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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
grain
noun
COLLOCATIONS FROM OTHER ENTRIES
go against the grain (=are not what I would normally choose to do)
▪ I often have to make decisions that go against the grain.
grains of rice
▪ a few grains of rice
the grain of the wood (=the natural lines in it)
▪ The oil enhances the natural grain of the wood.
the grain/potato/corn etc harvest
▪ This year's grain harvest is expected to be well over 85 million tons.
COLLOCATIONS FROM CORPUS
■ ADJECTIVE
coarse
▪ By convention the geologist plots coarse grains to the left of the abscissa and fine to the right.
▪ Blend a little cooking juice with two tablespoons each black treacle and tomato purée and one tablespoon of coarse grain mustard.
fine
▪ The slower the speed, the finer the grain and the greater the resolving power of these films.
▪ The more rapid the cooling, the finer the grain size and the poorer the crystallinity.
▪ Sand Particle-shaped quartz, often mixed with fine grains of calcareous origin in Champagne.
▪ Lean of good quality is of the proper color for its kind, firm, and fine of grain.
individual
▪ In addition to studies using the modal composition of a sediment, other provenance determinations can be made from individual quartz grains.
large
▪ Faster films need larger grains of silver to form an image in less light.
▪ Normally, larger grains mean thicker layers of emulsion and coarser images.
long
▪ Easy-cook rice is par-boiled to remove the surface starch that causes the problems when cooking other long grain rices.
▪ Short grain or pudding rice is almost round and slightly sweeter than long grain rices.
▪ There are many thousands of varieties of rice, but they are divided into two main groups - long and short grain.
mineral
▪ They weld together mineral grains of radically different compositions and properties, rendering most techniques of mineral separation and enrichment ineffectual.
natural
▪ It demands considerable skills to achieve the delicate balance required between the painted finish and the natural grain of the timber.
▪ The grass diet of buffalo is supplemented with natural grains and sun-cured hay.
small
▪ He examined small grains on the surface of water through a microscope.
▪ But soon they came peeking out again, and resumed their flickering little rushes as they investigated small grains of food matter.
▪ Chicago had to be supplied by a mass of smaller stations where grain and stock were loaded.
▪ The smallest ilmenite grains, which have the highest concentration of hydrogen, are the hardest to liberate from other minerals.
▪ Guy had obviously carried a small bag of grain in his pack and had left some with the animal.
▪ Achieving efficient liberation of the smallest grains requires crushing them to a very small particle size.
▪ A 50t / hour cleaner removes all the small grains from milling and malting samples.
▪ They are small grains with a little wing attached on each side, which helps them spread by the wind.
whole
Whole food Try eating sunflower seeds instead of using the oil, whole pineapple instead of juice, whole grains rather than flower.
▪ How might whole grains help? Whole grains are higher in fiber than processed grains, making them harder to digest.
▪ Use a whole grain or enriched product.
▪ Cut down on carbohydrates somewhat, and choose mostly whole grain breads and cereals to prevent constipation due to inactivity.
■ NOUN
elevator
▪ The roar of the grain elevators and the slap of timbers rent the sunlit air.
▪ There used to be a grain elevator, but it closed.
▪ Two associated pneumatic grain elevators with a combined discharge rate of 400 tons per hour were completed soon after.
▪ Most of the commingled corn is stored in grain elevators, said John Wichtrich, general manager for Aventis CropScience.
food
▪ In 1986, 1942 million tonnes of food grains were produced to feed a world population of nearly 5 billion.
▪ What women wanted was distinctive: food grain, education for their children, and dignity.
▪ Soldiers reached Saidpur district late last week and have since distributed hundreds of tonnes of paraffin, shelter and food grains.
▪ Some economists feel deep disquiet at the use of food grains to produce motor spirit.
▪ A bird pecking at food grains could have known without learning what food looks like, or it could have learnt it.
harvest
▪ The world grain harvest during 1992 is expected to be the lowest for five years at 686 pounds per person.
