Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
The Collaborative International Dictionary
immune system \im*mune" sys"tem\, n. (Biol.) The complex of cells, cellular processes, and substances within and diffused throughout an organism which allow the organism to counteract or destroy noxious foreign substances introduced into the body, destroy infectious agents such as bacteria and viruses, destroy malignant cells, and remove cellular debris, thus protecting the organism against many of the potentially harmful external agents and internal events that could lead to sickness or death. The system has numerous interacting components, including circulating antibodies, antibody-producing cells, white blood cells and lymphokines, lymph tissue and lymph nodes, and stem cells which may differentiate into other types of cell, together with the thymus and spleen. The system is responsible for the phenomenon of immunity. See also immunoglobulin and antibody.
n. (context anatomy immunology English) The system that differentiates self from non-self and protects the body from foreign substances and pathogenic organisms by producing an immune response. It includes organs such as the thymus, the spleen and lymph nodes; tissue such as bone marrow, and lymphoid tissues such as the tonsils; cells such as lymphocytes including the B cells and T cells, and cell products such as antibody.
n. a system (including the thymus and bone marrow and lymphoid tissues) that protects the body from foreign substances and pathogenic organisms by producing the immune response
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease. To function properly, an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents, known as pathogens, from viruses to parasitic worms, and distinguish them from the organism's own healthy tissue. In many species, the immune system can be classified into subsystems, such as the innate immune system versus the adaptive immune system, or humoral immunity versus cell-mediated immunity. In humans, the blood–brain barrier, blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier, and similar fluid–brain barriers separate the peripheral immune system from the neuroimmune system which protects the brain.
Pathogens can rapidly evolve and adapt, and thereby avoid detection and neutralization by the immune system; however, multiple defense mechanisms have also evolved to recognize and neutralize pathogens. Even simple unicellular organisms such as bacteria possess a rudimentary immune system, in the form of enzymes that protect against bacteriophage infections. Other basic immune mechanisms evolved in ancient eukaryotes and remain in their modern descendants, such as plants and invertebrates. These mechanisms include phagocytosis, antimicrobial peptides called defensins, and the complement system. Jawed vertebrates, including humans, have even more sophisticated defense mechanisms, including the ability to adapt over time to recognize specific pathogens more efficiently. Adaptive (or acquired) immunity creates immunological memory after an initial response to a specific pathogen, leading to an enhanced response to subsequent encounters with that same pathogen. This process of acquired immunity is the basis of vaccination.
Disorders of the immune system can result in autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases and cancer. Immunodeficiency occurs when the immune system is less active than normal, resulting in recurring and life-threatening infections. In humans, immunodeficiency can either be the result of a genetic disease such as severe combined immunodeficiency, acquired conditions such as HIV/ AIDS, or the use of immunosuppressive medication. In contrast, autoimmunity results from a hyperactive immune system attacking normal tissues as if they were foreign organisms. Common autoimmune diseases include Hashimoto's thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus type 1, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Immunology covers the study of all aspects of the immune system.