Crossword clues for carbohydrate
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
The Collaborative International Dictionary
Carbohydrate \Car`bo*hy"drate\, n. [Carbon + hydrate.] (Physiol. Chem.) One of a group of compounds including the sugars, starches, and gums, which contain six (or some multiple of six) carbon atoms, united with a variable number of hydrogen and oxygen atoms, but with the two latter always in proportion as to form water; as dextrose, C6H12O6.
Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary
1851, from carbo-, comb. form of carbon, + hydrate (n.), denoting compound produced when certain substances combine with water, from Greek hydor "water" (see water (n.1)).\n\nThe name carbohydrate was given to these compounds because, in composition, they are apparently hydrates of carbon. In structure, however, they are far more complex. [Flood]
n. (context organic chemistry nutrition English) A sugar, starch, or cellulose that is a food source of energy for an animal or plant; a saccharide.
A carbohydrate is a biological molecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m could be different from n). Some exceptions exist; for example, deoxyribose, a sugar component of DNA, has the empirical formula CHO. Carbohydrates are technically hydrates of carbon; structurally it is more accurate to view them as polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones.
The term is most common in biochemistry, where it is a synonym of saccharide, a group that includes sugars, starch, and cellulose. The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. In general, the monosaccharides and disaccharides, which are smaller (lower molecular weight) carbohydrates, are commonly referred to as sugars. The word saccharide comes from the Greek word σάκχαρον (sákkharon), meaning "sugar." While the scientific nomenclature of carbohydrates is complex, the names of the monosaccharides and disaccharides very often end in the suffix -ose. For example, grape sugar is the monosaccharide glucose, cane sugar is the disaccharide sucrose, and milk sugar is the disaccharide lactose (see illustration).
Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms. Polysaccharides serve for the storage of energy (e.g. starch and glycogen) and as structural components (e.g. cellulose in plants and chitin in arthropods). The 5-carbon monosaccharide ribose is an important component of coenzymes (e.g. ATP, FAD and NAD) and the backbone of the genetic molecule known as RNA. The related deoxyribose is a component of DNA. Saccharides and their derivatives include many other important biomolecules that play key roles in the immune system, fertilization, preventing pathogenesis, blood clotting, and development.
In food science and in many informal contexts, the term carbohydrate often means any food that is particularly rich in the complex carbohydrate starch (such as cereals, bread and pasta) or simple carbohydrates, such as sugar (found in candy, jams, and desserts).
Often in lists of nutritional information, such as the USDA National Nutrient Database, the term "carbohydrate" (or "carbohydrate by difference") is used for everything other than water, protein, fat, ash, and ethanol. This will include chemical compounds such as acetic or lactic acid, which are not normally considered carbohydrates. It also includes " dietary fiber" which is a carbohydrate but which does not contribute much in the way of food energy (calories), even though it is often included in the calculation of total food energy just as though it were a sugar.
Usage examples of "carbohydrate".
Not getting enough sleep may be one of the reasons you can get addicted to many of those simple carbohydrates and sugars, as well as the aging fats that are impostors to real food.
In a similar fashion, amylase inhibitors in raw red kidney beans and navy beans make their carbohydrate content unusable.
I buy Nutribiotic brand, which has 1 gram of carbohydrates per tablespoon, but any unflavored rice protein powder with a similar carb count should work fine.
The carb count will vary a little, but each serving will have close to 6 grams of carbohydrates and 2 grams of fiber, for a total of 4 grams of usable carbs and 26 grams of protein.
The carb count will vary a bit depending on what barbecue sauce you use, but should be in the neighborhood of 4 grams of carbohydrates and 1 gram of fiber, for a total of 3 grams of usable carbs and 27 grams of protein.
It greatly increases your appetite for carbohydrates, dehydrates you, and will not give you the fat loss you are probably looking for.
But even complex carbohydrates like bread and potatoes have a high glycemic index and trigger a rush of insulin, while simple carbohydrates like fructose do not.
Therefore, the balance of protein to carbohydrate at each meal will determine both your insulin and glucagon levels for the next four to six hours.
What is important is the balance of protein to carbohydrate, because that balance will control the hormonal responses of insulin and glucagon for the next four to six hours.
The appropriate balance of protein, carbohydrate, and fat will keep both insulin and glucagon in appropriate zones for a four- to six-hour period.
It is certain, though, that glycogen, a carbohydrate, is necessary for the restoration of activity to a fatigued muscle.
The preventing is done by introducing into your muscular tissue a substitute for glycogen, a carbohydrate which affects the restoration of activity to fatigued muscles, and also producing a static status of tissue which is unsympathetic to the formation of any fatigue toxic.
As far as its effect on carbohydrate metabolism is concerned, epinephrine resembles glucagon in hastening the breakdown of glycogen to glucose so that the blood level of glucose rises.
Two of these neurotransmitters are neuropeptide Y, a chemical that is active in turning our carbohydrate cravings off and on, and galanin, which is associated with fat intake.
Carbohydrates raise the level of the amino acid tryptophan in the bloodstream, which the brain uses to synthesize serotonin, a neurotransmitter associated with sleep, analgesia, calm, and even the lifting of depression.