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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
sodium
noun
COLLOCATIONS FROM OTHER ENTRIES
sodium bicarbonate
sodium chloride
COLLOCATIONS FROM CORPUS
■ NOUN
bicarbonate
▪ By separating the sodium bicarbonate from the other components, the shelf-life of the packets was prolonged.
▪ Baking powder is a mixture of sodium bicarbonate, an acid, and other materials.
▪ For example, at elevated temperatures, sodium bicarbonate decomposes and releases carbon dioxide and leaves sodium carbonate as mentioned earlier.
▪ Baking soda is only sodium bicarbonate, with no acid added.
▪ Finish the cleaning process by rinsing with a solution of sodium bicarbonate, the most popular fridge cleaner.
▪ Overzealous administration of hypertonic sodium bicarbonate solutions as treatment for severe metabolic acidosis of during cardiopulmonary resuscitation can have the same effect.
▪ If you have to clean some one's mouth for them, use swabs soaked in a sodium bicarbonate solution.
▪ Infusion of sodium bicarbonate causes raPid movement of potassium into cells.
body
▪ The third group of patients with a diluting defect and hyponatremia are those with no apparent abnormality of total body sodium content.
▪ This estimation of body sodium content is principally clinical.
▪ In patients with an increased total body sodium content, administration of salt to increase serum sodium level is inappropriate.
▪ The last entity among those with normal total body sodium is the so-called reset osmostat.
▪ Serum sodium concentration or tonicity are functions of water content relative to total body sodium content.
▪ In actuality, volume is regulated by altering body sodium content.
carbonate
▪ Calcium permanent hardness requires the more expensive sodium carbonate, whereas magnesium permanent hardness requires both lime and sodium carbonate.
▪ The problem was not helped by each lab having its own preference for the indicator to be used with sodium carbonate.
▪ Zeolite-softened water may be quite alkaline because it contains substantial quantities of sodium carbonate and bicarbonate.
▪ For example, at elevated temperatures, sodium bicarbonate decomposes and releases carbon dioxide and leaves sodium carbonate as mentioned earlier.
chloride
▪ Inorganic salts such as sodium chloride, potassium chloride and potassium iodide form eutectic mixtures with water.
▪ After washing the resin with ammonia free water, sodium chloride is used to elute the ammonium ion from the resin.
▪ The cycle can be used to determine the lattice enthalpy of sodium chloride.
▪ Appropriate management of the volume excess should include sodium chloride restriction.
▪ In electrolysis you attach a battery to two metal electrodes which are dipped into a sodium chloride solution.
▪ One of the simplest is an ionic crystal like sodium chloride, the first mineral analyzed after the discovery of x-ray diffraction.
▪ This shows that the bonding in silver chloride is stronger than in sodium chloride.
▪ Because it costs more than sodium chloride, it is not used much for roads.
concentration
▪ Duodenogastric reflux was identified when intragastric sodium concentrations exceeded 50 mmol/l.
▪ Extracellular osmolal concentration is approximately twice the sodium concentration.
▪ Duodenogastric reflux is indicated when sodium concentrations rise above 50 mmol/l.
▪ A significant difference between plasma sodium concentration and tonicity can thus occur.
▪ Measurement of sodium concentrations is simple to perform and offers the possibility of prolonged continuous monitoring.
▪ A high urine sodium concentration is a variable but frequent confirmatory finding in this disorder.
▪ Furthermore, restricting intraluminal sodium concentration in jejunal perfusion does not seem to limit glucose absorption.
▪ Serum sodium concentration or tonicity are functions of water content relative to total body sodium content.
content
▪ Anyone with high blood pressure, or heart disease, for example, should avoid those with a high sodium content.
▪ This estimation of body sodium content is principally clinical.
▪ In patients with an increased total body sodium content, administration of salt to increase serum sodium level is inappropriate.
▪ Serum sodium concentration or tonicity are functions of water content relative to total body sodium content.
▪ In actuality, volume is regulated by altering body sodium content.
excretion
▪ They also promote sodium excretion and induce a mild volume contraction.
▪ For a subject in balance, sodium excretion equals sodium intake.
▪ Treatment includes augmentation of sodium excretion with diuretics and water administration.
hydroxide
▪ The same volume of sodium hydroxide with the same concentration was then added to the acid.
▪ Following this preliminary treatment of specimens, the material to be analyzed is mixed with picric acid and sodium hydroxide.
▪ Their list included iodine, Freon, condensing columns and sodium hydroxide.
hypochlorite
▪ Despite the disadvantages sodium hypochlorite is a valuable disinfectant.
▪ It is easier to remember and ask for Clorox than for 5. 25 per cent solution of sodium hypochlorite.
▪ Potassium permanganate and sodium hypochlorite being added to anaerobic waste to speed the digestion process.
ion
▪ Pancreatic juice for example contains a high concentration of sodium ions, and variable concentrations of chloride and bicarbonate ions.
▪ Should the supply of sodium ions presented to the distal exchange sites decrease, potassium excretion decreases also.
▪ As the impulse passes any point on the fibre, the membrane allows a sudden thrust of positive sodium ions.
▪ Typically, sodium ions are excluded and potassium ions are hoarded.
▪ Following this permeability change, the sodium ions are pumped out from the fibre so restoring the original state.
▪ It allows sodium ions into the dendrite, which raises its voltage temporarily.
▪ The World Health Organisation recommends a sodium ion concentration of 90mmol/l.
▪ That blast of sodium ions entering the neuron is the impulse starting.
reabsorption
▪ It is now established that insulin has an antinatriuretic action resulting in increased sodium reabsorption probably from the proximal convoluted tubules.
▪ From whatever the cause, the kidney perceives volume depletion Proximal sodium reabsorption is augmented.
▪ In these situations, acetazolamide may be needed to decrease proximal bicarbonate and sodium reabsorption, thereby reducing the serum bicarbonate level.
▪ In addition, proximal sodium reabsorption may be augmented in this condition.
▪ The decrease in sodium reabsorption by the renal tubules will be accompanied by decreased chloride and water retention.
salt
▪ They remove the hardness, and the former gives sodium salts instead of the calcium and magnesium salts.
▪ However there's nothing complex or mysterious about LoSalt, the reduced sodium salt alternative.
▪ Potassium salt is sometimes used as a substitute, or mixed with sodium salt.
▪ Potassium, rather than sodium salts, are sometimes used as these are more soluble although more expensive.
▪ Try to break the habit of adding salt at the table, if necessary using a low sodium salt substitute.
▪ Their sodium salts are not volatile, which is why the bicarbonate stops the smell.
serum
▪ Urea and electrolytes gave a 121 mmol/l serum sodium, 5.6 mmol/l potassium, 5.6 mmol/l urea, and 96 umol/l creatinine.
▪ In patients with an increased total body sodium content, administration of salt to increase serum sodium level is inappropriate.
▪ Would the cost of care depend on the serum sodium concentration?
▪ These individuals maintain a stable serum sodium in the 125 to I 28-mEq / L range.
▪ Their serum sodium remains in the 125 to 128-mEq / L range.
▪ The goal is simply to raise serum sodium enough to obviate the risk of seizures.
▪ For convenience, the serum sodium level is usually taken as the estimate of tonicity.
sulphate
▪ Pulp, paper, viscose and fine chemical industries generate huge volumes of sodium sulphate byproduct.
▪ From day 11 to day 20, 15 mmol sodium sulphate was added to the diet.
■ VERB
contain
▪ Zeolite-softened water may be quite alkaline because it contains substantial quantities of sodium carbonate and bicarbonate.
▪ Even after prolonged secondary hyperaldosteronism, human sweat still contains significant amounts of sodium.
use
▪ The problem was not helped by each lab having its own preference for the indicator to be used with sodium carbonate.
▪ Following this the surrounding skin is cleaned using warm sodium chloride 0.9%.
▪ The manufacturers are currently working on an alternative version which uses sodium acid batteries.
▪ Try to break the habit of adding salt at the table, if necessary using a low sodium salt substitute.
EXAMPLES FROM CORPUS
▪ Above the tarmac endless blurs of sodium lights receded into the distance.
▪ Furthermore, restricting intraluminal sodium concentration in jejunal perfusion does not seem to limit glucose absorption.
▪ In this setting, efforts should also be made to correct the underlying sodium retentive disorder.
▪ Ionic bonds form most strongly between elements like sodium and chlorine.
▪ She also was determined to cut the level of sodium in her diet.
▪ There were no significant changes in the patients' mean weight and serum creatinine and sodium concentrations throughout the trial.
▪ This loss of sodium, chloride, and water into the urine will cause the extracellular fluid volume to be decreased.
▪ Trace components, such as titanium, calcium and sodium may also bond with clays.
The Collaborative International Dictionary
sodium

