Find the word definition

Crossword clues for ion

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
▪ It is charged with negative ions which generate a feeling of well-being.
▪ But if the receptor lets in negative ions, the downstream neuron is made more resistant to firing.
▪ But if positive and negative ions are separated and concentrated, a charge difference is developed-a difference measured in volts.
▪ If negative ions predominate, nothing happens.
▪ The cell is already negative and so adding more negative ions just pushes the cell farther in an electrically negative direction.
▪ Negative ions pass through a membrane containing positive ions more easily than through one that is neutral or negatively charged.
▪ If the ion channel lets positive ions into the receiving neuron, the neuron is pushed toward firing.
▪ Plasma consists of positive ions and unbound electrons.
▪ When glutamate is released into a synapse, it docks at a receptor that lets positive ions rush in.
▪ As the impulse passes any point on the fibre, the membrane allows a sudden thrust of positive sodium ions.
▪ These channels let in a flood of even more positive ions, which obliterates the electrical charge at that spot.
▪ The positive ions are accelerated to a narrow beam by the use of negative plates and a high voltage.
▪ At low pressures, a plasma is established with a discharge of positive ions travelling towards the cathode.
▪ As with Aplysia, a key player in this process appears to be calcium ions.
▪ The mineral calcite is made up of carbonate sheets and intervening planes of calcium ions.
▪ This results in the neighbouring part of the axon also reaching this potential, thus causing its ion channel to open.
▪ And the particular proteins now under scrutiny are the ion channels we met earlier.
▪ For example, plasticity seems to depend on identifiable ion channels and catalytic molecules that activate or inhibit these channels.
▪ Sometimes receptors are ion channels, and the docking trips the channel open.
▪ The sodium is only able to pass into the membrane through sodium ion channels distributed along the axon.
▪ If the ion channel lets positive ions into the receiving neuron, the neuron is pushed toward firing.
▪ Here on the tongue, ion channels play a critical role in our sense of taste.
▪ Drifting away from the quivering ion channel, you notice legions of ethanol mol-Figure 2.
▪ What is important is that all the chlorine in the VOCs ends up as chloride ion rather than other potentially hazardous chlorinated compounds.
▪ More recent evidence suggests that there is cotransport of sodium, potassium, and two chloride ions together at this site.
▪ Burgmayer and Murray then used this membrane to separate two solutions containing negatively charged chloride ions.
▪ Both sodium and chloride ions are in six-coordination.
▪ At the same time the enterotoxin also promotes a net secretion of chloride ions into the gut lumen from the epithelial cells.
▪ When there are no chloride ions left in the specimen to react, the end-point is reached.
▪ The membrane starts off positively charged, and chloride ions can pass through easily.
▪ Some of the excess chloride ions in the lumen are exchanged for bicarbonate ions at the surface of the epithelium.
▪ The World Health Organisation recommends a sodium ion concentration of 90mmol/l.
▪ This is a symbol expressing hydrogen ion concentration in a solution; it is a measure of relative acidity or alkalinity.
▪ Acid output was calculated by multiplying the hydrogen ion concentration by the volume of the gastric aspirate.
▪ Conversely, in acidemia, the extracellular hydrogen ion concentration increases.
▪ The process produces a much smaller volume of chemically inert radioactive waste than conventional ion exchange techniques.
▪ A commercial filtering medium now on the market combines activated carbon and an ion exchange resin.
▪ The trade name Permutit was given to this patented ion exchange process, it being derived from the Latin verb to exchange.
▪ Protein bound leucine Leucine was separated from other amino acids in the protein hydrolysate by preparative ion exchange chromatography.
▪ An ion exchange process creates an aqueous slurry of platelets of molecular dimensions.
▪ The chapter focus then switches to chromatographic modes, reversed phase, ion exchange and size exclusion being examined.
▪ Check, recharge and/or change as required any ion exchange media that you may be using on a frequent and routine basis.
