J
- Incunabula - Autechre
- Artificial Intelligence II - Various Artists
Each of the albums was released on vinyl, cassette and CD; each of the artist albums was also released on limited edition coloured or transparent vinyl. A video release, entitled (Motion), was also released for the series. Finally, each release except Ginger was distributed in the United States by TVT/ Wax Trax! Records.
In video games, artificial intelligence is used to generate intelligent behaviors primarily in non-player characters (NPCs), often simulating human-like intelligence. The techniques used typically draw upon existing methods from the field of artificial intelligence (AI). However, the term game AI is often used to refer to a broad set of algorithms that also include techniques from control theory, robotics, computer graphics and computer science in general.
Since game AI for NPCs is centered on appearance of intelligence and good gameplay within environment restrictions, its approach is very different from that of traditional AI; workarounds and cheats are acceptable and, in many cases, the computer abilities must be toned down to give human players a sense of fairness. This, for example, is true in first-person shooter games, where NPCs' otherwise perfect aiming would be beyond human skill.
Usage examples of "artificial intelligence".
If his mind had been remade inside a large and complex computer that was managed by an artificial intelligence, he had absolutely no way to defend himselffrom painful sensory experiences, programming errors, or power interruptions.
That was the eternal problem with artificial intelligence: it had to be programmed with a lifetime of common knowledge that people accumulated by growing up, moving around, interacting with other people, doing all the things that a human being did.
Gottbaum received a Nobel Prize in 1998 for his work developing artificial intelligence.