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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
line of argument/reasoning/inquiry etc
▪ It seemed useless to pursue this line of questioning.
▪ Opposition parties soon realized they would have to try a different line of attack.
▪ This process is in many ways analogous to deductive reasoning.
▪ Even so the qualification has been imposed by deductive reasoning.
▪ It results from a process of logical, deductive reasoning, unsullied by personal feelings or practicalities.
▪ Before doing so, a little will be said of the character of logic and deductive reasoning.
▪ Consider simple example of the power of deductive reasoning in ethics.
▪ The kind of reasoning involved in derivations of this kind is called deductive reasoning.
▪ A study of deductive reasoning constitutes the discipline of logic.
▪ I have called it inductivist because it is based on inductive reasoning, as will be explained shortly.
▪ Some examples suggested that there are positive grounds for suspecting the alleged reliability of inductive reasoning.
▪ The objectivity of inductivist science derives from the fact that both observation and inductive reasoning are themselves objective.
▪ The same goes for the inductive reasoning by means of which scientific knowledge is derived from the observation statements.
▪ Indeed, instinct rather than inductive reasoning marked her approach to life.
▪ The exaltation of emotion and intuition above logical reasoning can readily disentangle them from any such disciplinary anchorage.
▪ It was a logical man's reasoning, a scientist's smug answer.
▪ It results from a process of logical, deductive reasoning, unsullied by personal feelings or practicalities.
▪ Memory, logical reasoning, and hand-eye coordination were unimpaired.
▪ Reductivist arguments can be supported by the form of moral reasoning known as utilitarianism.
▪ Gilligan combines a traditional method of measuring moral reasoning, through standardized dilemmas, with interviews.
▪ I wish only to have made it sufficiently clear that scientific reasoning is a chimera.
▪ This qualified chimera image will allow our comparison of Presocratic reasoning with scientific reasoning to be more precise.
▪ In order to approach this question, it will help to develop a loose distinction between scientific reasoning and scientific attitudes.
▪ The inductive method can not, however, be the only true form of scientific reasoning.
▪ With attention focused on p values and CIs, could the role of chance in scientific reasoning appear falsely magnified?
▪ This is why I count it as a scientific attitude rather than a part of scientific reasoning.
▪ We know they exist, but how do they affect the reasoning process?
▪ He also applies good numerical reasoning skills to data, and analyses information critically before he makes decisions.
▪ It is time we applied the same reasoning to all.
▪ But Tepilit could not follow the reasoning.
▪ I can't quite follow the reasoning there.
▪ It did not follow that Coopers reached the same conclusion as Peats by following the same reasoning.
▪ I am pleased you follow my reasoning so readily, Noyon.
▪ Scientific method, using experiment and reasoning, has led to a marvellous extension of knowledge.
circular argument/logic/reasoning
▪ Clearly the more elaborate the dress, the more dress-fasteners required, although there is here the danger of a circular argument.
▪ Failure to recognize this leads to circular arguments.
▪ Pupils can often fall back on a circular argument such as: Why is the relationship linear?
▪ The Court refused to allow itself to be caught in a circular argument as to which State needed to waive immunity first.
▪ The irony in all this is the circular logic of what appears to be the new strategic competition.
▪ This appears to be a circular argument, typical of closed-belief systems.
▪ We start by talking about a problem of circular reasoning to motivate the diagram.
▪ Although I understood her reasoning, I did not agree with her decision.
▪ I found it hard to follow his line of reasoning.
▪ logical reasoning
▪ The architect was asked to explain the reasoning behind his new design.
▪ But I regret I can not agree with some of the reasoning in the judgments.
▪ The approach also works well when alternatives can be considered and rejected through reasoning and facts.
▪ The logic of this line of reasoning led to a consideration of land nationalisation.
▪ There appear to be several major faults in the reasoning that animal decline was the result of such plant disappearances.
▪ These cases illustrate well that treaty reasoning is not dominant in third party situations where there are displacing factors.
▪ This excellent piece of reasoning then went into their future operational role.
The Collaborative International Dictionary

Reason \Rea"son\ (r[=e]"z'n), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Reasoned (r[=e]"z'nd); p. pr. & vb. n. Reasoning.] [Cf. F. raisonner. See Reason, n.]

  1. To exercise the rational faculty; to deduce inferences from premises; to perform the process of deduction or of induction; to ratiocinate; to reach conclusions by a systematic comparison of facts.