▪ Having proposed suitable nomenclature for gas chromatography and ion exchange, the commission then developed a unified nomenclature for chromatography.
▪ Proton concentrations for each sample were then calculated from the hydrogen ion activity and the combined sodium and potassium concentrations.
▪ Treatment is aimed at decreasing hydrogen ion loss.
▪ The principal body electrolytes are sodium, potassium and hydrogen ions.
▪ Diuretics should be stopped, if possible, to decrease renal hydrogen ion loss.
▪ Bennett and Williams suggest that the cells of opening or closing traps acidify their own walls by releasing hydrogen ions.
▪ This is a symbol expressing hydrogen ion concentration in a solution; it is a measure of relative acidity or alkalinity.
▪ The timing of active hydrogen ion secretion, however, remains unknown.
▪ Hypocapnia causes fewer hydrogen ions to be available for secretion in the renal tubular cell.
▪ This displaces the calcium and magnesium ions from the resin and restores it to the sodium form.
▪ Typically a magnesium ion diffuses into the channel and gets trapped, unable to go all the way through.
▪ The hydration enthalpies of some alkali metal ions and halide ions are shown in table 5.11.
▪ Trace metal ions in the solution are thereby reduced and plated on to the anodic electrode.
▪ Could metal ions be made to stick on to the outside of the fullerene football?
▪ For this reason concentrations of potentially interfering metal ions approximating the serum levels are used in the standards.
▪ High-temperature gas cleaning techniques remove the water and metal ions which are a natural constituent of silica glass, and attenuate light.
▪ Distortions due to the formation of hydrogen bonds are usually smaller than those due to co-ordination to metal ions.
▪ The nuclear industry produces waste streams which contain a variety of radioactive metal ions, the extraction of which minimises radioactive discharges.
▪ Pancreatic juice for example contains a high concentration of sodium ions, and variable concentrations of chloride and bicarbonate ions.
▪ Should the supply of sodium ions presented to the distal exchange sites decrease, potassium excretion decreases also.
▪ As the impulse passes any point on the fibre, the membrane allows a sudden thrust of positive sodium ions.
▪ Typically, sodium ions are excluded and potassium ions are hoarded.
▪ Following this permeability change, the sodium ions are pumped out from the fibre so restoring the original state.
▪ It allows sodium ions into the dendrite, which raises its voltage temporarily.
▪ The World Health Organisation recommends a sodium ion concentration of 90mmol/l.
▪ That blast of sodium ions entering the neuron is the impulse starting.
▪ Potential difference did not change during the observed effects in ion transport in our study.
▪ The first changes of net water and ion transport were observed after the second or third hour after administration of cholera toxin.
▪ Cell scientists don't yet know how natural systems control ion transport.
▪ It is charged with negative ions which generate a feeling of well-being.
▪ Sodium has a strong tendency to lose an electron and become the positively charged ion Na.
▪ These fixed negative charges attract a layer of residual positively charged ions which are free to move within the water.
▪ These positively charged ions are themselves highly hydrated.
▪ Hence when a current is applied, the positively charged ions move toward the cathode carrying water molecules with them.
▪ Some think the diet changes the rate at which electrically charged particles called ions cross the lipid membranes of nerve cells.
▪ This is an accelerator constructed for nuclear structure research using heavy ions, and it can produce exotic nuclei.
▪ Kilowatt-size ion drives do exist and some satellites use ion engines for manoeuvring purposes.
▪ A commercial filtering medium now on the market combines activated carbon and an ion exchange resin.
▪ Generally, one cupric ion complexes with four to six peptide linkages.
▪ However, such secretions also contain important ions which are essential for the normal functioning of the body.
▪ It only works in the direction in which it's throwing the ions.
▪ That blast of sodium ions entering the neuron is the impulse starting.
▪ The cliff top turf was bright with thrift and sea camp ion.
▪ The result is an excluded volume behind the target atom into which no ions penetrate.
▪ Typically, sodium ions are excluded and potassium ions are hoarded.
The Collaborative International Dictionary

