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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
acetic acid
acid house
acid jazz
acid rain (=which contains pollution from factories)
▪ forests which have been damaged by acid rain
acid rain
▪ Blueberries need acid soil.
amino acid
carbolic acid
citric acid
fatty acid
folic acid
hydrochloric acid
lactic acid
nitric acid
nucleic acid
phosphoric acid
phosphoric acid
prussic acid
sulfuric acid
sulphuric acid
tartaric acid
▪ However, the author covers the other applications such as sulfur-containing compounds and amino acids in detail.
▪ Tryptophan is a naturally occurring amino acid.
▪ Proteins-made from amino acids.
▪ Folic acid appears to lower the blood levels of homocysteine, an amino acid.
▪ The diet must contain a suitable range of proteins and amino acids.
▪ Primary structure refers to the joining of the amino acids through peptide bonds to form polypeptide chains.
▪ Aspartic acid has the fastest racemization rate of the stable amino acids and is the acid usually chosen for dating bone samples.
▪ At 4 a. m., he drinks a protein shake with four more dietary supplements and six amino acids.
▪ Those used range from mild organic acids such as citric acid to phosphoric acid highly reactive sulphuric and hydrochloric acids.
▪ The fact that lemons and limes share citric acid does not mean they share much else.
▪ This is also known as the citric acid cycle or Krebs cycle.
▪ Less threatening contents named by Mr Milburn included sucrose, cocoa, butter, liquorice root and citric acid.
▪ It's all about six essential amino acids, apparently.
▪ It is true that most plant foods fall short in one or more of the essential amino acids.
▪ Secondly, cats must have animal fats in their diets because they are incapable of manufacturing essential fatty acids without them.
▪ He was prescribed a course of multivitamins, essential fatty acids, and glutathione supplements.
▪ In contrast with our results, these studies describe a pattern of essential fatty acid deficiency, probably related to malabsorption.
▪ These are essential amino acids. 3.
▪ The essential fatty acids, or EFAs for short, are all polyunsaturated fatty acids, also known as PUFAs.
▪ While all essential fatty acids are polyunsaturated, not all polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential.
▪ At the time there was little understanding of the role of folic acid in the normal working of the body.
▪ Doctors can easily check blood levels of B-12 and folic acid, he says.
▪ What's interesting is that it fell by 1990, before folic acid was popular.
▪ For several years, doctors have encouraged women who could have children to consume folic acid.
▪ But they had no low dose folic acid supplements.
▪ Thus, the incidence of spina bifida decreased most dramatically when folic acid was not widely purchased.
▪ So the public-health community wants folic acid added to cereals used in enriched grain products, such as bread and pasta.
▪ The treatment can decrease the time it takes the body to remove the lactic acid build-up in your muscles.
▪ Cultured buttes-milk is pasteurized skim milk or low-fat milk that has been soured by lactic acid producing bacteria or other similar culture.
▪ Once the lactic acid is dealt with, those aches and pains should not be as bad.
▪ They effect formation of lactic acid and flavor components.
▪ Taken in mid-morning, it coated the teeth and then incubated until lunchtime; the lactose fermented into lactic acid.
▪ One factor contributing to this malaise is the buildup of lactic acid in the muscles that can follow heavy drinking.
▪ I remember seeing a tooth being stripped of its enamel by soaking in lactic acid.
▪ But these helper molecules are normally used to process many other toxins, including lactic acid.
▪ Some of this increase can be attributed to the evaporation of remaining nitric acid from the condensed phase as temperatures rise.
▪ The nitric acid assures good electrical conductivity.
▪ The nitric acid solution is then mixed with an organic solvent and the uranium and plutonium are separated from the waste products.
▪ The men were injured in March last year when seven cubic metres of concentrated nitric acid escaped from a valve.
▪ The major Billingham-based production includes ammonia, nitric acid, urea and both straight nitrogen and compound fertilizers.
▪ Results of the autumn and spring nitric acid measurements are shown in Fig. 2, together with total column ozone data.
▪ Deposition of nitric acid in particular may contribute to the equation as a fertiliser as well as a pollutant perse.
▪ Hydrochloric acid is sometimes replaced by nitric or sulphuric acid.
▪ Fats are made up of units called fatty acids - saturated, mono-unsaturated along with polyunsaturated fatty acids.
▪ In conclusion, dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids enhance duodenal resistance to acid by potentiation of adaptive cytoprotection.
▪ Diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids enhance the phenomenon of adaptive cytoprotection and render the duodenal mucosa more resistant to acid.
▪ Either polyunsaturated fatty acids enhanced mucosal resistance or the oleic acid supplement weakened the defensive mechanisms.
▪ The essential fatty acids, or EFAs for short, are all polyunsaturated fatty acids, also known as PUFAs.
▪ These results also question the rationale of using n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.
▪ While all essential fatty acids are polyunsaturated, not all polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential.
▪ The essential fatty acids therefore are cis form, polyunsaturated fatty acids.
▪ The residue is treated with sulphuric acid and boiled.
▪ The amount of water vapour in a battery depends on the concentration of sulphuric acid in the solution.
▪ Here he also made alum and sulphuric acid by the lead chamber process.
▪ Hydrochloric acid is sometimes replaced by nitric or sulphuric acid.
▪ No problem if your inquisitive Year 10 tips potassium into concentrated sulphuric acid.
▪ Those used range from mild organic acids such as citric acid to phosphoric acid highly reactive sulphuric and hydrochloric acids.
▪ Moisture in the coal would quickly become converted into dilute sulphuric acid, and attack the sides of the hold.
▪ Birds excrete uric acid rather than urea because it is an insoluble solid.
▪ Dietary purine intake may provide a significant source of uric acid.
▪ The lower limits of normal for serum uric acid are arbitrarily defined and may vary from one lab to another.
▪ Abnormalities it, urinary but not intestinal excretion of uric acid may produce clinically recognizable disorders of urate metabolism.
