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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
electron microscope
▪ The alternating transverse force makes the free electrons move sinusoidally, radiating photons in the forward direction.
▪ Maybe under pressure free electrons do it.
▪ Fig. 1. Scanning electron micrograph showing the distribution of the angular grains of alumina in Inceram.
▪ The school's equipment includes a scanning electron microscope.
▪ Fig. 5. Scanning electron micrograph of a diatom.
▪ For scanning electron microscopy, the tissues were left in the fixative for 3 hours at room temperature.
▪ The UA1 team has found five occasions on which a single electron with all the right characteristics was produced.
▪ Summerlee had found an electric probe so sensitive it could detect the passage of a single electron.
▪ But there is no such thing as a single atom, or single electron, that is superconducting.
▪ The single electron then occupies the lower orbital, d z 2, and the overall energy of the system is reduced.
▪ This process involves the addition of microorganisms, nutrients and an electron acceptor into the saturation zone of a contaminated aquifer.
▪ Alternatively, electron beam machines are used.
▪ Fire a high energy electron beam at a metal target and bremsstrahlung effect produces intense X-rays.
▪ A basic example occurs in an electron beam - so important in television and radio.
▪ The device is fabricated in Gallium Arsenide using electron beam lithography to define special side-gated channels.
▪ Computer simulated graphics of these species show electron density delocalised across three centres.
▪ The 3Å map was noisier but showed improved definition of side-chain electron density.
▪ The non-crystallographic symmetry was established from the electron density and heavy atom sites.
▪ All maps show electron density contoured at 1 standard deviation, with the current model displayed for comparison.
▪ The 2.8Å electron density map is of high quality.
▪ Two phasing methods were used to obtain electron density maps.
▪ The intensity of scattering is a function of the electron density and therefore of the refractive index.
▪ The vertical bars show the region of H5 that has been built in the electron density map.
▪ This is needed for electron microprobe or back-scattered Scanning Electron Microscope work where a perfect surface is required.
▪ Activator and quencher ions may produce their effects at extremely low concentrations, below the detection limits of the electron microprobe.
▪ In some ways it is therefore similar to electron microprobe analysis, but it is more sensitive than the latter.
▪ Mike Stewart's morphological methods, however, could go beyond those of light microscopy to that of the electron microscope.
▪ Before a virus particle is prepared for the electron microscope it must be made static.
▪ Although small, these single crystals can be studied using an electron microscope.
▪ Richman then took the tissues to an electron microscope, which offers powers of magnification great enough to see viruses themselves.
▪ Specialist image analysis equipment for light and electron microscope images also require interfacing with powerful computers.
▪ Fantastic electron microscope images of objects looking very suggestively like fossilized living forms again captured the imagination of the world.
▪ Baranowski and his team attribute this to a layered arrangement of atoms - visible in the electron microscope.
▪ The technique has been extensively used to study vibrations associated with surfaces and thin film samples, usually in an electron microscope.
▪ To evaluate our first impressions we examined transmission electron microscopy findings in 40 H pylori positive cases out of 94 randomised cases.
▪ Over the past 10 years Philips Analytical has grown and diversified away from its core technologies of X-ray analysis and electron microscopy.
▪ Using electron microscopy, Rubin etal showed that the tight junctions appeared morphologically unchanged in untreated coeliac disease patients.
▪ The growth rate was established by flow cytometry and the morphological characteristics of the growing cells by electron microscopy.
▪ Transmission electron microscopy was used to analyse the morphological features of the growing cells.
▪ The small intestinal mucosa was studied by histology, morphometry, biochemistry, and electron microscopy.
▪ Of considerable physiological importance are the membrane systems revealed by electron microscopy.
▪ Miller separated photosynthesis membranes from the purple bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas viridis, and has now determined their 3-D structure by electron microscopy.
▪ This is a consequence of electron spin.
▪ Increasingly U-series dates are being used in conjunction with electron spin resonance dates using the same materials.
▪ For the moment just note that electron spin provides a second example of a two-dimensional state vector space in quantum mechanics.
▪ The rules can be divided into those concerned with electron spin and those related to orbital properties.
▪ Intervalence compounds have been classified according to the ease of electron transfer between the distinct sites.
▪ In Class I compounds, electron transfer between the centers is slow, and the sites behave as if they were effectively independent.
▪ The overall electron transfer from the anion is particularly high and has been calculated at approximately 0.8e.
▪ Donor and acceptor compounds are differentiated by the direction of the electron transfer to or from the carbon layers.
▪ To evaluate our first impressions we examined transmission electron microscopy findings in 40 H pylori positive cases out of 94 randomised cases.
▪ The second half of the chapter introduces electron diffraction with a focus on transmission electrons.
▪ In Rutherford's experiment, the u-particles had energies of millions of electron volts.
▪ Helium, the next element in the periodic table, contains two electrons encircling a nucleus containing two protons.
▪ For example, each side of the card may contain an embedded electron whose spin remains correlated with its twin.
▪ The belt surrounds Jupiter and contains ions and electrons with comparatively large energies of motion.
▪ Energy lost by electrons as they are evicted from their traps is emitted as light radiation and is termed thermoluminescence.
▪ Sodium has a strong tendency to lose an electron and become the positively charged ion Na.
▪ If we remove an electron from an anti-bonding orbital, the ion will be more tightly bound than the molecule was.
▪ Since we have removed an anti-bonding electron the vibrational frequency of the ion is greater than that of the molecule.
▪ If we remove an electron from a bonding orbital, the bond in the ion is weaker than that in the molecule.
▪ Although small, these single crystals can be studied using an electron microscope.
▪ It uses a line electron source and so needs only one deflection component.
▪ Increasingly U-series dates are being used in conjunction with electron spin resonance dates using the same materials.
▪ Two phasing methods were used to obtain electron density maps.
▪ We can therefore choose the depth to which we probe by using appropriate electron binding energies.
▪ The device is fabricated in Gallium Arsenide using electron beam lithography to define special side-gated channels.
▪ I strongly recommend the book to anyone in any field who is interested in using electron microscopy.
▪ Although small, these single crystals can be studied using an electron microscope.
▪ Crystal cleanliness and crystallinity were checked by Auger electron spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction, respectively.
▪ How near depends on the electron energy.
▪ In electron sharing, a shared electron can not be considered to have been gained or lost.
▪ Screen-printed silver metal contacts on the surface of the wafer collect the streams of electrons and produce an electric current.
▪ The valency of an atom in a covalent molecule is the number of electrons shared by the atom in forming the bond.
▪ The world it presents is populated by entities such as electrons and quarks.
▪ This leaves one electron on each carbon atom unaccounted for.
The Collaborative International Dictionary