Ion \I"on\ ([imac]"[o^]n), n. [Gr. 'io`n, neut, of 'iw`n, p. pr. of 'ie`nai to go.]

  1. (Elec. Chem.) an atom or goup of atoms (radical) carrying an electrical charge. It is contrasted with neutral atoms or molecules, and free radicals. Certain compounds, such as sodium chloride, are composed of complementary ions in the solid (crystalline) as well as in solution. Others, notably acids such as hydrogen chloride, may occur as neutral molecules in the pure liquid or gas forms, and ionize almost completely in dilute aqueous solutions. In solutions (as in water) ions are frequently bound non-covalently with the molecules of solvent, and in that case are said to be solvated. According to the electrolytic dissociation theory, the molecules of electrolytes are divided into ions by water and other solvents. An ion consists of one or more atoms and carries one unit charges of electricity, 3.4 x 10^ -10 electrostatic units, or a multiple of this. Those which are positively electrified (hydrogen and the metals) are called cations; negative ions (hydroxyl and acidic atoms or groups) are called anions.

    Note: Thus, hydrochloric acid ( HCl) dissociates, in aqueous solution, into the hydrogen ion, H+, and the chlorine ion, Cl-; ferric nitrate, Fe(NO3)3, yields the ferric ion, Fe+++, and nitrate ions, NO3-, NO3-, NO3-. When a solution containing ions is made part of an electric circuit, the cations move toward the cathode, the anions toward the anode. This movement is called migration, and the velocity of it differs for different kinds of ions. If the electromotive force is sufficient, electrolysis ensues: cations give up their charge at the cathode and separate in metallic form or decompose water, forming hydrogen and alkali; similarly, at the anode the element of the anion separates, or the metal of the anode is dissolved, or decomposition occurs. Aluminum and chlorine are elements prepared predominantly by such electrolysis, and depends on dissolving compounds in a solvent where the element forms ions. Electrolysis is also used in refining other metals, such as copper and silver. Cf. Anion, Cation.

  2. One of the small electrified particles into which the molecules of a gas are broken up under the action of the electric current, of ultraviolet and certain other rays, and of high temperatures. To the properties and behavior of ions the phenomena of the electric discharge through rarefied gases and many other important effects are ascribed. At low pressures the negative ions appear to be electrons; the positive ions, atoms minus an electron. At ordinary pressures each ion seems to include also a number of attached molecules. Ions may be formed in a gas in various ways.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

1834, introduced by English physicist and chemist Michael Faraday (suggested by the Rev. William Whewell, English polymath), coined from Greek ion, neuter present participle of ienai "go," from PIE root *ei- (1) "to go, to walk" (cognates: Greek eimi "I go;" Latin ire "to go," iter "a way;" Old Irish ethaim "I go;" Irish bothar "a road" (from *bou-itro- "cows' way"), Gaulish eimu "we go," Gothic iddja "went," Sanskrit e'ti "goes," imas "we go," ayanam "a going, way;" Avestan ae'iti "goes;" Old Persian aitiy "goes;" Lithuanian eiti "to go;" Old Church Slavonic iti "go;" Bulgarian ida "I go;" Russian idti "to go"). So called because ions move toward the electrode of opposite charge.


n. An atom or group of atoms bearing an electrical charge such as the sodium and chlorine atoms in a salt solution.


n. a particle that is electrically charged (positive or negative); an atom or molecule or group that has lost or gained one or more electrons

Ion (window manager)

In Unix computing, Ion is a tiling and tabbing window manager for the X Window System. It is designed such that it is possible to manage windows using only a keyboard, without needing a mouse. It is the successor of PWM and is written by the same author, Tuomo Valkonen. Since the first release of Ion in the summer 2000, similar alternative window management ideas have begun to show in other new window managers: Larswm, ratpoison, StumpWM, wmii, xmonad and dwm.

First versions of Ion were released under the Artistic License, Ion2 and the development versions of Ion3 were released under the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL). However, the first release candidate of Ion3 included a license change to a custom license based on the LGPL (specifically modified versions must not use the name ion).

Since version 2, Ion has been scriptable in Lua.

As of September 17, 2009, Valkonen states he is unlikely to continue development of Ion by himself.

The official home page went off-line early 2010.

A fork, Notion, is being actively maintained.

Ion (disambiguation)

In physics and chemistry, an ion is an atom or group of atoms with a net electric charge.

Ion may also refer to:

Ion (dialogue)

In Plato's Ion (; ) Socrates discusses with Ion, a professional rhapsode who also lectures on Homer, the question of whether the rhapsode, a performer of poetry, gives his performance on account of his skill and knowledge or by virtue of divine possession. It is one of the shortest of Plato's dialogues.

Ion (play)

Ion (; , Iōn) is an ancient Greek play by Euripides, thought to be written between 414 and 412 BC. It follows the orphan Ion in the discovery of his origins.

Ion (Marvel Comics)

Ion (Voletta Todd) is a fictional supervillain character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics.

