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Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

1958, coined by U.S. microbiologist Richard B. Roberts (1910-1980) from ribo(nucleic acid) + -some "body."


n. (context biology English) Small organelles found in all cells; involved in the production of proteins by translation messenger RNA.


n. an organelle in the cytoplasm of a living cell; ribosomes attach to mRNA and move down it one codon at a time and stop until tRNA brings the required amino acid; when a ribosome reaches a stop codon it falls apart and releases the completed protein molecule for use by the cell; "the ribosome is the site of protein synthesis"


The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation). Ribosomes link amino acids together in the order specified by messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules. Ribosomes consist of two major components: the small ribosomal subunit, which reads the RNA, and the large subunit, which joins amino acids to form a polypeptide chain. Each subunit is composed of one or more ribosomal RNA (rRNA) molecules and a variety of ribosomal proteins. The ribosomes and associated molecules are also known as the translational apparatus.

Usage examples of "ribosome".

But he is not ready to tell Botkin or Koss the wildest of his suspicions: the double helix somehow codes not only for its own messenger, but also for the elusive adaptor, the ribosome assembly line, and all the enzymes needed to recognize the adaptor, affix the amino acids, promote the growing chain, and trim the finished proteins.

The ribosomes inside the mitochondria are similar to bacterial ribosomes, and different from animal ribosomes.

The controversy over gene-modified food reached its peak in the year 2010, when a breakthrough in the analysis of the functional capabilities of the ribosome made it possible for genetic engineers to construct an artificial gene to allow cows to grow bones reinforced with buckytube fibers.

Variances in absorption rate, bioavailability, protein binding, receptor-subtype mechanisms, efferent nerve equations, Meldrum models, gangloid ionization, ribosome protein synthesis, Cell Cleaner interaction rates-no one person could possibly have processed it all.

At any moment in a given cell, thousands of ribosomes are churning out proteins, thousands of sections of DNA are separating and rejoining, and thousands of used proteins are being broken down into their component amino acids, which will quickly be reused to build other proteins.

The ribosomes then translate the mRNA into the chain of amino acids that makes up the encoded protein.

Blood, tissues, teeth, and organs began to congeal in place as the nano-assemblers pumped synthetic enzymes, DNA, ribosomes, and other cellular machinery into the lipid vesicles that were due to become living cells.

Gigafords The Supernova Supermarket We have Everything, from Aardvarks to Zigguraats, Bifurcates to Billingsgate, Deicide to Deodorize, Grunions to Gryphons, Hernias to Hopolites, Kiangs to Kindersang, Ribosomes to RibaldGnomes, Thermometor to Thermidor, Zugzwang to ZwitterionIet cetera.

The micrograph showed the bug, with its bacteria-like lack of a nucleus, its amoeba-like pseudopods and irregular cellular borders, and its just-plain-weird ribosome clusters and endoplasmic reticulum, plus some things not even Marlowe could identify.

You can see that a cell is just millions of objects—lysosomes, endosomes, ribosomes, ligands, peroxisomes, proteins of every size and shape—bumping into millions of other objects and performing mundane tasks: extracting energy from nutrients, assembling structures, getting rid of waste, warding off intruders, sending and receiving messages, making repairs.

Introns are clipped out of transcribed messenger RNA (mRNA) before it is processed by ribosomes.