▪ The Soviet Union had a near-record grain harvest of 236m tonnes.
▪ On Nov. 1 it was officially announced that the grain harvest had amounted to a record 240 million tonnes.
▪ The grain harvest reached a record 407,900,000 tonnes, 600,000 tonnes over the previous all-time high of 1984.
pollen
▪ It takes more than a strip at the edge of a field to stop pollen grains from spreading round the countryside.
price
▪ With grain prices kept at an artificially high price thereafter, the further impoverishment of those already poor was the inevitable result.
▪ On Monday, soybean and grain prices were battered in part because of forecasts calling for improved conditions.
▪ High grain prices encouraged the pace in the later eighteenth century.
▪ Record grain prices have already forced cutbacks in chicken production, producing a 16 percent increase in broiler prices at wholesale.
▪ With grain prices heading even further downwards more savings have to made-but from where?
▪ The latter could have a global impact, pushing up grain prices substantially.
▪ It was in these areas that the depressed level of grain prices caused most hardship.
▪ He did nothing to check the huge hikes in grain prices.
production
▪ Despite unfavourable weather, grain production had remained stable at around 21,700,000 tonnes, and 1,000,000 tonnes of rice had been exported.
▪ Among the successes were a measure of economic progress, particularly in agriculture and especially in terms of grain production.
▪ Summer grain production this year has fallen by nearly 10 %, according to the ministry of agriculture.
▪ As communication networks have improved in the last three decades, there has been a shift away from cattle ranching to grain production.
▪ This irrigation system supports large-scale grain production as well as a dense rurally based population.
▪ The reform aimed to test consumer reaction to higher prices, and to stimulate farmers' enthusiasm for grain production.
quartz
▪ In addition to studies using the modal composition of a sediment, other provenance determinations can be made from individual quartz grains.
▪ This phenomenon has been utilized for dating sedimentary deposits of quartz grains.
▪ A summary of quartz grain features is given in Fig. 5.11 and photomicrographs in Fig. 5.12.
▪ Minerals giving very low intensity emission, such as quartz grains, required many minutes or even hours of exposure with fast films.
▪ Sandstone, for example, can hold very large volumes of groundwater because spaces are formed between the rock's rounded quartz grains.
rice
▪ She worked with domestic chicks, feeding on rice grains.
▪ Then, without a word, he picked up the plate and tossed a stream of rice grains into the air.
▪ The pearls were fat rice grains you wanted to bite.
▪ The chicks pecked the conspicuous rice grains, which proves that they were eager to eat rice.
▪ An army of beggars and lepers had turned out, each crouched behind a cloth heaped with rice grains and coins.
▪ He's wearing a garland of marigolds and carrying a bowl of yellow rice grains.
▪ The supplements are sprayed on to the surface of the rice grains.
▪ However, riboflavin is bright yellow, so the treated rice grains could clearly be seen in the final mix.
sand
▪ This new species lives below the surface of the rock in the interstices of its sand grains.
▪ Do we mean something like one sand grain every square metre of sea-floor per minute, per day, per year?
▪ In a turbulent flow of air near the surface local upward currents may lift a sand grain.
▪ The turbulence in the water film around the sand grains caused by your footfalls triggers the fluorescence.
▪ Specimens from unconsolidated gravels are not difficult to clean, any adherent sand grains being easily removed using a stout pin.
size
▪ Materials whose grain size distributions fall within the limits specified for zone 3 fine aggregates are well suited for certain tasks.
▪ The main criterion for subdivision of the detrital rocks is grain size, given as the diameter of the grain in millimeters.
▪ Perfect log-normal grain size distributions plot as straight lines on the probability paper.
▪ In any case, he shook it through a sieve to fix its grain size and added just enough water.
▪ Sand that's measured to ensure the right grain size for maximum strength and exceptional beauty.
▪ Figure 3-17 shows graphically the division of igneous rocks according to their mineral content and their grain size.
