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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
simultaneous translation (=immediate translation, as the person is speaking)
▪ The speeches will be broadcast live, with simultaneous translation into English.
▪ A literal translation is given of the Arabic themes to highlight the partial loss of orientation through discontinuity of theme.
▪ For example, a literal translation by some one not familiar with its deeper cultural meaning may result in serious mistakes.
▪ A literal translation would be estrangement.
▪ There are halls for banqueting up to 3,000, for small exhibitions, industrial theatre and simultaneous translation.
▪ Including simultaneous translation booths, matched sound systems and theatre standard lighting capable of handling the most complex conference productions.
▪ He explains that although the parliament itself enjoys simultaneous translation facilities, the group meetings have no such luck.
▪ We hypothesized therefore that the N-Oct 5 complex is generated by alternative translation initiation.
▪ We consider it most likely, that alternative translation initiation is the mechanism for generation of the N-Oct 5 proteins.
▪ For example the early machine translation systems tended to contain the grammar intrinsically within the program.
▪ Its use has been recognised to be of value in applications such as machine translation and speech recognition.
▪ An option in one language includes an introduction to specialist translation, machine translation techniques and interpreting.
▪ How about the permissions for doing the translation work?
▪ It was shown that translation work is undertaken even for impecunious clients.
▪ For the next two decades he made a sort of living finding bits and pieces of editing and translation work.
▪ If you are involved in language analysis or in literacy or translation work, you are unlikely to be working entirely alone.
▪ Something lost in the translation perhaps.
▪ It was a religion made to travel, and it seemed to lose nothing in the translation.
▪ Or maybe something had got lost in translation.
▪ Not surprisingly, something gets lost in the translation.
▪ It probably loses something in the translation from the original Latin.
▪ For the deaf, welfare officers had to provide a communication and translation service where necessary.
▪ Gennady Rozhdestvensky recited Alexander Pushkin's Elegy, preceded by my reading it in translation.
▪ I will fetch both versions now and let you read the translation.
▪ These activities are lively and innovatory and use the medium of translation to develop both written and oral skills.
▪ It turns out that he used a translation that modern translators judge to have been inaccurate.
▪ It uses a natural language translation front-end to a dynamic non-linear case-based retrieval mechanism.
▪ I have used my own translation here in place of Kaufmann's uncharacteristically awkward rendering.
literal translation
▪ A literal translation is given of the Arabic themes to highlight the partial loss of orientation through discontinuity of theme.
▪ A literal translation would be estrangement.
▪ For example, a literal translation by some one not familiar with its deeper cultural meaning may result in serious mistakes.
lose something in the translation/telling
▪ It probably loses something in the translation from the original Latin.
▪ "It goes without saying" is a direct translation of a French phrase.
▪ a new translation of the Bible
▪ His arguments are still powerful, but I think they lose some impact in translation.
▪ I've only read the English translation of the book, not the Japanese original.
▪ It is a Latin translation of a Greek manuscript.
▪ Many of the poems are translations, but the sounds and rhythms are similar to the original language.
▪ Much of the humour of the book was unfortunately lost in translation.
▪ the translation of beliefs into actions
▪ And if translation is determinate, meaning here must be atomistic rather than holistic.
▪ At the time of the Beerbohm translation Boulestin was already a writer and journalist of some experience.
▪ It turns out that he used a translation that modern translators judge to have been inaccurate.
▪ This is partly the fault of the translation which is infuriatingly unclear in places.
▪ We consider it most likely, that alternative translation initiation is the mechanism for generation of the N-Oct 5 proteins.
The Collaborative International Dictionary

Translation \Trans*la"tion\, n. [F. translation, L. translatio a transferring, translation, version. See Translate, and cf. Tralation.]

  1. The act of translating, removing, or transferring; removal; also, the state of being translated or removed; as, the translation of Enoch; the translation of a bishop.

  2. The act of rendering into another language; interpretation; as, the translation of idioms is difficult.

  3. That which is obtained by translating something a version; as, a translation of the Scriptures.

  4. (Rhet.) A transfer of meaning in a word or phrase, a metaphor; a tralation. [Obs.]
    --B. Jonson.

  5. (Metaph.) Transfer of meaning by association; association of ideas.
    --A. Tucker.