lepton \lepton\ n. (Physics) an elementary particle that participates in weak interactions but does not participate in the strong interaction; it has a baryon number of 0. Some known leptons are the electron, the negative muon, the tau-minus particle, and the neutrinos associated with each of these particles.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

coined 1891 by Irish physicist George J. Stoney (1826-1911) from electric + -on, as in ion (q.v.). Electron microscope (1932) translates German Elektronenmikroskop.


n. 1 (context particle English) The subatomic particle having a negative charge and orbiting the nucleus; the flow of electrons in a conductor constitutes electricity. 2 (context chemistry obsolete English) alloy of magnesium and other metals, like aluminum or zinc, that were manufactured by the German company Chemische Fabrik Griesheim-Elektron.


n. an elementary particle with negative charge [syn: negatron]


The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or , with a negative elementary electric charge. Electrons belong to the first generation of the lepton particle family, and are generally thought to be elementary particles because they have no known components or substructure. The electron has a mass that is approximately 1/1836 that of the proton. Quantum mechanical properties of the electron include an intrinsic angular momentum ( spin) of a half-integer value in units of ħ, which means that it is a fermion. Being fermions, no two electrons can occupy the same quantum state, in accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle. Like all matter, electrons have properties of both particles and waves, and so can collide with other particles and can be diffracted like light. The wave properties of electrons are easier to observe with experiments than those of other particles like neutrons and protons because electrons have a lower mass and hence a higher De Broglie wavelength for typical energies.

Many physical phenomena involve electrons in an essential role, such as electricity, magnetism, and thermal conductivity, and they also participate in gravitational, electromagnetic and weak interactions. An electron generates an electric field surrounding it. An electron moving relative to an observer generates a magnetic field. External electromagnetic fields affect an electron according to the Lorentz force law. Electrons radiate or absorb energy in the form of photons when accelerated. Laboratory instruments are capable of containing and observing individual electrons as well as electron plasma using electromagnetic fields, whereas dedicated telescopes can detect electron plasma in outer space. Electrons are involved in many applications such as electronics, welding, cathode ray tubes, electron microscopes, radiation therapy, lasers, gaseous ionization detectors and particle accelerators.

Interactions involving electrons and other subatomic particles are of interest in fields such as chemistry and nuclear physics. The Coulomb force interaction between positive protons inside atomic nuclei and negative electrons composes atoms. Ionization or changes in the proportions of particles changes the binding energy of the system. The exchange or sharing of the electrons between two or more atoms is the main cause of chemical bonding. British natural philosopher Richard Laming first hypothesized the concept of an indivisible quantity of electric charge to explain the chemical properties of atoms in 1838; Irish physicist George Johnstone Stoney named this charge 'electron' in 1891, and J. J. Thomson and his team of British physicists identified it as a particle in 1897. Electrons can also participate in nuclear reactions, such as nucleosynthesis in stars, where they are known as beta particles. Electrons may be created through beta decay of radioactive isotopes and in high-energy collisions, for instance when cosmic rays enter the atmosphere. The antiparticle of the electron is called the positron; it is identical to the electron except that it carries electrical and other charges of the opposite sign. When an electron collides with a positron, both particles may be totally annihilated, producing gamma ray photons.

Electron (disambiguation)

An electron is a subatomic particle.