▪ In computing values for cumulative distributions it is normal to consider values in terms of the percentage coarser than a given grain size.
▪ The more rapid the cooling, the finer the grain size and the poorer the crystallinity.
trade
▪ The grain trade in the Borders region is very important not just for the region itself.
▪ This facilitated not only internal grain trade but also export.
▪ Everywhere measures to free the grain trade aroused the deepest suspicion and hostility.
▪ Latest export statistics show Britain's grain trade with foreign competitors drastically reduced - while imports are rising.
wood
▪ He materialised through the wood grain opposite a junk box in York Crown Court.
▪ Some colours and wood grain effects are beginning to find their way on to the market, although most are still white.
▪ Table mats will protect the surface but also allow you to enjoy the natural beauty of the wood grain.
▪ When satisfied, look along the whole length and ensure that the wood grain does not run off the true length.
▪ The impression of the wood grain is often preserved on the metal components where they came into contact.
■ VERB
buy
▪ If she insists on buying grains and pulses rather than ready-cooked dishes, she will pay ludicrously high prices for them.
▪ He was a grain buyer and bought grain for some years in Scobey, Montana.
cut
▪ Strictly speaking all fabrics should be cut on the straight grain.
▪ The rasps are useful for preliminary shaping prior to fine-finishing, and will cut across the grain of timber without tearing it.
▪ Remove and cut with the grain into neat t / s-inch-thick slices.
feed
▪ She worked with domestic chicks, feeding on rice grains.
▪ The animals would have to be fed on grain, which human beings themselves prefer to eat.
▪ Rats in their thousands fed on the grain in the Government stores while the people went hungry.
go
▪ However it goes against the grain to tell them anything.
▪ Granted, that goes against the grain.
▪ Firstly, because it goes against its grain: women always have to find their own way to where they're going.
▪ This linguistic hierarchy went against my grain.
▪ Once again, Silverton goes against the grain by making her meringue smooth and flat instead of fluffy and high.
▪ It went against the grain to have to tell others how to behave.
▪ However, it goes against the grain to have to say this, as it is our land after all.
▪ Greg Dively is one woodworker who really goes against the grain.
produce
▪ The farmers sweated to make sure that each grain of the planted rice produced many grains more.
run
▪ For those raised in the prudery of puritanism or the celibacy-conscious preoccupations of Catholicism this ran against the grain.
▪ He was also showing a distaste for outdoor pursuits that ran against the grain of their family life.
▪ It had reinforced her awareness of time racing by, running like grains of sand through your fingers.
sell
▪ Mr Hemsley is also free to sell grain at any time if prices are attractive enough between now and March 1998.
▪ Under the old farming programme, Washington used to actually take ownership of the wheat and sell the grain from Government stocks.
▪ In 1917 a mere fifty-three households had been able to sell off excess grain.
PHRASES FROM OTHER ENTRIES
take sth with a pinch/grain of salt
▪ But since he never even notices that Howard is himself Howard takes this with a pinch of salt.
▪ I try to take everything with a grain of salt.
▪ We took her to a psychic reader about a month ago-we take that with a grain of salt.
EXAMPLES FROM OTHER ENTRIES
▪ A few grains of the tablet are left at the bottom of the glass.
▪ fields of grain
▪ five-grain cereal
▪ If you drop any rice you'll have to pick up every single grain.
▪ You always end up with grains of sand in your food when you eat at the beach.
EXAMPLES FROM CORPUS
▪ Figure 3-17 shows graphically the division of igneous rocks according to their mineral content and their grain size.
▪ It went against the grain to have to tell others how to behave.
▪ Sand that's measured to ensure the right grain size for maximum strength and exceptional beauty.
▪ The strip of mahogany has the grain running lengthwise.
▪ These two true incidents have in their implications a strange grain of truth.
▪ This can be extremely useful for overviews of a thin section, grain shape and size determinations and for fabric analysis.
▪ Thus it may be seen that the only grains actually suspended in the air are the very fine ones.
▪ What color are the grains of sand?
The Collaborative International Dictionary
Grain