  6. (Kinematics) Motion in which all the points of the moving body have at any instant the same velocity and direction of motion; -- opposed to rotation.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

mid-14c., "removal of a saint's body or relics to a new place," also "rendering of a text from one language to another," from Old French translacion "translation" of text, also of the bones of a saint, etc. (12c.) or directly from Latin translationem (nominative translatio) "a carrying across, removal, transporting; transfer of meaning," noun of action from past participle stem of transferre (see transfer (v.)).


n. 1 (label en uncountable) The act or (label en countable) an act of translate, in its various senses: 2 # The conversion of text from one language to another. 3 # The conversion of something from one form or medium to another. 4 # (label en physics) A motion or compulsion to motion in a straight line without rotation or other deformation. 5 # (label en genetics) The process whereby a strand of mRNA directs assembly of amino acids into proteins within a ribosome. 6 # (label en physics mathematics) A transfer of motion occurring within a gearbox. 7 # The conveyance of something from one place to another, especially: 8 ## (label en Christianity) An ascension to Heaven without death. 9 ## (label en Christianity) A transfer of a bishop from one diocese to another. 10 ## (label en Christianity) A transfer of a holy relic from one shrine to another. 11 ## (label en medicine) A transfer of a disease from one body part to another. 12 (label en countable) The product or end result of an act of translate, in its various senses.

  1. n. a written communication in a second language having the same meaning as the written communication in a first language [syn: interlingual rendition, rendering, version]

  2. a uniform movement without rotation

  3. the act of changing in form or shape or appearance; "a photograph is a translation of a scene onto a two-dimensional surface" [syn: transformation]

  4. (mathematics) a transformation in which the origin of the coordinate system is moved to another position but the direction of each axis remains the same

  5. (genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm

  6. rewording something in less technical terminology

  7. the act of uniform movement [syn: displacement]

Translation (geometry)

In Euclidean geometry, a translation is a geometric transformation that moves every point of a figure or a space by the same amount in a given direction.

In Euclidean geometry a transformation is a one to one correspondence between two sets of points or a mapping from one plane to another.) A translation can be described as a rigid motion: the other rigid motions are rotations, reflections and glide reflections.

A translation can also be interpreted as the addition of a constant vector to every point, or as shifting the origin of the coordinate system.

A translation operator is an operator T such that Tf(v) = f(v + \delta).

If v is a fixed vector, then the translation T will work as T: (p) = p + v.

If T is a translation, then the image of a subset A under the function T is the translate of A by T. The translate of A by T is often written A + v.

In a Euclidean space, any translation is an isometry. The set of all translations forms the translation group T, which is isomorphic to the space itself, and a normal subgroup of Euclidean group E(n ). The quotient group of E(n ) by T is isomorphic to the orthogonal group O(n ):

E(n ) / TO(n ).
Translation (ecclesiastical)

Translation is the technical term when a bishop is transferred from one episcopal see to another. (Another religious meaning of the term is the translation of relics.)

This can be

Translation (biology)

In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which cellular ribosomes create proteins.

In translation, messenger RNA (mRNA)—produced by transcription from DNA—is decoded by a ribosome to produce a specific amino acid chain, or polypeptide. The polypeptide later folds into an active protein and performs its functions in the cell. The ribosome facilitates decoding by inducing the binding of complementary tRNA anticodon sequences to mRNA codons. The tRNAs carry specific amino acids that are chained together into a polypeptide as the mRNA passes through and is "read" by the ribosome. The entire process is a part of gene expression.

In brief, translation proceeds in three phases:

  1. Initiation: The ribosome assembles around the target mRNA. The first tRNA is attached at the start codon.
  2. Elongation: The tRNA transfers an amino acid to the tRNA corresponding to the next codon. The ribosome then moves (''translocates) ''to the next mRNA codon to continue the process, creating an amino acid chain.
  3. Termination: When a stop codon is reached, the ribosome releases the polypeptide.

In bacteria, translation occurs in the cell's cytoplasm, where the large and small subunits of the ribosome bind to the mRNA. In eukaryotes, translation occurs in the cytosol or across the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum in a process called vectorial synthesis. In many instances, the entire ribosome/mRNA complex binds to the outer membrane of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER); the newly created polypeptide is stored inside the ER for later vesicle transport and secretion outside of the cell.

Many of transcribed RNA, such as transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA, and small nuclear RNA, do not undergo translation into proteins.

A number of antibiotics act by inhibiting translation. These include anisomycin, cycloheximide, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin, and puromycin. Prokaryotic ribosomes have a different structure from that of eukaryotic ribosomes, and thus antibiotics can specifically target bacterial infections without any harm to a eukaryotic host's cells.

Translation (rhetoric device)

Translation as a rhetorical device is a form of parody, where a sarcastic paraphrase of a source quotation is given to mock its author; to enhance the irony, it is furthermore stated that the version being given is merely a translation into the speaker's language, implying that the original speaker was unduly obscure or ranting. Given the nature of Usenet forums, parodic translation is prevalent in flame wars, where remarks such as "Translation: 'I do not have a clue and am throwing mud'" are used to imply — on very little ground — that another poster is not making any appreciable contribution to the subject.