Natrium \Na"tri*um\, n. [NL. See Natron.] (Chem.) The technical name for sodium.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary
sodium

metallic alkaline element, 1807, coined by English chemist Humphry Davy from soda; so called because the element was isolated from caustic soda (sodium hydroxide). The chemical symbol Na is from natrium, alternative name for the element proposed by Berzelius from natron, a name of a type of soda.

Wiktionary
sodium

n. A soft, waxy, silvery reactive metal that is never found unbound in nature, and a chemical element (''symbol'' Na) with an atomic number of 11 and atomic weight of 22.98977.

WordNet
sodium

n. a silvery soft waxy metallic element of the alkali metal group; occurs abundantly in natural compounds (especially in salt water); burns with a yellow flame and reacts violently in water; occurs in sea water and in the mineral halite (rock salt) [syn: Na, atomic number 11]

Wikipedia
Sodium

Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Greek Νάτριο) and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silver-white, highly reactive metal. In the Periodic table it is in column 1 ( alkali metals), and like the other six elements in that column, it has a single electron in its outer shell that it readily donates, creating a positively charged atom—a cation. Its only stable isotope is Na. The free metal does not occur in nature, but must be prepared from compounds. Sodium is the sixth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and exists in numerous minerals such as feldspars, sodalite and rock salt (NaCl). Many salts of sodium are highly water-soluble: sodium ions have been leached by the action of water from the Earth's minerals over eons; sodium and chlorine are the most common dissolved elements by weight in the oceans.

