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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
a chemistry/French etc exam
▪ I knew I wouldn’t pass the German exam.
a chemistry/French etc examination
▪ Most of the pupils passed their science examination with flying colours.
a history/chemistry/law etc degree
▪ I decided to do a Maths degree.
a law/medical/chemistry etc student
▪ Approximately 40% of law students are women.
chemistry set
inorganic chemistry
organic chemistry
▪ Its contents goes well beyond what is actually relevant for analytical chemistry.
▪ It also makes an ideal text to support an undergraduate degree course in analytical chemistry.
▪ This is a very well written chapter and covers material not normally found in other analytical chemistry texts.
▪ These topics are important, but instrumental analytical chemistry plays an essential role in analysis these days and needs better coverage.
▪ Alan Townshend, professor of analytical chemistry at Hull, agrees that phasing out carbon tetrachloride is a minor worry.
▪ A thorough knowledge of analytical chemistry and experience in chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques is therefore essential.
▪ Applicants should have a degree or equivalent qualification in chemistry and relevant post-graduate experience or training in analytical chemistry.
▪ The education in analytical chemistry and environmental sciences will certainly profit from this book, too.
▪ Louise and Amelia were also both enrolled in an inorganic chemistry course at Columbia and an organic chemistry course at Barnard.
▪ Organic chemistry is the chemistry of one particular element, carbon. Inorganic chemistry is all the rest.
▪ Their study is at the interface of inorganic chemistry and geochemistry.
▪ He took a degree in chemistry at New College, Oxford, and subsequently gained a DPhil in inorganic chemistry.
▪ Thus, it is intended to follow a basic course in organic and/or inorganic chemistry.
▪ There he worked on the unfashionable inorganic chemistry; his science was always to be on the boundary of physics and chemistry.
▪ The company is involved in a wide range of organic chemistry.
▪ Louise and Amelia were also both enrolled in an inorganic chemistry course at Columbia and an organic chemistry course at Barnard.
▪ In organic chemistry it is thus more convenient to describe carbon in terms of its valency than its oxidation numbers.
▪ Red has four finals in four days: physics, chemistry, organic chemistry and calculus.
▪ It is awarded biennially for excellence in physical organic chemistry embracing the relationship between structure and reactivity.
▪ The book thus seeks to explain the application of these colorants in terms of their organic chemistry.
▪ It is made annually for eminence in organic chemistry and includes a monetary prize of £2000.
▪ The last Faraday Discussion to be devoted to the physical chemistry of enzymes was held in 1955.
▪ Are molecular biology and physical chemistry nature?
▪ It is awarded biennially for excellence in physical organic chemistry embracing the relationship between structure and reactivity.
▪ Hurter was a pioneer in applying the disciplines of physical chemistry and thermodynamics to industrial processes.
▪ He explained some basic principles of physical chemistry using simple illustrations.
▪ They identified two key clusters in chemistry; a general and organic chemistry cluster, and a physical chemistry cluster.
▪ The reasons lie in its complex physical chemistry, and central to this is its atomic structure.
▪ The ideal candidate will hold a good degree in theoretical physics or physical chemistry and have strong mathematical and computing skills.
▪ Although its origin is not known, it is caused by skin bacteria acting on our body chemistry.
▪ But there is nothing you can do to make it grow longer than it is programmed to do by your body chemistry.
▪ She recognizes how they interact with her body chemistry, tiredness or her period.
▪ It forms therefore, a vital part of today's chemistry courses.
▪ Louise and Amelia were also both enrolled in an inorganic chemistry course at Columbia and an organic chemistry course at Barnard.
▪ Finally, we recommend Protein Purification: Principles and Practice for undergraduates taking advanced protein chemistry courses.
▪ Louise and Amelia were also both enrolled in an inorganic chemistry course at Columbia and an organic chemistry course at Barnard.
▪ Titles will primarily concentrate on subjects covered in the initial stages of an undergraduate chemistry course.
▪ On at least one occasion, in 1720, he also taught a chemistry course.
▪ A report of a working party on chemistry courses for 16-19 year olds was considered and accepted.
▪ No chemistry department can afford to purchase software without reference to this authoritative guide.
▪ Celestine had met Stafford in a chemistry department seminar dealing with spin labeling.
▪ Fortunately his calculations were accurate and the chemistry department at Manchester is still just about intact.
▪ So while your enzymes work on the chicken, tell me how you made out with the chemistry department.
▪ When we raised our heads above the desk there were clouds of smoke blowing across the chemistry laboratory.
▪ It is a book that should be available in all synthetic organic chemistry laboratories.
▪ Kathryn Sims Goodbye carbon tet From 1997 chemistry laboratories will not be quite the same.
▪ The city has become like one of the supersaturated solutions which Howard remembers making in the chemistry laboratory at school.
▪ Chantal Maurice was the study pharmacist and supervised all serological, immunological, mycobacterial, and serum chemistry laboratory work.
▪ Chemistry and physical chemistry laboratories will later be supplemented by biology and pharmaceutical technology laboratories.
▪ In several placed Donald Duck makes exciting discoveries by playing with a chemistry set.
▪ One early Christmas they got me a small chemistry set.
▪ It is this operation that George Ewart, general manager for Chemical Products, describes as a giant chemistry set.
▪ I packed away the chemistry set and stuck it on the shelf behind the pickled beets.
▪ I also loved making gadgets out of wood, and my heart's desire was a chemistry set.
▪ All of these processes affect soil and soil water chemistry which subsequently influences the quality of runoff.
▪ If there is no change the rocks should not affect your tank's water chemistry.
▪ They react with the water chemistry which causes the sample to change colour.
▪ Above right: Water chemistry is vitally important.
Water quality is more important than water chemistry.
▪ What could the problem have been? Water chemistry is excellent in my 4' community tank housing Tetras and Dwarf Cichlids.
▪ Maintaining stability of the water chemistry is another key requirement to be successful with a marine system.
▪ Jack said he had no wish to study physics and chemistry.
▪ But Taylor worked six days a week at Midvale and studied chemistry and calculus on the side.
▪ After yet another continental tour Couper returned to Berlin in 1855, determined to study chemistry.
▪ He studied chemistry at Newcastle Mechanics' Institute in the 1830s.
▪ He studied chemistry at Kassel Polytechnic and then at the universities of Jena and Marburg.
▪ As soon as we met I could feel the chemistry between us.
▪ Chuck's a nice guy, but the chemistry isn't right.
▪ Teams with good chemistry win.
▪ The chemistry between Hepburn and Tracy is obvious.
▪ The chemistry between the two stars makes the movie a pleasure to watch.
▪ The drug may cause changes in a person's body chemistry.
▪ Edison was his hero; chemistry and electricity were his passions.
▪ Fleischmann graduated in 1948 and began to study for his doctorate in chemistry which he obtained in 1951.
▪ Following the presentations Prof Ward spoke about chemistry and the environment.
▪ From this, Lovelock concluded that any planet that has life would reveal a chemistry that held odd imbalances.
▪ In the meantime, this high-school chemistry experiment gone awry continues.
▪ Such interviews are particularly important to assess character and to see if the interpersonal chemistry is right.
The Collaborative International Dictionary