Electron may also refer to:

  • e, the elementary charge, previously named 'electron'. Not to be confused with e (mathematical constant)
  • Electron (bird), a small genus of motmots
  • Electron (comics), a fictional Marvel Comics character
  • Electron (vehicle), an electric urban vehicle concept by AMC
  • L-188W "Electron", an Argentine Navy version of the Lockheed L-188 Electra
  • Visa Electron, a brand of credit or debit cards
Electron (comics)

Electron is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics.

Electron is a warrior serving in the Royal Elite of the Shi'ar Imperial Guard. He is a Shi'ar with the ability to generate and control electromagnetism. He was born on Chandilar, the throne world of the Shi'ar Empire.

Electron (computer hacker)

Electron was the computer handle of Richard Jones, a member of an underground hacker community called The Realm. Jones, born in June 1969, was one of three members of the group arrested in simultaneous raids by the Australian Federal Police in Melbourne, Australia, on 2 April 1990. All three — Nahshon Even-Chaim (also known as Phoenix), Electron and Nom (real name David John Woodcock) — were convicted of a range of computer crimes involving the intrusion into US defense and government computer systems and the theft of an online computer security newsletter in the late 1980s and early 1990.

Electron (bird)

Electron is a genus of the motmots, a family of Neotropical near passerine birds. The genus has two species:

  • Keel-billed motmot, Electron carinatum
  • Broad-billed motmot, Electron platyrhynchum

Both inhabit humid evergreen tropical forest. Both occur in Central America, and the broad-billed motmot occurs in a large region of South America as well.

They are distinguished from other motmots by their much wider bills. The rackets on their tails are less dramatic than those of many other motmot species and may be absent. The species are very similar except in adult plumage (but the adult keel-billed resembles the juvenile broad-billed). A mixed pair apparently courting has been observed (Howell and Webb 1995).

The name Electron is a Latinization of the Ancient Greek word for amber, and can mean "bright" in scientific names (Jaeger 1978). The name was given 46 years before an elementary particle was named electron.

Electron (software framework)

Electron (formerly known as Atom Shell) is an open-source framework developed by GitHub. It allows for the development of desktop GUI applications using the Node.js runtime, originally used for the development of backend web applications. Electron is the main framework behind two notable open-source Source code editors: GitHub's Atom, and Microsoft's Visual Studio Code.

A basic Electron app consists of three files: package.json (metadata), main.js (code) and index.html ( graphical user interface). The framework is provided by the Electron executable file (electron.exe in Windows, on OS X and electron on Linux). Developers wishing to add branding and custom icon can rename and/or edit the Electron executable file.

Electron (concern)

"Electron" Corporation — a diversified company, public company, legal entity, resident of Ukraine, the shareholders of which are more than 20 thousand peoples. No state in the share capital.

Corporation President, CEO - Bubes Yuriy Hryhorovych.

Usage examples of "electron".

Particle accelerators are based on the same principle: They hurl bits of matter such as electrons and protons at each other as well as at other targets, and elaborate detectors analyze the resulting spray of debris to determine the architecture of the objects involved.

Patrick had granted Caitlin permission to speak with Stephen, to learn the details of his aplasia down to the electron micrographs of his barren marrow.

Toward the electron horizons, the discrete icons blurred together until they looked like an impressionist cityscape shining into a starless sky.

The stream of events which form the continuous series of situations of the electron is entirely self-determined, both as regards having the intrinsic character of being the series of situations of that electron and as regards the time-systems with which its various members are cogredient, and the flux of their positions in their corresponding durations.

I could have cried aloud in exultation when my scrutiny disclosed the almost invisible incrustation of particles of carbonized electrons which are thrown off by these Martian torches.

The individual neutron light signals reaching the photo-multiplier produce short avalanches of electrons, a signal which is detectable as a negative electrical pulse at the last dynode of the tube.

But, from X rays and electron microscopy of the solid piece, it appears to be some very complex heterogonous material with a structure similar to how a crystal grows but much more compacted and complex.

One possible explanation: Freshly fallen snows of nitrogen, methane, and other hydrocarbons are irradiated by solar ultraviolet light and by electrons trapped in the magnetic field of Neptune, through which Triton plows.

The entire pump is placed in a strong magnetic field, and a potential of about five kilovolts is impressed between the cathodes and the anode to accelerate electrons present in the residual gas toward the anode.

He showed his colleagues, under the electron microscope, how the nonliving parasites ate their way into the filaments of a superconducting niobium compound, multiplying as more and more material was devoured.

The psychon, the unit of thought, is one electron plus one proton, which are bound so as to form one neutron, embedded in one cosmon, occupying a volume of one spation, driven by one quantum for a period of one chronon.

My idealizator is the means of transforming psychons to quanta, just as, for instance, a Crookes tube or X-ray tube transforms matter to electrons.

The psychons of your mind are the same as those from any other mind, just as all electrons are identical, whether from gold or iron.

Molecular neo-Mendelism is consistent with the rules of gross segregation and assortment, requiring no metaphysical rulesjust the constraints laid down by chemists: purine with pyrimidine, electrons in the lowest energetic state.

Close up, the machinery looked almost organic -- it had that evolved complexity, unplanned and serendipitous, that you can see in electron micrographs of cells and in flowcharts of mitochondria.