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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
▪ a poetic rendering
▪ an architectural rendering
▪ But unlike many such exhibits, this goes beyond the typical tan, gold and mint-green renderings of life in the past.
▪ By careful timing they gave good renderings of a number of popular tunes.
▪ Cracks in rendering should be raked out, cut back to sound material if necessary and then filled with new mortar.
▪ For Delia, each new portrait is invested with the task of finding an appropriate vocabulary for its particular rendering.
The Collaborative International Dictionary

Render \Ren"der\ (r?n"d?r), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Rendered (-d?rd);p. pr. & vb. n. Rendering.] [F. rendre, LL. rendre, fr. L. reddere; pref. red-, re-, re- + dare to give. See Datetime, and cf. Reddition, Rent.]

  1. To return; to pay back; to restore.

    Whose smallest minute lost, no riches render may.

  2. To inflict, as a retribution; to requite.

    I will render vengeance to mine enemies.
    --Deut. xxxii. 41.

  3. To give up; to yield; to surrender.

    I 'll make her render up her page to me.

  4. Hence, to furnish; to contribute.

    Logic renders its daily service to wisdom and virtue.
    --I. Watts.

  5. To furnish; to state; to deliver; as, to render an account; to render judgment.

  6. To cause to be, or to become; as, to render a person more safe or more unsafe; to render a fortress secure.

  7. To translate from one language into another; as, to render Latin into English.

  8. To interpret; to set forth, represent, or exhibit; as, an actor renders his part poorly; a singer renders a passage of music with great effect; a painter renders a scene in a felicitous manner.

    He did render him the most unnatural That lived amongst men.

  9. To try out or extract (oil, lard, tallow, etc.) from fatty animal substances; as, to render tallow.

  10. To plaster, as a wall of masonry, without the use of lath.


Rendering \Ren"der*ing\, n. The act of one who renders, or that which is rendered. Specifically:

  1. A version; translation; as, the rendering of the Hebrew text.

  2. In art, the presentation, expression, or interpretation of an idea, theme, or part.

  3. The act of laying the first coat of plaster on brickwork or stonework.

  4. The coat of plaster thus laid on.

  5. The process of trying out or extracting lard, tallow, etc., from animal fat.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

mid-15c., "action of restoring," verbal noun from render (v.). Meaning "a translation" is from 1640s; that of "extracting or melting of fat" is from 1792. Visual arts sense of "reproduction, representation" is from 1862.


n. version; translation. vb. (present participle of render English)

  1. n. a performance of a musical composition or a dramatic role etc.; "they heard a live rendition of three pieces by Schubert" [syn: rendition]

  2. an explanation of something that is not immediately obvious; "the edict was subject to many interpretations"; "he annoyed us with his interpreting of parables"; "often imitations are extended to provide a more accurate rendition of the child's intended meaning" [syn: interpretation, interpreting, rendition]

  3. the act of interpreting something as expressed in an artistic performance; "her rendition of Milton's verse was extraordinarily moving" [syn: rendition, interpretation]

  4. a written communication in a second language having the same meaning as the written communication in a first language [syn: translation, interlingual rendition, version]

  5. a coat of stucco applied to a masonry wall

  6. perspective drawing of an architect's design

  7. giving in acknowledgment of obligation

Rendering (animal products)

Rendering is a process that converts waste animal tissue into stable, value-added materials. Rendering can refer to any processing of animal products into more useful materials, or, more narrowly, to the rendering of whole animal fatty tissue into purified fats like lard or tallow. Rendering can be carried out on an industrial, farm, or kitchen scale.

The majority of tissue processed comes from slaughterhouses, but also includes restaurant grease and butcher shop trimmings and expired meat from grocery stores. This material can include the fatty tissue, bones, and offal, as well as entire carcasses of animals condemned at slaughterhouses, and those that have died on farms, in transit, etc. The most common animal sources are beef, pork, sheep, and poultry.

The rendering process simultaneously dries the material and separates the fat from the bone and protein. A rendering process yields a fat commodity ( yellow grease, choice white grease, bleachable fancy tallow, etc.) and a protein meal ( meat and bone meal, poultry byproduct meal, etc.).

Rendering plants often also handle other materials, such as slaughterhouse blood, feathers and hair, but do so using processes distinct from true rendering.

The occupation of renderer has been deemed one of the "dirtiest jobs".

Rendering (computer graphics)

Rendering is the process of generating an image from a 2D or 3D model (or models in what collectively could be called a scene file) by means of computer programs. Also, the results of such a model can be called a rendering. A scene file contains objects in a strictly defined language or data structure; it would contain geometry, viewpoint, texture, lighting, and shading information as a description of the virtual scene. The data contained in the scene file is then passed to a rendering program to be processed and output to a digital image or raster graphics image file. The term "rendering" may be by analogy with an "artist's rendering" of a scene. Though the technical details of rendering methods vary, the general challenges to overcome in producing a 2D image from a 3D representation stored in a scene file are outlined as the graphics pipeline along a rendering device, such as a GPU. A GPU is a purpose-built device able to assist a CPU in performing complex rendering calculations. If a scene is to look relatively realistic and predictable under virtual lighting, the rendering software should solve the rendering equation. The rendering equation doesn't account for all lighting phenomena, but is a general lighting model for computer-generated imagery. 'Rendering' is also used to describe the process of calculating effects in a video editing program to produce final video output.