Natural \Nat"u*ral\ (?; 135), a. [OE. naturel, F. naturel, fr. L. naturalis, fr. natura. See Nature.]

  1. Fixed or determined by nature; pertaining to the constitution of a thing; belonging to native character; according to nature; essential; characteristic; innate; not artificial, foreign, assumed, put on, or acquired; as, the natural growth of animals or plants; the natural motion of a gravitating body; natural strength or disposition; the natural heat of the body; natural color.

    With strong natural sense, and rare force of will.

  2. Conformed to the order, laws, or actual facts, of nature; consonant to the methods of nature; according to the stated course of things, or in accordance with the laws which govern events, feelings, etc.; not exceptional or violent; legitimate; normal; regular; as, the natural consequence of crime; a natural death; anger is a natural response to insult.

    What can be more natural than the circumstances in the behavior of those women who had lost their husbands on this fatal day?

  3. Having to do with existing system to things; dealing with, or derived from, the creation, or the world of matter and mind, as known by man; within the scope of human reason or experience; not supernatural; as, a natural law; natural science; history, theology.

    I call that natural religion which men might know . . . by the mere principles of reason, improved by consideration and experience, without the help of revelation.
    --Bp. Wilkins.

  4. Conformed to truth or reality; as:

    1. Springing from true sentiment; not artificial or exaggerated; -- said of action, delivery, etc.; as, a natural gesture, tone, etc.

    2. Resembling the object imitated; true to nature; according to the life; -- said of anything copied or imitated; as, a portrait is natural.

  5. Having the character or sentiments properly belonging to one's position; not unnatural in feelings.

    To leave his wife, to leave his babes, . . . He wants the natural touch.