Unlike other forms of parody, translation has a relatively recent history; early usages of the device can be seen in the work of the Viennese literary critic and journalist Karl Kraus, who claimed to translate from other journalists' — famously former friend Harden — and from Moskauderwelch — a derisive term for the highly elaborate Marxist jargon of the time, a pun on Moskau, Moscow, and Kauderwelch, gibberish. Kraus' influence is notable in Karl Popper; while translation of scientific theories into verificationist terms had been a standard procedure in logical positivism for some time, Popper's criticism of several philosophers and scientists that failed to comply with his notion of the scientific method took a mocking quality reminiscent of the former.

Category:Rhetoric Category:Satire

Translation (Mormonism)

In the theology of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), translation refers to being physically changed by God from a mortal human being to an immortal human being. A person that has been translated is referred to as a translated being. According to LDS belief, Enoch, Moses, John the Apostle, the Three Nephites, and others were translated.

A translated being is akin to a resurrected person, with the exception that a translated being has never died and has a body with less power than a resurrected being. According to Parley P. Pratt, ordinary human beings are said to have a telestial body; people who are translated are said to have a terrestrial body; and people who are resurrected are said to have a celestial body, but all the terms also refer to the three degrees of resurrected being, as per 1 Cor. 15 and D&C 76.

Translation (disambiguation)

Translation is the conversion of text from one language to another.

In science:

  • Translation (biology), part of the biological process of protein biosynthesis from messenger RNA
  • Frequency translation, converting a radio signal from one frequency to another by mixing the input signal with a second signal
    • Broadcast translator, rebroadcasting a radio signal at a different frequency
  • Translation (physics), movement that changes the position of an object, moving every point the same distance in the same direction, without rotation, reflection or change in size
  • Translation operator is an alternative name for the displacement operator in quantum optics
  • Translational research
  • Translation (sociology)

In mathematics:

  • Translation (geometry), moving points the same distance in the same direction
  • Translation (group theory), the operation of multiplying by a group element

In computing:

  • Address translation
    • Port address translation, allows a single public IP address to be used by many hosts on a private network
    • Network address translation, transceiving network traffic through a router by re-writing the source and/or destination IP addresses
    • Virtual-to-physical address translation
  • Program transformation
  • The translation phase of a compiler (or, by extension, the entire process of compilation)
  • Translate Toolkit, freeware localization toolkit
  • Translator (computing), multiple meanings
  • Bing Translator, online machine translation service in
  • Google Translate, online machine translation service in Google

In literature and entertainment:

  • Translation (rhetoric device) a form of parody, where a sarcastic paraphrase of a source quotation is given to mock its author
  • Translations, 1980 play by Brian Friel
  • The Translator, 1999 novel by Leila Aboulela
  • Universal translator, science fiction device which translates between any languages
  • " …In Translation", seventeenth episode of the first season of Lost
  • "Translators", a poem by Patti Smith from her 1973 book Witt
  • Translate (album), 2006 album by Sexy Sadie
  • Translator (band), a San Francisco new wave band
    • Translator (album), their third album

In religion:

  • Translation (relics), the removal of holy objects from one locality to another
  • Translation (Mormonism), in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, when a person is changed from mortality to immortality without having died
  • Translation (ecclesiastical), to transfer a bishop from one diocese/see to another
  • Translation, in Jim Jones' Peoples' Temple cult, where Jones and his followers would all die together and move to another planet and live blissfully.
Translation (relic)

In Christianity, the translation of relics is the removal of holy objects from one locality to another (usually a higher status location); usually only the movement of the remains of the saint's body would be treated so formally, with secondary relics such as items of clothing treated with less ceremony. Translations could be accompanied by many acts, including all-night vigils and processions, often involving entire communities.

The solemn translation (in Latin, translatio) of relics is not treated as the outward recognition of sanctity. Rather, miracles confirmed a saint's sanctity, as evinced by the fact that when, in the twelfth century, the Papacy attempted to make sanctification an 'official' process; many collections of miracles were written in the hope of providing proof of the saint-in-question's status. In the early Middle Ages, however, solemn translation marked the moment at which, the saint's miracles having been recognized, the relic was moved by a bishop or abbot to a prominent position within the church. Local veneration was then permitted. This process is known as local canonization.

The date of a translation of a saint's relics was celebrated as a feast day in its own right. For example, on January 27 is celebrated the translation of the relics of St. John Chrysostom from the Armenian village of Comana (where he died in exile in 407) to Constantinople. The most commonly celebrated feast days, however, are the 'dies natales' (the day on which the saint died, not the modern idea of birthday).