Rendering is one of the major sub-topics of 3D computer graphics, and in practice is always connected to the others. In the graphics pipeline, it is the last major step, giving the final appearance to the models and animation. With the increasing sophistication of computer graphics since the 1970s, it has become a more distinct subject.

Rendering has uses in architecture, video games, simulators, movie or TV visual effects, and design visualization, each employing a different balance of features and techniques. As a product, a wide variety of renderers are available. Some are integrated into larger modeling and animation packages, some are stand-alone, some are free open-source projects. On the inside, a renderer is a carefully engineered program, based on a selective mixture of disciplines related to: light physics, visual perception, mathematics, and software development.

In the case of 3D graphics, rendering may be done slowly, as in pre-rendering, or in realtime. Pre-rendering is a computationally intensive process that is typically used for movie creation, while real-time rendering is often done for 3D video games which rely on the use of graphics cards with 3D hardware accelerators.

Rendering (Berio)

Rendering is a 1989/1990 composition by the Italian composer Luciano Berio. Cast in three movements for full orchestra, it takes as its structure the fragmentary score of Schubert's uncompleted D major symphony, D936a.

The work lasts for around 33 minutes. Its first two movements were completed in 1989 and first performed in June of that year, with Nikolaus Harnoncourt conducting the Concertgebouw Orchestra in Amsterdam. The third movement followed early the next year, and all three movements were played together for the first time in April 1990 under Riccardo Chailly, also in Amsterdam.

Berio leaves Schubert's original parts intact, entering the score only where there are gaps or partial work. As the title suggests, Berio fulfils a function close to that of a builder completing a house: his contributions fill the gaps like mortar fills the spaces in between the solid structure. Berio uses Schubertian motifs and quotes from the existing score, but in doing so emphasises the chasms in the score rather than attempting to smooth the interruptions away. As Giordano Montecchi states

Schubert's fragments give rise to musical moments of vertiginous beauty which nevertheless constantly founder in the emptiness of what was "not done" - and Berio fills this emptiness with... an iridescent musical screed woven around the timbre of the celesta... separating the fragments and at the same time holding them together, enabling them to reach the symphonic goal for which they were intended..."

Unlike pieces such as the various editions of Gustav Mahler's fragmentary Tenth Symphony, or Brian Newbould's conjectural orchestration of the Schubert, Rendering is intended as a completed work in its own right, rather than a 'performing version' of Schubert's Tenth.

Rendering has proved one of Berio's most enduring pieces and has been recorded several times, twice by Chailly alone. When illness caused the Italian maestro to withdraw from performances in Munich in 2011, David Robertson took over and the result was a new reading and recording by the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra.

Usage examples of "rendering".

The nostrums advertised extensively over the country as specifics for this disease, while they may, in some instances, prevent the attacks for a short time, irritate the stomach, impair digestion, lower vitality, and permanently injure the system, often rendering the disease incurable.

Tedford carried in his almanac, back at his campsite, his membership card in the Melbourne Scientific Society and his only photograph of his brother: a murky rendering of a tall, sweet-looking boy with pale hair.

Sir Amias Paulet, and reduced to a more rigorous confinement, he experienced so much difficulty and danger in rendering her this service, that he had desisted from every attempt of that nature.

Sketches of Gagarin and Armstrong, Empathist renderings of Konrad Harlan and Angin Chandra.

I cried as well as the apostle, and in my dawning piety I told him that I insisted not only upon remaining unknown to his pupil, but also upon ignoring the amount of the sums he might take out of my purse to forward to him, and I therefore begged that he would help himself without rendering me any account.

They charged further that you were behaving as a king, whilst styling yourself a duke, in these places by conducting criminal trials, rendering judgement without juries and executing sentences of death.

Diocletian, on his side, opened the campaign in Egypt by the siege of Alexandria, cut off the aqueducts which conveyed the waters of the Nile into every quarter of that immense city, and rendering his camp impregnable to the sallies of the besieged multitude, he pushed his reiterated attacks with caution and vigor.

All in black camblet, he was now: pants and a waistcoat covering that white blouse, rendering even more extreme its piratical sleeves.

I could not understand how I had been so long in rendering them the justice they deserved, but they were the innocent daughters of a noble family, and the lucky chance which had thrown them in my way ought not to prove a calamity for them.

The sinistrals could punish by closing down the assimilation gland of the wayward dextrier, killing its host and rendering it unable to take another, reducing it to a blind, clutching handthing, without a host through which to channel.

Silvia did not think that her good conduct was a merit, for she knew that she was virtuous only because her self-love compelled her to be so, and she never exhibited any pride or assumed any superiority towards her theatrical sisters, although, satisfied to shine by their talent or their beauty, they cared little about rendering themselves conspicuous by their virtue.

Never did even the most skilful painter succeed in rendering justice to the expression of that beautiful head, when the king turned it on one side to look with kindness at anyone.

Her sister often read it aloud, standing behind her and rendering it with elocutionary effects.

Here is pictured a type of Greek work which survives in American vaudeville, where every line may be two-thirds spoken and one-third sung, the entire rendering, musical and elocutionary, depending upon the improvising power and sure instinct of the performer.

So that gesture, not music not odour, would be a universal language, the gift of tongues rendering visible not the lay sense but the first entelechy, the structural rhythm.