▪ Essential hypertension is often associated with an augmented proximal reabsorption of sodium and uric acid.
▪ The entryway was a garbage dump for rotted food, and the stairways reeked of old and pungent uric acid.
▪ Based on these two characteristics, differential spectrophotometry has been applied to the quantitation of uric acid.
▪ The remaining amount of uric acid is excreted in the biliary, pancreatic, and gastrointestinal secretions through the gastrointestinal tract.
▪ This was coupled with an increased faecal bile acid concentration and proportion of secondary faecal bile acids.
▪ Supplementary dietary phosphate decreased the fatty acid concentration only on the low calcium diet.
▪ The bile acid concentration in faecal water also decreased with increasing dietary calcium, and this was not influenced by dietary phosphate.
▪ An extensive nutritional screen was performed, including measurements of blood mineral, vitamin, and fatty acid concentrations.
▪ Total bile acid concentration was calculated as the sum of all gas liquid chromatography detected individual bile acids.
▪ A reduced short chain fatty acid concentration has also been reported in pouch contents from patients with pouchitis compared with those without.
▪ In contrast to fatty acids, the total bile acid concentration was hardly influenced by the different diets.
▪ The oleic acid concentrations used are in the range encountered in patients with steatorrhea.
▪ The heavy thump of acid house music was everywhere.
▪ Some acid house parties can be heard miles away across the countryside: the inhabitants of normally quiet villages deserve protection.
▪ None the less, there are some aspects to the present acid house craze which distinguish it from its predecessors and which need attention.
▪ We know who's been organising acid house parties for the past year.
▪ Joey Meeson watched as Lizzy danced, her body undulating to the thumping rhythm of the acid house music.
▪ I found the acid house thing really disillusioning.
▪ Police arrested 11 men with sound equipment on their way to a Saturday night acid house party in the New Forest.
▪ An acid house party attended by children as young as 12 was broken up by police yesterday.
▪ Prevailing westerly winds spread acid rain across the country, however.
▪ Ever tighter regulations are being introduced to protect the environment from emissions contributing to the greenhouse effect or acid rain.
▪ It is largely our need for electricity and transport and our demand for consumer goods that ultimately leads to acid rain.
▪ This must surely mean that acid rain was natural and the acidification of lochs had nothing to do with power stations.
▪ Hydrocarbons also contribute both to acid rain and to ozone formation.
▪ The illustration shows the devastating effect on the marble produced by structural movement and the ingress of acid rain.
▪ Here were the seeds of the twentieth century problem of acid rain and other crises besides.
▪ The acid rain was splashing around my feet, rapidly dissolving my boots.
▪ Oesophageal strictures are probably caused by a combination of chemical oesophagitis, ulceration, and acid reflux.
▪ Simultaneous food and acid reflux occurred for only 0.95+5.2/-1.2% of the time.
▪ Oesophageal contractions not associated with acid reflux have been reported.
▪ However, acid secretion in old subjects without atrophy was not different to that in young subjects, irrespective of H pylori status.
▪ In man and other species, there is accumulating evidence that gastrin stimulates acid secretion by releasing histamine.
▪ There are no studies on the acute effect of alcohol intake on gastric acid secretion in chronic alcoholic patients.
▪ Children who are malnourished with chronic diarrhoea have defective gastric acid secretion.
▪ The belief that acid secretion declines with advancing age has been widespread.
▪ Our findings may also have clinical implications concerning longterm treatment of acid related disorders with potent inhibitors of acid secretion.
▪ H pylori has variable effects on serum gastrin concentrations and gastric acid secretion.
▪ The gastric mucosa resists the corrosive effects of peptic hydrochloric acid secretion and noxious extrinsic agents.
▪ Ibrox, therefore, could be an acid test for Robertson, Levein and a few others.
▪ The acid test, of course, was to sit through Driving Miss Daisy without shedding a tear.
▪ The acid test was when I told him why I never had any money to spend, but he was very understanding.
▪ The critical question, the acid test of socialism, is the distribution of power at the point of production.
▪ The acid test of a good leader is the extent to which they select a style to suit the circumstances.
drop acid
▪ There were the heavy rooms for dropping acid or taking mushrooms.
▪ sulfuric acid
▪ A chronometer is hidden within all words, and in each length of nucleic acid.
▪ But amygdalin reacts with an enzyme in the almond to produce glucose and two very characteristic compounds, benzaldehyde and prussic acid.
▪ Inject a minimum of 10 gallons of sulfuric acid.
▪ One factor contributing to this malaise is the buildup of lactic acid in the muscles that can follow heavy drinking.
▪ Saturated hydrocarbons can burn to aldehydes, alcohols to organic acids, and aromatics to unsaturated compounds which are pungent and irritating.
▪ Some of these complexes form immensely complicated sequences of nucleic acids which begin to replicate themselves.
▪ There was no significant difference between the linoleic acid and the eicosapentaenoic acid supplemented groups.
▪ We subsequently determined the soluble faecal concentrations of calcium, phosphate, fatty acids, and bile acids.
▪ They were keen to combat acid rain, freeze carbon dioxide emissions and improve public transport.
▪ Smog and acid rain, water pollution and sewage disposal, dams and river-flows will become ever more contentious issues.
▪ Carbonates destroyed by the acid rain release vast quantities of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
▪ For the pupils it's a graphic introduction to how acid rain starts out.
▪ By the time he and his colleagues had completed the 1979 follow-up study, acid rain was much in the news.
▪ Sulphur goes on to produce acid rain.
▪ For my own small study, the acid test was one of relevance.
▪ Because of acid rain, this Scandinavian lake is now too acid to support fish.
▪ In general, ferns like organically enriched, moist but well-draining soil on the acid side.
▪ Smog and acid rain, water pollution and sewage disposal, dams and river-flows will become ever more contentious issues.
▪ Sulphur goes on to produce acid rain.
The Collaborative International Dictionary