  6. Connected by the ties of consanguinity. especially, Related by birth rather than by adoption; as, one's natural mother. ``Natural friends.''
    --J. H. Newman.

  7. Hence: Begotten without the sanction of law; born out of wedlock; illegitimate; bastard; as, a natural child.

  8. Of or pertaining to the lower or animal nature, as contrasted with the higher or moral powers, or that which is spiritual; being in a state of nature; unregenerate.

    The natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God.
    --1 Cor. ii. 14.

  9. (Math.) Belonging to, to be taken in, or referred to, some system, in which the base is 1; -- said of certain functions or numbers; as, natural numbers, those commencing at 1; natural sines, cosines, etc., those taken in arcs whose radii are 1.

  10. (Mus.)

    1. Produced by natural organs, as those of the human throat, in distinction from instrumental music.

    2. Of or pertaining to a key which has neither a flat nor a sharp for its signature, as the key of C major.

    3. Applied to an air or modulation of harmony which moves by easy and smooth transitions, digressing but little from the original key.

    4. Neither flat nor sharp; -- of a tone.

    5. Changed to the pitch which is neither flat nor sharp, by appending the sign [natural]; as, A natural.
      --Moore (Encyc. of Music).

  11. Existing in nature or created by the forces of nature, in contrast to production by man; not made, manufactured, or processed by humans; as, a natural ruby; a natural bridge; natural fibers; a deposit of natural calcium sulfate. Opposed to artificial, man-made, manufactured, processed and synthetic. [WordNet sense 2]

  12. Hence: Not processed or refined; in the same statre as that existing in nature; as, natural wood; natural foods.

    Natural day, the space of twenty-four hours.

    Natural fats, Natural gas, etc. See under Fat, Gas. etc.

    Natural Harmony (Mus.), the harmony of the triad or common chord.

    Natural history, in its broadest sense, a history or description of nature as a whole, including the sciences of botany, zo["o]logy, geology, mineralogy, paleontology, chemistry, and physics. In recent usage the term is often restricted to the sciences of botany and zo["o]logy collectively, and sometimes to the science of zoology alone.

    Natural law, that instinctive sense of justice and of right and wrong, which is native in mankind, as distinguished from specifically revealed divine law, and formulated human law.

    Natural modulation (Mus.), transition from one key to its relative keys.

    Natural order. (Nat. Hist.) See under order.

    Natural person. (Law) See under person, n.

    Natural philosophy, originally, the study of nature in general; the natural sciences; in modern usage, that branch of physical science, commonly called physics, which treats of the phenomena and laws of matter and considers those effects only which are unaccompanied by any change of a chemical nature; -- contrasted with mental philosophy and moral philosophy.

    Natural scale (Mus.), a scale which is written without flats or sharps.

    Note: Model would be a preferable term, as less likely to mislead, the so-called artificial scales (scales represented by the use of flats and sharps) being equally natural with the so-called natural scale.

    Natural science, the study of objects and phenomena existing in nature, especially biology, chemistry, physics and their interdisciplinary related sciences; natural history, in its broadest sense; -- used especially in contradistinction to social science, mathematics, philosophy, mental science or moral science.

    Natural selection (Biol.), the operation of natural laws analogous, in their operation and results, to designed selection in breeding plants and animals, and resulting in the survival of the fittest; the elimination over time of species unable to compete in specific environments with other species more adapted to survival; -- the essential mechanism of evolution. The principle of natural selection is neutral with respect to the mechanism by which inheritable changes occur in organisms (most commonly thought to be due to mutation of genes and reorganization of genomes), but proposes that those forms which have become so modified as to be better adapted to the existing environment have tended to survive and leave similarly adapted descendants, while those less perfectly adapted have tended to die out through lack of fitness for the environment, thus resulting in the survival of the fittest. See Darwinism.

    Natural system (Bot. & Zo["o]l.), a classification based upon real affinities, as shown in the structure of all parts of the organisms, and by their embryology.

    It should be borne in mind that the natural system of botany is natural only in the constitution of its genera, tribes, orders, etc., and in its grand divisions.

    Natural theology, or Natural religion, that part of theological science which treats of those evidences of the existence and attributes of the Supreme Being which are exhibited in nature; -- distinguished from revealed religion. See Quotation under Natural, a., 3.

    Natural vowel, the vowel sound heard in urn, furl, sir, her, etc.; -- so called as being uttered in the easiest open position of the mouth organs. See Neutral vowel, under Neutral and Guide to Pronunciation, [sect] 17.