Grain \Grain\, v. i. [F. grainer, grener. See Grain, n.]

  1. To yield fruit. [Obs.]
    --Gower.

  2. To form grains, or to assume a granular form, as the result of crystallization; to granulate.

Grain

Grain \Grain\, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Grained (gr[=a]nd); p. pr. & vb. n. Graining.]

  1. To paint in imitation of the grain of wood, marble, etc.

  2. To form (powder, sugar, etc.) into grains.

  3. To take the hair off (skins); to soften and raise the grain of (leather, etc.).

Grain

Grain \Grain\ (gr[=a]n), n. [F. grain, L. granum, grain, seed, small kernel, small particle. See Corn, and cf. Garner, n., Garnet, Gram the chick-pea, Granule, Kernel.]

  1. A single small hard seed; a kernel, especially of those plants, like wheat, whose seeds are used for food.

  2. The fruit of certain grasses which furnish the chief food of man, as corn, wheat, rye, oats, etc., or the plants themselves; -- used collectively.

    Storehouses crammed with grain.
    --Shak.

  3. Any small, hard particle, as of sand, sugar, salt, etc.; hence, any minute portion or particle; as, a grain of gunpowder, of pollen, of starch, of sense, of wit, etc.

    I . . . with a grain of manhood well resolved.
    --Milton.

  4. The unit of the English system of weights; -- so called because considered equal to the average of grains taken from the middle of the ears of wheat. 7,000 grains constitute the pound avoirdupois, and 5,760 grains the pound troy. A grain is equal to .0648 gram. See Gram.

  5. A reddish dye made from the coccus insect, or kermes; hence, a red color of any tint or hue, as crimson, scarlet, etc.; sometimes used by the poets as equivalent to Tyrian purple.

    All in a robe of darkest grain.
    --Milton.

    Doing as the dyers do, who, having first dipped their silks in colors of less value, then give' them the last tincture of crimson in grain.
    --Quoted by Coleridge, preface to Aids to Reflection.

  6. The composite particles of any substance; that arrangement of the particles of any body which determines its comparative roughness or hardness; texture; as, marble, sugar, sandstone, etc., of fine grain.

    Hard box, and linden of a softer grain.
    --Dryden.

  7. The direction, arrangement, or appearance of the fibers in wood, or of the strata in stone, slate, etc.

    Knots, by the conflux of meeting sap, Infect the sound pine and divert his grain Tortive and errant from his course of growth.
    --Shak.

  8. The fiber which forms the substance of wood or of any fibrous material.

  9. The hair side of a piece of leather, or the marking on that side.
    --Knight.

  10. pl. The remains of grain, etc., after brewing or distillation; hence, any residuum. Also called draff.

  11. (Bot.) A rounded prominence on the back of a sepal, as in the common dock. See Grained, a., 4.

  12. Temper; natural disposition; inclination. [Obs.]

    Brothers . . . not united in grain.
    --Hayward.

  13. A sort of spice, the grain of paradise. [Obs.] He cheweth grain and licorice, To smellen sweet. --Chaucer. Against the grain, against or across the direction of the fibers; hence, against one's wishes or tastes; unwillingly; unpleasantly; reluctantly; with difficulty. --Swift. --Saintsbury. A grain of allowance, a slight indulgence or latitude a small allowance. Grain binder, an attachment to a harvester for binding the grain into sheaves. Grain colors, dyes made from the coccus or kermes insect. Grain leather.

    1. Dressed horse hides.

    2. Goat, seal, and other skins blacked on the grain side for women's shoes, etc.

      Grain moth (Zo["o]l.), one of several small moths, of the family Tineid[ae] (as Tinea granella and Butalis cerealella), whose larv[ae] devour grain in storehouses.

      Grain side (Leather), the side of a skin or hide from which the hair has been removed; -- opposed to flesh side.

      Grains of paradise, the seeds of a species of amomum.

      grain tin, crystalline tin ore metallic tin smelted with charcoal.

      Grain weevil (Zo["o]l.), a small red weevil ( Sitophilus granarius), which destroys stored wheat and other grain, by eating out the interior.

      Grain worm (Zo["o]l.), the larva of the grain moth. See grain moth, above.

      In grain, of a fast color; deeply seated; fixed; innate; genuine. ``Anguish in grain.''
      --Herbert.

      To dye in grain, to dye of a fast color by means of the coccus or kermes grain [see Grain, n., 5]; hence, to dye firmly; also, to dye in the wool, or in the raw material. See under Dye.

      The red roses flush up in her cheeks . . . Likce crimson dyed in grain.
      --Spenser.

      To go against the grain of (a person), to be repugnant to; to vex, irritate, mortify, or trouble.

