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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
organic chemistry
▪ In organic chemistry it is thus more convenient to describe carbon in terms of its valency than its oxidation numbers.
▪ It is awarded biennially for excellence in physical organic chemistry embracing the relationship between structure and reactivity.
▪ It is made annually for eminence in organic chemistry and includes a monetary prize of £2000.
▪ Louise and Amelia were also both enrolled in an inorganic chemistry course at Columbia and an organic chemistry course at Barnard.
▪ Perhaps above all he will be remembered by many as the friend who taught them the craft that is organic chemistry.
▪ Red has four finals in four days: physics, chemistry, organic chemistry and calculus.
▪ The book thus seeks to explain the application of these colorants in terms of their organic chemistry.
▪ The company is involved in a wide range of organic chemistry.
The Collaborative International Dictionary
Organic chemistry

Organic \Or*gan"ic\, a. [L. organicus, Gr. ?: cf. F. organique.]

  1. (Biol.) Of or pertaining to an organ or its functions, or to objects composed of organs; consisting of organs, or containing them; as, the organic structure of animals and plants; exhibiting characters peculiar to living organisms; as, organic bodies, organic life, organic remains. Cf. Inorganic.

  2. Produced by the organs; as, organic pleasure. [R.]

  3. Instrumental; acting as instruments of nature or of art to a certain destined function or end. [R.]

    Those organic arts which enable men to discourse and write perspicuously.

  4. Forming a whole composed of organs. Hence: Of or pertaining to a system of organs; inherent in, or resulting from, a certain organization; as, an organic government; his love of truth was not inculcated, but organic.

  5. (Chem.) Of or pertaining to compounds which are derivatives of hydrocarbons; pertaining to, or denoting, any one of a large series of carbon-containing compounds which are related to the carbon compounds produced by biological processes (such as methane, oils, fats, sugars, alcohols, ethers, proteins, etc.) and include many substances of artificial production which may or may not occur in animals or plants; -- contrasted with inorganic.

    Note: Borderline cases exist which may be classified as either organic or inorganic, such as carbon terachloride (which may be viewed as a derivative of methane), but in general a compound must have a carbon with a hydrogen atom or another carbon atom attached to it to be viewed as truly organic, i.e. included in the subject matter of organic chemistry.

    Note: The principles of organic and inorganic chemistry are identical; but the enormous number and the completeness of related series of organic compounds, together with their remarkable facility of exchange and substitution, offer an illustration of chemical reaction and homology not to be paralleled in inorganic chemistry.

    Organic analysis (Chem.), the analysis of organic compounds, concerned chiefly with the determination of carbon as carbon dioxide, hydrogen as water, oxygen as the difference between the sum of the others and 100 per cent, and nitrogen as free nitrogen, ammonia, or nitric oxide; -- formerly called ultimate analysis, in distinction from proximate analysis.

    Organic chemistry. See under Chemistry.

    Organic compounds. (Chem.) Chemical substances which are organic[5]. See Carbon compounds, under Carbon.

    Organic description of a curve (Geom.), the description of a curve on a plane by means of instruments.
    --Brande & C.

    Organic disease (Med.), a disease attended with morbid changes in the structure of the organs of the body or in the composition of its fluids; -- opposed to functional disease.

    Organic electricity. See under Electricity.

    Organic law or Organic laws, a law or system of laws, or declaration of principles fundamental to the existence and organization of a political or other association; a constitution.

    Organic stricture (Med.), a contraction of one of the natural passages of the body produced by structural changes in its walls, as distinguished from a spasmodic stricture, which is due to muscular contraction.

Organic chemistry

Chemistry \Chem"is*try\ (k[e^]m"[i^]s*tr[y^]; 277), n. [From Chemist. See Alchemy.]

  1. That branch of science which treats of the composition of substances, and of the changes which they undergo in consequence of alterations in the constitution of the molecules, which depend upon variations of the number, kind, or mode of arrangement, of the constituent atoms. These atoms are not assumed to be indivisible, but merely the finest grade of subdivision hitherto attained. Chemistry deals with the changes in the composition and constitution of molecules. See Atom, Molecule.

    Note: Historically, chemistry is an outgrowth of alchemy (or alchemistry), with which it was anciently identified.

  2. An application of chemical theory and method to the consideration of some particular subject; as, the chemistry of iron; the chemistry of indigo.