    Syn: See Native.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

c.1600, "alchemy," from chemist + -ry; also see chemical (adj.). The meaning "natural physical process" is 1640s, and the scientific study not so called until 1788. The figurative sense of "instinctual attraction or affinity" is attested slightly earlier, from the alchemical sense.


n. 1 (context uncountable English) The branch of natural science that deals with the composition and constitution of substances and the changes that they undergo as a consequence of alterations in the constitution of their molecules. 2 (context countable English) An application of chemical theory and method to a particular substance. 3 (context informal English) The mutual attraction between two people; rapport.

  1. n. the science of matter; the branch of the natural sciences dealing with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions [syn: chemical science]

  2. the way two individuals relate to each other; "their chemistry was wrong from the beginning -- they hated each other"; "a mysterious alchemy brought them together" [syn: interpersonal chemistry, alchemy]

Chemistry (band)

Chemistry (styled CHEMISTRY) was a Japanese pop duo, composed of and .

Chemistry (Girls Aloud album)

Chemistry is the third studio album by British all-female pop group Girls Aloud. It was released in the United Kingdom on 5 December 2005 by Polydor Records. After the success of What Will the Neighbours Say?, the album was again entirely produced by Brian Higgins and his production team Xenomania again. Chemistry is a loose concept album which details celebrity lifestyle and "what it's like to be a twentysomething girl in London." A number of the songs notably avoid the typical verse-chorus form of pop music, instead making use of unusual structures.

Chemistry was widely acclaimed by a number of contemporary music critics upon its release. Despite a relatively low chart position (peaking at 11, it is the lowest charting release by the group), the album yielded four top ten singles and was certified platinum in the United Kingdom and Ireland, selling over 390,000 copies. The album was followed by the Chemistry Tour, Girls Aloud's first concert tour to reach arenas.

Chemistry (disambiguation)

Chemistry is a branch of physical science, and the study of the substances of which matter is composed.

Chemistry may also refer to:

Chemistry (Buckshot and 9th Wonder album)

Chemistry is a 2005 collaboration album by Buckshot of the Boot Camp Clik and 9th Wonder of Little Brother. 9th provides all the production on the release, and handled all recording and mixing except for the song "No Comparison" which was recorded by Khrysis, while leaving the rapping to Buckshot, with guest appearances from members of the Boot Camp Clik and the Justus League. This album is paralleled by the Black Moon album "Alter the Chemistry", which was basically a remix album produced by Da Beatminerz.

Chemistry (Johnny Gill album)

Chemistry is the second solo album by singer Johnny Gill.

Richard Harrington of the Washington Post wrote, "Gill is 18. He just sounds older. On his recent hit single "Half Crazy," Gill's husky, powerful baritone would lead to you to think he'd been around the love wars long enough to do some postgraduate work. But the cover photo for his "Chemistry" album and the "Half Crazy" video show a slightly built kid with a soft, innocent stare, looking like he just got out of high school. Which he has...For his new album he was teamed with veteran producer and songwriter Linda Creed, who had worked with Thom Bell on the Delfonics', Stylistics' and Spinners' recordings but dropped out of the business for five years to raise her family...That new combination, he feels, is going to put him that much closer to his dream: 'to sell 40 million copies like Michael and then get into the movies.' Luckily Gill's strengths as a ballad singer coincide with commercial radio's currently receptive attitude toward medium tempo, romantic material...But will the world go along with a ballad singer who's so young? 'That's what we've all got to find out very soon,' Gill says evenly. 'I know this one may not go gold. But I'm going to spray paint it.'"

--Excerpted from "The Ballads of Johnny Gill," Washington Post, June 22, 1985

Peter Judge wrote, "This is one of those albums that should have been bigger. Gill is only 18 but as far as singing he can hang with the big boys. Gill's rich tenor makes a song like "Half Crazy" a real gem. In a few years, watch out Luther Vandross."

--Excerpted from "Boss Rocked '85," The Rock Hill Herald, January 2, 1986

Chemistry (Semisonic song)

"Chemistry" is a song by the alternative rock band Semisonic. It was their first single on their 2001 album, All About Chemistry. It reached 39 on Billboard's Modern Rock Tracks and 35 on the UK Singles Chart. The song was featured in the film 40 Days and 40 Nights and in the TV series Men in Trees and Roswell.