Ion (chocolate)

Ion is a Greek chocolate brand.

Although the first chocolate recipe has been manufactured since 1927, the company was formally incorporated in 1930. The main factory is located in Neo Faliro Pireaus.

Over the years, Ion introduced other chocolate varieties confectionery products such as croissants and spreadable chocolate. However, it is best known for its almond milk chocolate variety. The company has grown to be one of Greece’s 50 largest companies with annual sales of over €100 million.

Ion (DC Comics)

Ion is a fictional character, a DC Comics superhero. Created by writer Judd Winick and artist Dale Eaglesham for Green Lantern vol. 3 #142, Ion was devised as the new superhero identity for Green Lantern protagonist Kyle Rayner. It was later revealed to be able to form mutualism with a host, bestowing its power to a host willingly. This followed a similar retcon as Parallax, originally the new supervillain alias of Hal Jordan, which was revealed to be a parasitic embodiment of fear in the 2004–2005 miniseries Green Lantern: Rebirth.

Ion (paintball marker)

The Ion is an electropneumatic paintball marker manufactured by Smart Parts. At the time of its release, the Ion was the first fully electropneumatic marker to target entry-level players, at a price point previously inhabited only by Spyders and other mechanical blowbacks. The Ion has generally been credited with making high-rate-of-fire electropneumatic markers available to the masses, at a time when electropneumatic markers were considered out of reach of most casual or budget players.

The original Ion was released in 2005, and soon soared in popularity, though it was often criticized for being difficult to disassemble and service. Smart Parts addressed these concerns in 2007 with the release of the Ion XE, which features the ability to remove the bolt from the back of the marker. .

Ion (name)

Ion is a masculine given name. The name form in English corresponds to two different and unrelated names from different original languages.

The first name is the Greek,, Iōn, after the mythical founder of the Ionians; the modern (demotic) Greek equivalent of the name is Ionas. The source of this is the Hebrew Yavan, alternatively transliterated as ι-o-ν (Yut Vav/digamma Nun), with each letter corresponding to its appropriate counterpart.

The second name is the Romanian Ion which is equivalent to the English name John and has the same etymology as "Jon", tracing back the Hebrew name Johanan; Ion can also be a surname in Romanian. Another variant is Ioan. A common diminutive is Ionel. Its female form is Ioana. The surname Ionescu derives from Ion.


An ion is an atom or a molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge. Ions can be created, by either chemical or physical means, via ionization.

In chemical terms, if a neutral atom loses one or more electrons, it has a net positive charge and is known as a cation.

If an atom gains electrons, it has a net negative charge and is known as an anion.

Ions consisting of only a single atom are atomic or monatomic ions; if they consist of two or more atoms, they are molecular or polyatomic ions. Because of their electric charges, cations and anions attract each other and readily form ionic compounds, such as salts.

In the case of physical ionization of a medium, such as a gas, what are known as "ion pairs" are created by ion impact, and each pair consists of a free electron and a positive ion.

Ion (comics)

Ion, in comics, may refer to:

  • Ion (DC Comics), an entity in the DC Comics universe. Ion is a benevolent symbiote that embodies willpower, the driving force behind the Green Lantern Corps and their power rings. When the entity has a host, the name Ion is often used as an alias by the hosting character, who include:
    • Kyle Rayner, a human member of the Green Lantern Corps and Ion's host while Hal Jordan is the host of Parallax, DC universes' malevolent and symbiotic fear entity, and during his exile
    • Sodam Yat, a Daxamite member of the Green Lantern Corps and Kyle Rayner's successor as Ion's host
  • Ion (Marvel Comics), a super villain in the Marvel Comics universe
  • I.O.N, a manga by Arina Tanemura
ION (satellite)

The Illinois Observing Nanosatellite (ION) is the first CubeSat mission developed by the students of University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The satellite was lost in the failure of the Dnepr launch on 26 July 2006. Completed in April 2005 as a part of the Illinois Tiny Satellite Initiative, the satellite took almost four years to be designed, built and tested by an interdisciplinary team of student engineers. The payloads included a photometer, a micro-thruster and a camera.

Ion (rapper)

Ion (born in 1984), is an Italian rapper and actor, born from a Tunisian mother and a Congolese father.

He sings in Italian and French.