Acid \Ac"id\, a. [L. acidus sour, fr. the root ak to be sharp: cf. F. acide. Cf. Acute.]

  1. Sour, sharp, or biting to the taste; tart; having the taste of vinegar: as, acid fruits or liquors. Also fig.: Sour-tempered.

    He was stern and his face as acid as ever.
    --A. Trollope.

  2. Of or pertaining to an acid; as, acid reaction.


Acid \Ac"id\, n.

  1. A sour substance.

  2. (Chem.) One of a class of compounds, generally but not always distinguished by their sour taste, solubility in water, and reddening of vegetable blue or violet colors. They are also characterized by the power of destroying the distinctive properties of alkalies or bases, combining with them to form salts, at the same time losing their own peculiar properties. They all contain hydrogen, united with a more negative element or radical, either alone, or more generally with oxygen, and take their names from this negative element or radical. Those which contain no oxygen are sometimes called hydracids in distinction from the others which are called oxygen acids or oxacids.

    Note: In certain cases, sulphur, selenium, or tellurium may take the place of oxygen, and the corresponding compounds are called respectively sulphur acids or sulphacids, selenium acids, or tellurium acids. When the hydrogen of an acid is replaced by a positive element or radical, a salt is formed, and hence acids are sometimes named as salts of hydrogen; as hydrogen nitrate for nitric acid, hydrogen sulphate for sulphuric acid, etc. In the old chemistry the name acid was applied to the oxides of the negative or nonmetallic elements, now sometimes called anhydrides.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

1620s, "of the taste of vinegar," from French acide (16c.) or directly from Latin acidus "sour, sharp," adjective of state from acere "to be sour," from PIE root *ak- "sharp, pointed" (see acrid). Figurative use from 1775; applied to intense colors from 1916. Acid test is American English, 1892, from the frontier days, when gold was distinguished from similar metals by application of nitric acid. Acid rain is first recorded 1859 in reference to England.


1690s, from acid (adj.). Slang meaning "LSD-25" first recorded 1966 (see LSD).\n\nWhen I was on acid I would see things that looked like beams of light, and I would hear things that sounded an awful lot like car horns.