Grain

Grain \Grain\, v. & n. See Groan. [Obs.]

Grain

Grain \Grain\ (gr[=a]n), n. [See Groin a part of the body.]

  1. A branch of a tree; a stalk or stem of a plant. [Obs.]
    --G. Douglas.

  2. A tine, prong, or fork. Specifically:

    1. One the branches of a valley or of a river.

    2. pl. An iron fish spear or harpoon, having four or more barbed points.

  3. A blade of a sword, knife, etc.

  4. (Founding) A thin piece of metal, used in a mold to steady a core.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary
grain

early 13c., "scarlet dye made from insects" (late 12c. in surnames), from Old French grain (12c.) "seed, grain, particle, berry, scarlet dye" (see kermes for last sense), from Latin granum "seed, a grain, small kernel" (see corn (n.1)).\n

\nAs a collective singular meaning "seed of wheat and allied grasses used as food," it is attested from early 14c. Extended from c.1300 to other objects (such as salt, sand). As a unit of weight, from 1540s. Used of wood (1560s), from the arrangement of fibers, which resemble seeds. Hence, against the grain (1650), a metaphor from carpentry: cutting across the fibers of the wood is more difficult than cutting along them.

Wiktionary
grain

Etymology 1 n. 1 (context uncountable English) The harvested seeds of various grass food crops eg: wheat, corn, barley. 2 (context uncountable English) Similar seeds from any food crop, eg buckwheat, amaranth, quino

  1. 3 (context countable English) A single seed of grain. 4 (context countable uncountable English) The crops from which grain is harvested. 5 (context uncountable English) A linear texture of a material or surface. 6 (context countable English) A single particle of a substance. 7 (context countable English) A very small unit of weight, in England equal to 1/480 of an ounce troy, 0.0648 grams or, to be more exact, 64.79891 milligrams (0.002285714 avoirdupois ounce). A carat grain or pearl grain is 1/4 carat or 50 milligrams. The old French grain was 1/9216 livre or 53.11 milligrams, and in the ''mesures usuelles'' permitted from 1812 to 1839, with the livre redefined as 500 grams, it was 54.25 milligrams. 8 (context countable English) A former unit of gold purity, also known as ''carat '''grain''''', equal to (frac: 4) "carat" (karat). 9 (context materials English) A region within a material having a single crystal structure or direction. 10 A reddish dye made from the coccus insect, or kermes; hence, a red color of any tint or hue, as crimson, scarlet, etc.; sometimes used by the poets as equivalent to Tyrian purple. 11 The hair side of a piece of leather, or the marking on that side. 12 (context in the plural English) The remains of grain, etc., after brewing or distillation; hence, any residuum. Also called draff. 13 (context botany English) A rounded prominence on the back of a sepal, as in the common dock. 14 Temper; natural disposition; inclination. v

  2. 1 To feed grain to. 2 (context transitive English) To make granular; to form into grains. 3 (context intransitive English) To form grains, or to assume a granular form, as the result of crystallization; to granulate. 4 To texture a surface in imitation of the grain of a substance such as wood. 5 (context tanning English) To remove the hair or fat from a skin. 6 (context tanning English) To soften leather. 7 To yield fruit. Etymology 2

    n. 1 A branch of a tree; a stalk or stem of a plant. 2 A tine, prong, or fork. 3 # One of the branches of a valley or river. 4 # An iron fish spear or harpoon, with a number of points half-barbed inwardly. 5 # A blade of a sword, knife, et

  3. 6 (context founding English) A thin piece of metal, used in a mould to steady a core.