  3. A treatise on chemistry.

    Note: This word and its derivatives were formerly written with y, and sometimes with i, instead of e, in the first syllable, chymistry, chymist, chymical, etc., or chimistry, chimist, chimical, etc.; and the pronunciation was conformed to the orthography.

    Inorganic chemistry, that which treats of inorganic or mineral substances.

    Organic chemistry, that which treats of the substances which form the structure of organized beings and their products, whether animal or vegetable; -- called also chemistry of the carbon compounds. There is no fundamental difference between organic and inorganic chemistry.

    Physiological chemistry, the chemistry of the organs and tissues of the body, and of the various physiological processes incident to life.

    Practical chemistry, or Applied chemistry, that which treats of the modes of manufacturing the products of chemistry that are useful in the arts, of their applications to economical purposes, and of the conditions essential to their best use.

    Pure chemistry, the consideration of the facts and theories of chemistry in their purely scientific relations, without necessary reference to their practical applications or mere utility.

organic chemistry

n. (context chemistry English) The chemistry of carbon-containing compounds, especially those that occur naturally in living organisms.

organic chemistry

n. the chemistry of compounds containing carbon (originally defined as the chemistry of substances produced by living organisms but now extended to substances synthesized artificially)

Organic chemistry

Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms. Study of structure includes many physical and chemical methods to determine the chemical composition and the chemical constitution of organic compounds and materials. Study of properties includes both physical properties and chemical properties, and uses similar methods as well as methods to evaluate chemical reactivity, with the aim to understand the behavior of the organic matter in its pure form (when possible), but also in solutions, mixtures, and fabricated forms. The study of organic reactions includes probing their scope through use in preparation of target compounds (e.g., natural products, drugs, polymers, etc.) by chemical synthesis, as well as the focused study of the reactivities of individual organic molecules, both in the laboratory and via theoretical ( in silico) study.

The range of chemicals studied in organic chemistry include hydrocarbons (compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen), as well as myriad compositions based always on carbon, but also containing other elements, especially oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus (these, included in many organic chemicals in biology) and the radiostable elements of the halogens.

In the modern era, the range extends further into the periodic table, with main group elements, including:

In addition, much modern research focuses on organic chemistry involving further organometallics, including the lanthanides, but especially the transition metals; (e.g., zinc, copper, palladium, nickel, cobalt, titanium and chromium)

Finally, organic compounds form the basis of all earthly life and constitute a significant part of human endeavors in chemistry. The bonding patterns open to carbon, with its valence of four—formal single, double, and triple bonds, as well as various structures with delocalized electrons—make the array of organic compounds structurally diverse, and their range of applications enormous. They either form the basis of, or are important constituents of, many commercial products including pharmaceuticals; petrochemicals and products made from them (including lubricants, solvents, etc.); plastics; fuels and explosives; etc. As indicated, the study of organic chemistry overlaps with organometallic chemistry and biochemistry, but also with medicinal chemistry, polymer chemistry, as well as many aspects of materials science.

Usage examples of "organic chemistry".

The way that I, from my earliest memories, had tried to be better than everyone, at grade school, at sports, with girls, in college--organic chemistry!

Dixon, head of the organic chemistry department, was coming down the hall as the physicist left.

We could examine this little world's shape, constitution, interior, past history, organic chemistry, cosmic evolution, and possible tie to comets.

It is now clear that organic chemistry has run rampant through the solar system and beyond.

Kelvin was doing organic chemistry, diagramming a lot of polycyclic stuff.

It is the outline of the emergence of man, a process wending through billions of years of time and driven by gravitation and nuclear physics, by organic chemistry and natural selection.

And that was where organic chemistry-the Designer's Assistant-might have left things, if not for action by another party.

Science had long known that organic chemistry would come up with the same amino acids, the same purines and pyrimidines under a wide variety of circumstances.

Moving the process under water as some theorists have tried to do doesn't help much, since water is about as damaging and corrosive as oxygen and UV for organic chemistry without complex biological defenses to protect it.

In the fall of 1939, I discovered that a beautiful blond girl had the desk next to mine in the laboratory of my course in synthetic organic chemistry.

And the woman in the blue smock, beside him, worked in organic chemistry.

I look up organic chemistry on the Internet and download the first chapters of a text.

That was the Tree's message to her, imprinted in the organic chemistry it had fed her while in the cocoon.