Ion (Serialization format)

Ion is a data serialization language developed by Amazon. It may be represented by either a human-readable text form or a compact binary form. The text form is a super set of JSON, meaning any valid JSON document is also a valid Ion document.

Ion (mythology)

According to Greek mythology, Ion (; , gen.: Ἴωνος) was the illegitimate child of Creüsa, daughter of Erechtheus and wife of Xuthus. Creusa conceived Ion with Apollo then she abandoned the child. Apollo asked Hermes to take Ion from his cradle. Ion was saved (and raised) by a priestess of the Delphic Oracle. Later, Xuthus was informed by the oracle that the first person he met when leaving the oracle would be his son, and this person was Ion. He interpreted it to mean that he had fathered Ion, when, in fact, Apollo was giving him Ion as an adoptive son. Creusa was planning on killing Ion due to her jealousy that Xuthus had a son while she was still childless. At the same time, Ion was planning on doing harm to Creusa. In the end, Creusa found out that Ion was her child, and only Xuthus' adopted child. This is the story told in the tragedy Ion by Euripides.

In the other accounts, Ion was the founder of Helike (the modern Eliki) in Achaea. Ion was the son of Xuthus (rather than Apollo) who was brought to the area during the reign of king Selinus. He married the girl named Helike who succeeded to the throne. He built the city of Eliki after the name of his wife, and made it the capital of the kingdom. Later he took an expedition against Eleusis (now Elefsina) with the help of the Athenian and in the battle he was killed near Eleusis.

Ion was also believed to have founded a primary tribe of Greece, the Ionians. He has often been identified with the Javan mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. The earlier Greek form of the name was *Ἰάϝων "Iáwōn", which, with the loss of the digamma, later became Ἰάων Iáōn, or plural Iáones, as seen in epic poetry. In addition, Dionysius Periegetes ver. 416 mentions a river in Arcadia called Iaon. This river Iaon is further alluded to in Hesiod's Hymns of Callimachus, Hymn to Jupiter 22. This river has also been connected to the earlier forms of the name.

Usage examples of "ion".

The hostage ships themselves were accelerating forward, their dark shapes backlit by blue halos of ion glow.

Now, in the case of a debilitated female patient, a physician naturally thinks first of chlorosis or the fluor albus or some other such adust ion of the womb.

All the other customers had been thrown hundreds of yards away in every direction, and the merchandise had exploded into its component ions, except for the alembic, which sat in the center of the circle shining like an atomic pile.

We did catch that ion trail last week, and it could very well be Amalgamated spies, just checking up on us.

And there were so many: homeopathy, acupuncture, bipolarized interferon, amygdalin, ion rebalance, meditation, chelation, Kirlian aura manipulation, biofeed-back, quantum energy .

I suspect so, but then the french took over the Spanish throne and someone must have been wondering where ather Mal Ion could be more usefully employed, and I suspect Father Mallon pleaded with his french masters to be employed against the real enemy.

Gomblick said and looked up at the massive latticework of power busses that led to the ion cannons.

It recoiled freely against the thrust of ions accelerated to light speed, tumbling muzzle over cascabel to meet the shock wave plasma-driven in the opposite direction.

A group of childless protectors had carved it out with solar mirrors and built into it a small life-support and controls system, a larger frozen-sleep chamber, a breeder atomic pile and generator, a dirigible ion drive, and an enormous cesium tank.

There was no blaze of light as he blasted out of his parking orbit, just the invisible cloud of ions from the cesium engine.

The ion exchange resin of the purification system, he knew, kept the radioactive particles in the nuclear coolant down to a minimum.

In this multimillion-pound complex, tiny samples of water or carbon compounds arc placed at the heart of a cyclotron which fires vastly accelerated ion beams at them, creating very short-lived isotopes.

It was supposed to have had its name from Ellops, the Son of Ion, who was the brother of Cothus.

Now, under the midday sun, the Major wandered among the sappers filling the gab ions He tested each one, making certain that the sepoys i, were ramming the earth hard into the wicker baskets, for a loosely filled gabion was no use.

My wife was a gourmet cook, and she went all ut on that dinner, gazpacho, pasta with black olives and scallions, lamb chops with an herb crust and ions and shoefresh mint sauce, caramelized on string candied sweet potatoes, mile-high apple pie.