WordNet
grain
  1. v. thoroughly work in; "His hands were grained with dirt" [syn: ingrain]

  2. paint (a surface) to make it look like stone or wood

  3. form into grains [syn: granulate]

  4. become granular [syn: granulate]

grain
  1. n. a small hard particle; "a grain of sand"

  2. foodstuff prepared from the starchy grains of cereal grasses [syn: food grain, cereal]

  3. used for pearls or diamonds: 50 mg or 1/4 carat [syn: metric grain]

  4. 1/60 dram; equals an avoirdupois grain or 64.799 milligrams

  5. 1/7000 pound; equals a troy grain or 64.799 milligrams

  6. dry seedlike fruit produced by the cereal grasses: e.g. wheat, barley, Indian corn [syn: caryopsis]

  7. the direction or texture of fibers found in wood or leather or stone or in a woven fabric; "saw the board across the grain"

Gazetteer
Wikipedia
Grain (disambiguation)

Grains are coarse particles such as sand particles, salt particles or seeds:

  • Food grains, the small, hard, fruits or seeds of arable crops or the crops bearing these fruits or seeds. Includes the:
    • cereal grains (caryopsis of grass plants)
      • Whole grains, the cereal grains that contain bran and germ as well as the endosperm
    • pseudocereals: starchy grains produced by broadleaf plants; used like true cereals
    • pulses or grain legumes
    • oilseeds
  • Film grain, the gritty texture sometimes apparent on images produced using photographic film or paper (grainy)
  • " Fine-grained", designating a more finely differentiated form of a technical or abstract system, in contrast to "coarse-grained", a less differentiated one
  • Grain (unit), a unit of mass equal to 64.79891 milligrams, of an avoirdupois pound
  • Grain size (or particle size), for particles of rock in geology
  • Crystallite or "grain" in metallurgy, a single crystal inside solid-state matter
  • Grain, a solid propellant charge, roughly a hollow cylinder, sometimes textured, and possibly very large
  • Granular synthesis, a method for digital musical instruments operating on the "microsound" time scale
  • Grain (surfboard company), a company that manufactures hollow wooden surfboards
  • Wood grain, the alignment and texture of the fibres in wood

Or, more generally:

  • Grain (cipher), a stream cipher designed for restricted hardware environments and submitted to eSTREAM in 2004 by Martin Hell et al.
  • Grain (textile), the orientation of a woven textile used in a garment.
  • Isle of Grain in Kent, England, on which lies the village of Grain
  • GRAIN, an international non-governmental organization for sustainable agriculture

Grain may also refer to:

  • Grain (magazine), a Canadian literary magazine
  • Grain (film), 2015 film
  • Border clans in Scotland
  • Grains per gallon, a unit of water hardness
Grain (surfboard company)

Grain Surfboards is an American company that manufactures custom and originally designed hollow wooden surfboards. The surfboards are made primarily from Northern White Cedar, with some Western Red Cedar added for color accent.

Grain (magazine)

Grain is a Canadian literary magazine featuring poetry, short fiction, non-fiction, and artwork. It is published quarterly by the Saskatchewan Writers' Guild and is based in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.

Grain (film)

Grain is an upcoming Turkish/German/French/Swede film written and directed by Semih Kaplanoğlu.

Grain (unit)

A grain is a unit of measurement of mass equal to milligrams. It is nominally based upon the mass of a single seed of a cereal. From the Bronze Age into the Renaissance the average masses of wheat and barley grains were part of the legal definition of units of mass. However, there is no evidence of any country ever having used actual seeds or cereal grains. Rather, expressions such as "thirty-two grains of wheat, taken from the middle of the ear" appear to have been ritualistic formulas, essentially the premodern equivalent of legal boilerplate.

The grain was the legal foundation of traditional English weight systems, and is the only unit that is equal throughout the troy, avoirdupois, and apothecaries' systems of mass. The unit was based on the weight of a single grain of barley, considered equivalent to grains of wheat. The fundamental unit of the pre-1527 English weight system known as Tower weights, was a different sort of grain known as the "wheat grain". The Tower wheat grain was defined as exactly of a troy grain.

Since the implementation of the international yard and pound agreement of 1 July 1959, the grain or troy grain (Symbol: gr) measure has been defined in terms of units of mass in the International System of Units as precisely . is approximately . The unit formerly used by jewellers to measure pearls, diamonds, or other precious stones, called the jeweller's grain or pearl grain, is equal to of a carat, or (~ ). The grain was also the name of a traditional French unit equal to .

In both British Imperial and U.S. customary units, there are precisely 7,000 grains per avoirdupois pound, and 5,760 grains per troy pound or apothecaries pound.