  2. Hence: To carry on a process of deduction or of induction, in order to convince or to confute; to formulate and set forth propositions and the inferences from them; to argue.

    Stand still, that I may reason with you, before the Lord, of all the righteous acts of the Lord.
    --1 Sam. xii. 7.

  3. To converse; to compare opinions.


Reasoning \Rea"son*ing\, n.

  1. The act or process of adducing a reason or reasons; manner of presenting one's reasons.

  2. That which is offered in argument; proofs or reasons when arranged and developed; course of argument.

    His reasoning was sufficiently profound.

    Syn: Argumentation; argument.

    Usage: Reasoning, Argumentation. Few words are more interchanged than these; and yet, technically, there is a difference between them. Reasoning is the broader term, including both deduction and induction. Argumentation denotes simply the former, and descends from the whole to some included part; while reasoning embraces also the latter, and ascends from the parts to a whole. See Induction. Reasoning is occupied with ideas and their relations; argumentation has to do with the forms of logic. A thesis is set down: you attack, I defend it; you insist, I reply; you deny, I prove; you distinguish, I destroy your distinctions; my replies balance or overturn your objections. Such is argumentation. It supposes that there are two sides, and that both agree to the same rules. Reasoning, on the other hand, is often a natural process, by which we form, from the general analogy of nature, or special presumptions in the case, conclusions which have greater or less degrees of force, and which may be strengthened or weakened by subsequent experience.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

late 14c., "exercise of the power of reason; act or process of thinking logically;" also "an instance of this;" verbal noun from reason (v.).


n. 1 action of the verb ''to reason''. 2 The deduction of inferences or interpretations from premises; abstract thought; ratiocination. vb. (present participle of reason English)


adj. endowed with the capacity to reason [syn: intelligent, reasoning(a), thinking(a)]


n. thinking that is coherent and logical [syn: logical thinking, abstract thought]


Usage examples of "reasoning".

Clearly, he now had not to be anguished, not to suffer passively, by mere reasoning about unresolva-ble questions, but to do something without fail, at once, quickly.

Those persons who, from their age, or sex, or occupations, were the least qualified to judge, who were the least exercised in the habits of abstract reasoning, aspired to contemplate the economy of the Divine Nature: and it is the boast of Tertullian, that a Christian mechanic could readily answer such questions as had perplexed the wisest of the Grecian sages.

United States is exclusively a case of statutory construction, it is significant from a constitutional point of view in that its reasoning is contrary to that of earlier cases narrowly construing the act of 1831 and asserting broad inherent powers of courts to punish contempts independently of and contrary to Congressional regulation of this power.

Every phrase in his letter seemed, to Bernard, to march in stout-soled walking-boots, and nothing could better express his attachment to the process of reasoning things out than this proposal that his friend should come and make a chemical analysis--a geometrical survey--of the lady of his love.

There is no method of reasoning more common, and yet none more blameable, than, in philosophical disputes, to endeavour the refutation of any hypothesis, by a pretence of its dangerous consequences to religion and morality.

There is no doubt that such an extraordinary change in my reasoning system was the result of the exhaustion brought on by the mercury.

Vivacious, noisy, loving the nectar of flowers and the juices of fruits, Baal Burra was phenomenal in many winsome ways, but in a spirit of rare self denial I refrain from the pleasure of chronicling some of them in order to give place to instance and proof of the reasoning powers of an astonishingly high order.

Your intelligence tells you that such a process is not abstract reasoning, and your homocentric thesis compels you to conclude that it can be only a mechanical, instinctive process.

Change our homuncules, and observe forthwith How the High Influence sways the English realm, And how the jacks lip out their reasonings there.

That the square of the hypothenuse is equal to the squares of the other two sides, cannot be known, let the terms be ever so exactly defined, without a train of reasoning and enquiry.

Or, following her convoluted reasoning, Lowth itself had a hand in their lives.

It lies in a widespread lack, at that time, of the required epistemological attitude toward metamathematics and toward non-finitary reasoning.

Reasoning that the obvious was often the most innocuous, they had flashed a wad of bills and their NUMA IDs and persuaded the owner of the parasail and the winch boat to spare his equipment for a few hours.

Sprung, in other words, from the Intellectual-Principle, Soul is intellective, but with an intellection operation by the method of reasonings: for its perfecting it must look to that Divine Mind, which may be thought of as a father watching over the development of his child born imperfect in comparison with himself.

This aim gives a pervading cast and color to the entire treatment to the reasoning and especially to the chosen imagery of the epistle.