Sodium was first isolated by Humphry Davy in 1807 by the electrolysis of sodium hydroxide. Among many other useful sodium compounds, sodium hydroxide ( lye) is used in soap manufacture, and sodium chloride ( edible salt) is a de-icing agent and a nutrient for humans and cattle.

Sodium is an essential element for all animals and some plants. Sodium ions are the major cation in the extracellular fluid (ECF) and as such are the major contributor to the ECF osmotic pressure and ECF compartment volume. Loss of water from the ECF compartment increases the sodium concentration, a condition called hypernatremia. Isotonic loss of water and sodium from the ECF compartment decreases the size of that compartment in a condition called ECF hypovolemia.

By means of Na+/K+-ATPase, living human cells pump three sodium ions out of the cell in exchange for two potassium ions pumped in; comparing ion concentrations across the cell membrane, inside to outside, potassium measures about 40:1, and sodium, about 1:10. In nerve cells, the electrical charge across the cell membrane enables transmission of the nerve impulse—an action potential—when the charge is dissipated; sodium plays a key role in that activity.

Sodium (PlayStation Home)

Sodium was a massively multiplayer online game that was based in and exclusive to the PlayStation 3's online community-based social gaming network PlayStation Home. Sodium was a planned four-part series of games, only two of which were released by the time of Home's closure. It was developed by Outso, a developing company that developed spaces and content for Home, and it was published by Lockwood Publishing, who had published other content for Home. The first part, Sodium One, was released on December 17, to the European and North American versions of Home. It was later released in the Japanese and Asian versions on June 17, 2010 and July 29, 2010 respectively. The second part, Sodium 2: Project Velocity, was released on June 16, to the European and North American versions of Home.

Due to the nature of Home, the game continued to grow and expand as Home did. New games, virtual items, and community events were continually added until November 2014 when new content ceased to be published for Home, and Home closed on March 31, 2015.

Sodium (horse)

Sodium (1963–1983) was an Irish-bred, British-trained Thoroughbred racehorse and sire best known for winning the classic St Leger Stakes in 1966. After running well without winning in 1965 he improved to become one of the best European colts of his generation in 1966 when he developed a rivalry with Charlottown. Sodium finished fourth behind Charlottown in the Epsom Derby but reversed the form to win both the Irish Derby and St Leger. He failed to reproduce his best form as a four-year-old and was retired to stud, where he had little success as a sire of winners in France and Japan.

Usage examples of "sodium".

The addition of a little sodium acetate to the solution after the final neutralising has a good effect.

This is specially apt to occur when sodium acetate is present, although it may also be due to excessive dilution.

Add 20 grams of sodium acetate, warm, and precipitate the lead with a dilute solution of potassium chromate.

Next add a strong solution of sodium acetate, until the solution ceases to darken on further addition, then dilute with water to half a litre.

Filter off the precipitate and wash with hot water containing a little sodium acetate, dissolve it off the filter with hot dilute hydrochloric acid, add ammonia in excess, and pass sulphuretted hydrogen for five minutes.

If the volumetric method is to be used, the lead sulphate should be dissolved out with a solution of sodium acetate instead of with the ammonium salt solution.

After cooling, a solution of sodium acetate is added until the colour of the solution is no longer darkened.

After precipitating as ammonic-magnesic phosphate with sodium phosphate, and well washing with ammonia, it is dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid, neutralised with ammonia, and sodic acetate and acetic acid are added in the usual quantity.

It is also suggested that the fingerprint examiner wear rubber gloves when using acetone, benzine, xylene, formaldehyde, potassium hydroxide, or sodium hydroxide.

By mixing with milk of lime, the acidity is neutralised, zinc oxide and calcium sulphite are thrown down, and a solution of neutral sodium hydrosulphite is obtained which is more stable and can be kept longer without decomposition.

She uses the glove box for the last time, breaking open a vial of sodium fluoride solution and injecting an aliquot into every one of the cell cultures.

The less pure samples will show an excess of alkalinity because of the presence of sodium carbonate or of potassium carbonate.

The ignited residue is mixed with 6 or 7 grams of anhydrous sodium carbonate.

Lipsticks and Demerols, blushes and Percocet-5, Aubergine Dreams and Nembutal Sodium capsules are spread out all over the aquamarine countertops around the vanity sink.

Contains processed oleander leaves, saltpeter, oil of peppermint, N-Acetyl-p-aminophenol, zinc oxide, charcoal, cobalt chloride, caffeine, extract of digitalis, steroids in trace amounts, sodium citrate, ascorbic acid, artificial coloring and flavoring.