Grain

Grains are small, hard, dry seeds, with or without attached hulls or fruit layers, harvested for human or animal consumption. Agronomists also call the plants producing such seeds "grain crops". The two main types of commercial grain crops are cereals such as wheat and rye, and legumes such as beans and soybeans. Ubiquity of grain as a food source encouraged use of the term to describe other particles with volume or mass similar to an individual seed.

After being harvested, dry grains are more durable than other staple foods, such as starchy fruits ( plantains, breadfruit, etc.) and tubers ( sweet potatoes, cassava, and more). This durability has made grains well suited to industrial agriculture, since they can be mechanically harvested, transported by rail or ship, stored for long periods in silos, and milled for flour or pressed for oil. Thus, major global commodity markets exist for canola, maize, rice, soybeans, wheat, and other grains but not for tubers, vegetables, or other crops.

Grain (cipher)

Grain is a stream cipher submitted to eSTREAM in 2004 by Martin Hell, Thomas Johansson and Willi Meier. It has been selected for the final eSTREAM portfolio for Profile 2 by the eSTREAM project. Grain is designed primarily for restricted hardware environments. It accepts an 80- bit key and a 64-bit IV. The specifications do not recommended a maximum length of output per (key, iv) pair. A number of potential weaknesses in the cipher have been identified and corrected in Grain 128a which is now the recommended cipher to use for hardware environments providing both 128bit security and authentication.

Grain (textile)

For woven textiles, grain refers to the orientation of the weft and warp threads. The three named grains are straight grain, cross grain, and the bias grain. In sewing, a pattern piece can be cut from fabric in any orientation, and the chosen grain or orientation will affect the way the fabric hangs and stretches and thus the fit of a garment. Generally speaking a piece is said to be cut on a particular grain when the longest part of the pattern or the main seams of the finished piece are aligned with that grain. Non-woven materials such as felt, interfacing or leather do not have a grain.

Usage examples of "grain".

Volgnarius has seen a grain of wheat make its exit from the axilla, and Polisius mentions an abscess of the back from which was extracted a grain of wheat three months after ingestion.

Talking of Serviliuses and getting back to the grain shortage, Servilius the Augur continues to do abysmally in Sicily.

If there be great prostration, with cold extremities, the carbonate of ammonia should be administered, in doses of from one to two grains, every second hour, in gum arabic mucilage.

Temporary relief may be given by administering one-quarter of a grain of morphine, or ten to twenty drops of chloroform in a teaspoonful of glycerine, slightly diluted, taken in one dose.

There would be less labor incorporated into an acre of grain, and the agriculturist would be therefore obliged to exchange it for a less labor incorporated into some other article.

The grains of Anta, that would be used in purifying you, would cost ten times as much.

He told me that there are 387 arpents of grain, vines, woods and open meadows.

The methods of assaying are mainly those of analytical chemistry, and are limited by various practical considerations to the determination of the constituents of a small parcel, which is frequently only a few grains, and rarely more than a few ounces, in weight.

Langeron and Yekaterininskaya streets, directly opposite the huge Fankoni Cafe where stockbrokers and grain merchants in Panama hats sat at marble-topped tables set out right on the pavement, Paris-style, under awnings and surrounded by potted laurel trees, the cab in which Auntie and Pavlik were travelling was all but overturned by a bright-red automobile driven by the heir to the famous Ptashnikov Bros, firm, a grotesquely bloated young man in a tiny yachting cap, who looked amazingly like a prize Yorkshire pig.

La seule avocasserie prend tout le grain et ne laisse que la paille aux autres professions scientifiques.

Sixte aurait le temps de changer de tenue avant de paraitre devant son general, qui, furieux contre les autres autant que contre lui-meme de son inaction forcee, ne permettait pas la plus petite tache de boue, ou le moindre grain de poussiere.

Mama and Babushka brought the canned goods, the cereals and the grains, soap and salt and vodka into the rooms, stacking it all in the corners and in the hallway behind the sofa.

So they filled their fantasy world with fabulous machines -- machines that ploughed the sod, cut and baled the grain, even milked the cattle.

Bekke factories and grain from Bekke farms were distributed through a Renne consortium, and so on.

Like a sack of grain she landed atop the crossbowman, who bleated and tried to jump aside.