Chemistry (2009 film)

Chemistry is a 2009 Malayalam film by Viji Thampi based on a true story about a high school student. The film was later dubbed into Tamil as Naan Gowri in 2012.

Chemistry (drama)

Chemistry is a Pakistani Urdu-Language drama serial that premiered on Geo Entertainment on 8 October 2010, directed by Syed Ahmad Kamran. The main cast includes Sanam Baloch, Faisal Rehman, Iffat Umar, Danish Taimoor and Asad Zaman. The drama's tag line reads 'Chemistry, subject of love'.

Chemistry (TV series)

Chemistry was a comedy-drama series that debuted on Cinemax as a part of its Max After Dark lineup on August 19, 2011. It followed the affair of an attorney and a police officer, which began after the officer saved the attorney from a car wreck. The last episode aired on November 18, 2011.

Chemistry (Smash)

"Chemistry" is the sixth episode of the American television series, Smash. The episode aired on March 12, 2012.

Chemistry (relationship)

In the context of relationships, chemistry is a simple " emotion" that two people get when they share a special connection. It is not necessarily sexual. It is the impulse making one think "I need to see this [other] person again" - that feeling of "we click". It is very early in one's relationship that they can intuitively work out whether they have positive or negative chemistry.

Chemistry (2013 film)

Chemistry is a Telugu film directed by Vachespathy Jonnalagadda, starring Sri Ram Kodali and Amitha Rao. Uday Kumar was the producer and Vishwanath Ghantasala composed the music.

Chemistry (Eva Simons song)

"Chemistry" is a song by Dutch recording artist Eva Simons, from her debut studio album, EVA-LUTION. It was released in the Netherlands on March 20, 2013. Although song did not achieve the same commercial and critical success as the earlier singles, it did climb to number 28 and spend 5 weeks on the Dutch Top 40 charts. The song was used in a Pepsi ad campaign in the Netherlands which gave customers a chance to meet Simons when she performed on Beyoncé's The Mrs. Carter Show World Tour.

Chemistry (EP)

Chemistry is the second mini album from South Korean duo Trouble Maker, which consists of 4Minute's HyunA and Beast's Hyunseung. It was released digitally on October 28, 2013 with the lead single "Now" (; lit. "No Tomorrow").

Usage examples of "chemistry".

I am certain of it, and neither chemistry nor reasoning, nor aesthetics will give the least explanation.

Ham insisted Chemistry was a pure-blooded, blue-blooded member of, the strain anthropopithecus troglodyte.

He revolutionized chemistry by emphasizing that atoms have relative weights and that these relative weights can be measured.

On the contrary, his idea was significant because it was a theory that explained how chemical compounds are formed and because the idea of atoms with different relative weights made it possible to turn chemistry into a quantitative science.

A remedy selected according to the principle of similars is a homeopathic remedy, but a remedy which is homogeneous with the mineral substances of the organism, and the use of which is founded on physiological chemistry, is a biochemic remedy.

Their bioelectric fields were down fifteen percent from the recommended human level, while their metabolism and general blood chemistry showed signs of advanced energy depletion.

Iyevenski and a few other surviving Ovchinnikov disciples at the Shemyakin Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry in Moscow.

Moscow-region institutes into the Enzyme project: the Institute of Protein, the Institute of Molecular Biology, the Institute of BioChemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms, and the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry.

Pig was always wired, boringly religious about his heterocyclic chemistry: a bioresearch geek.

Can I integrate the minuscule observations of this behaviour of the chicks I work with and the chemistry of their brains with such richness of evocation?

Chemistry was, generally speaking, a science for businesspeople, for those who worked with coal and potash and dyes, and not gentlemen, who tended to be drawn to geology, natural history, and physics.

If I were to persist in treating chicks as Descartes might have wanted me to - and indeed as some schools of behaviourist psychologists would still maintain - as insentient machines, mere logic circuits based on carbon chemistry instead of the more reliable silicon chemistry of the computer, I would soon cease to be able to design sensible experiments or interpret the results that I obtain.

Chemistry and Physics only deal with them as exhibiting statistical complexes of the effects of their more intimate laws.

Ressler recognizes: Linus Pauling, Nobel laureate, supreme figure of American chemistry, he of vitamin C and the covalent bond, structural elucidator of any number of organic molecules, and nip-and-tuck runner-up to the three-dimensional solution of DNA.

It was in Babylonia that music, medicine and mathematics were developed, where the first libraries were created, the first maps drawn, where chemistry, botany and zoology were conceived.