Relics sometimes travelled very far. The relics of Saint Thyrsus at Sozopolis, Pisidia, in Asia Minor, were brought to Constantinople and then to Spain. His cult became popular in the Iberian Peninsula, where he is known as San Tirso or Santo Tirso. Some of his relics were brought to France: Thyrsus is thus the titular saint of the cathedral of Sisteron in the Basses Alpes, the Cathédrale Notre Dame et Saint Thyrse. Thyrsus is thus the patron saint of Sisteron. Liborius of Le Mans became patron saint of Paderborn, in Germany, after his relics were transferred there in 836.


Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. While interpreting—the facilitating of oral or sign-language communication between users of different languages—antedates writing, translation began only after the appearance of written literature. There exist partial translations of the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh (ca. 2000 BCE) into Southwest Asian languages of the second millennium BCE.

Translators always risk inappropriate spill-over of source-language idiom and usage into the target-language translation. On the other hand, spill-overs have imported useful source-language calques and loanwords that have enriched the target languages. Indeed, translators have helped substantially to shape the languages into which they have translated.

Owing to the demands of business documentation consequent to the Industrial Revolution that began in the mid-18th century, some translation specialties have become formalized, with dedicated schools and professional associations.

Because of the laboriousness of translation, since the 1940s engineers have sought to automate translation or to mechanically aid the human translator. The rise of the Internet has fostered a world-wide market for translation services and has facilitated language localization.

Translation studies systematically study the theory and practice of translation.

Translation (sociology)

In actor-network theory (ANT), translation is the process that allows a network to be represented by a single entity, which can in itself be an individual or another network.

In 1986, Michel Callon published the seminal article "Some elements of a sociology of translation", in which he summarized the process of translation as four 'moments' or phases:

  1. Problematization - the definition of the nature of the problem in a specific situation by an actor (a group or an individual) and the consequential establishment of dependency
  2. Interessement - "locking" other actors into the roles that were proposed for them in the actor's programme for resolving that problem
  3. Enrolment - the definition and interrelation of the roles that were allocated to other actors in the previous step
  4. Mobilization - ensuring that supposed spokespersons for relevant collective entities are properly representative of those

Usage examples of "translation".

In the dinner-table scene where Van and Ada talk of translation, the two youngsters are not yet lovers, but their highly ornate allusiveness in referring to Rimbaud and Marvell rudely excludes Marina from the conversation.

Movie rights or translation rights into Czech or Swedish might bring in valuable extra income, but much more important, both artistically and in the long run commercially, were editions in English or French.

The old man listened with serious attention, and with assenting nods that culminated in a spoken expression of his willingness to undertake the translations.

He rebelled, obtained a copy of the English translation and hid it under his bedstraw, reading it when he could.

Cunningham, have been laid before the Committee of the Prayer Book and Homily Society, who have agreed to print the translation of the first three Homilies into the Russian language at St.

Demetrius commanded Margari to go up into his room and have a complete translation of all this Latin rigmarole written down in honest Hungarian by the morning and to encourage him in his task he gave him two guldens and an order on the butler for as much punch as he could drink.

By the morning all the punch was drunk, but the translation also was finished, to the tune of bacchanalian songs which Margari kept up with great spirit all night long.

Here were their chapel, their schools, and their printing-press, from whence emanated such books and tracts in Bengalee as could be useful for their purpose, and likewise their great work, the translation of the Scriptures, which Marshman and Carey were continually revising and improving as their knowledge of the language became more critical.

This Millenary Petition, named after its thousand signatures, was the seed from which the new translation of the Bible would grow.

Any computation that starts with absolute pitch values and results in a pitch translation invariant output will still be pitch translation invariant if the input values are first reduced to a value modulo octaves.

The translation for which Maser Djawah is best known is that of the Pandects of Haroun, a physician of Alexandria.

He was a distinguished Greek scholar, and is believed on the authority of Odofredus to have translated into Latin, soon after the Pandects were brought to Bologna, the various Greek fragments which occur in them, with the exception of those in the 27th book, the translation of which has been attributed to Modestinus.

This is a partly paraphrastic and conjectural translation of a very obscure sentence of Jordanes.

There is a good deal of difference between Pickwick and a translation of old French sermons about Madame, and Conde, and people of whom few modern readers ever heard.

Nay, in the hope of vindicating his own penetration, he took an opportunity of questioning Ferdinand in private concerning the circumstances of the translation, and our hero, perceiving his drift, gave him such artful and ambiguous answers, as persuaded him that the young Count had acted the part of a plagiary, and that the other had been restrained from doing himself justice, by the consideration of his own dependence.