[Mitch Hedberg, 1968-2005, U.S. stand-up comic]

\nAcid rock (type played by or listen to by people using LSD) is also from 1966; acid house dance music style is 1988, probably from acid in the hallucinogenic sense + house "dance club DJ music style."

n. (context databases English) (acronym of atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability English), a set of properties that guarantee database transactions are processed reliably

  1. adj. harsh or corrosive in tone; "an acerbic tone piercing otherwise flowery prose"; "a barrage of acid comments"; "her acrid remarks make her many enemies"; "bitter words"; "blistering criticism"; "caustic jokes about political assassination, talk-show hosts and medical ethics"; "a sulfurous denunciation" [syn: acerb, acerbic, acrid, bitter, blistering, caustic, sulfurous, sulphurous, venomous, virulent, vitriolic]

  2. containing acid; "an acid taste"

  1. n. any of various water-soluble compounds having a sour taste and capable of turning litmus red and reacting with a base to form a salt

  2. street name for lysergic acid diethylamide [syn: back breaker, battery-acid, dose, dot, Elvis, loony toons, Lucy in the sky with diamonds, pane, superman, window pane, Zen]


In computer science, ACID ( Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) is a set of properties of database transactions. In the context of databases, a single logical operation on the data is called a transaction. For example, a transfer of funds from one bank account to another, even involving multiple changes such as debiting one account and crediting another, is a single transaction.

Jim Gray defined these properties of a reliable transaction system in the late 1970s and developed technologies to achieve them automatically.

In 1983, Andreas Reuter and Theo Härder coined the acronym ACID to describe them.

Acid (disambiguation)

An acid is any chemical compound that, when dissolved in water, gives a solution with a pH less than 7.0.

Acid or ACID may also refer to:

Acid (band)

Acid was a Japanese rock band originally created by Hideki after Siam Shade disbanded.

Acid (hip-hop)

Acid (often written ACID; , ) is a Burmese hip hop group often credited with releasing Burma's first hip hop album, Beginning, in 2000. Two of the group's founders were later imprisoned for the group's allegedly pro-democracy lyrics.

Acid (computer virus)

Acid is a computer virus which infects .COM and .EXE files including [[]]. Each time an infected file is executed, Acid infects all of the .EXE files in the current directory. Later, if an infected file is executed, it infects the .COM files in the current directory. Programs infected with Acid will have had the first 792 bytes of the host program overwritten with Acid's own code. There will be no file length increase unless the original host program was smaller than 792 bytes, in which case it will become 792 bytes in length. The program's date and time in the DOS disk directory listing will not be altered.

The following text strings are found in infected files:

  • "*.EXE *.COM .."
  • "Program too big to fit in memory"
  • "Acid Virus"
  • "Legalize ACiD and Pot"
  • "By: Copyfright Corp-$MZU"

Usage examples of "acid".

It is useful in those diseases in which the fluids of the body are abnormally acid, as in rheumatism.

A plant of Drosera, with the edges of its leaves curled inwards, so as to form a temporary stomach, with the glands of the closely inflected tentacles pouring forth their acid secretion, which dissolves animal matter, afterwards to be absorbed, may be said to feed like an animal.

As for drinking, I am something of a chemist and I have yet to find a liquor that is free from traces of a number of poisons, some of them deadly, such as fusel oil, acetic acid, ethylacetate, acetaldehyde and furfurol.

If the proper materials, such as acid, coal gas, or acetaldehyde and a proper catalyst were available, then wood cellulose could be converted into ethyl alcohol.

Filter off the precipitate and wash with hot water containing a little sodium acetate, dissolve it off the filter with hot dilute hydrochloric acid, add ammonia in excess, and pass sulphuretted hydrogen for five minutes.

The precipitation of lead from acid solutions with sulphuric acid, and the solubility of the precipitate in ammonium acetate, distinguishes it from all other metals.

To convert, for example, a solution of a substance in hydrochloric acid into a solution of the same in acetic acid, alkali should be added in excess and then acetic acid.

The determination is rendered sharper and less liable to error by the addition of a few drops of acetic acid to convert the chromate into bichromate.

The small quantity of white flocculent precipitate which may be observed in the acetic acid solution before titrating, contains the whole of the iron as ferric arsenate.

Boil off the gas, add ammonia until a precipitate is formed, and then acidify somewhat strongly with acetic acid.

Add acetic acid until the solution is acid and the precipitate is quite dissolved.

The iron is reduced to the ferrous state and phosphate of alumina precipitated in an acetic acid solution.

From baryta, which it also resembles, it is distinguished by not yielding an insoluble chromate in an acetic acid solution, by the solubility of its chloride in alcohol, and by the fact that its sulphate is converted into carbonate on boiling with a solution formed of 3 parts of potassium carbonate and 1 of potassium sulphate.

In solutions rendered faintly acid with acetic acid, they give a yellow precipitate with bichromate of potash.

To separate these, ammonia is added till the solution is alkaline, and then acetic acid in slight excess.