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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
insulin
noun
COLLOCATIONS FROM CORPUS
■ ADJECTIVE
human
▪ If human insulin does not cause a problem with hypoglycaemia awareness, what does?
▪ But our results argue against any systematic adverse effect of human insulin.
▪ The concern comes after a reported increase in deaths of diabetic patients, most relying on genetically engineered human insulin.
▪ There have been few controlled prospective studies of the effect of transferring to human insulin on the clinical presentation of hypoglycaemia.
▪ If insulin is required a convenient regime is to use a highly purified porcine or human short-acting insulin subcutaneously.
▪ Responses to hypoglycaemia in a laboratory setting have been reported to be different in patients taking human and animal insulin.
▪ Any trend towards human insulin might increase if the price were to decrease below that of porcine insulin.
■ NOUN
concentration
▪ The increase in the serum insulin concentration after steroid treatment may reflect increased energy intake or induction of insulin resistance.
▪ Achieved plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were determined as the mean of the 50, 55, and 60 minute samples.
▪ Six subjects did not consent to a glucose tolerance test and tolerance was determined from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations.
▪ There were no significant differences between the median serum IGFBP-1 and insulin concentrations in well grown compared with stunted patients.
▪ Plasma insulin concentration was measured in duplicate by radioimmunoassay with a charcoal absorption step to separate bound from free insulin.
injection
▪ Only recently has the importance of the timing of insulin injections in relation to meals become fully realised.
▪ Both foot amputations and insulin injections are treatments for diabetes, but only the latter is specific to the disease process.
▪ Therapeutically, this resistance can often be overcome by insulin injections.
▪ Also, about 15 percent of the patients on 400 milligrams were able to stop insulin injections altogether.
▪ Diabetics have to eat regularly if their illness is to be kept under control with insulin injections.
▪ People with Type 1 diabetes must closely monitor their blood sugar and take daily insulin injections.
▪ All patients gave themselves two or more insulin injections daily.
porcine
▪ In the abstract they stated that there were 88 episodes of hypoglycaemia with human and 132 with porcine insulin.
▪ Any trend towards human insulin might increase if the price were to decrease below that of porcine insulin.
▪ Their results are compatible with a 37% smaller or greater adrenaline response with human insulin compared with porcine insulin.
▪ These differences were always in the same direction - more pronounced hormonal responses and more reporting of symptoms with porcine insulin.
▪ This test was also used to compare total hormonal responses to human and porcine insulin in the clamp studies.
resistance
▪ The increase in the serum insulin concentration after steroid treatment may reflect increased energy intake or induction of insulin resistance.
▪ This is the first treatment designed to specifically target insulin resistance, which is a precursor to diabetes.
▪ Challenging the orthodoxy of insulin resistance.
▪ In a vicious cycle, weight gain increases insulin resistance increases weight gain.
▪ This concept of selective insulin resistance is not new and has been well demonstrated in animal models.
▪ All that concentrated sugar can be dangerous for a person who has insulin resistance, and is at risk for diabetes.
▪ And for about 25 percent of people, weight gain increases insulin resistance, and can lead to diabetes.
▪ In most cases, the insulin resistance is due to obesity, especially the accumulation of too much fat within the abdomen.
sensitivity
▪ The drug also improved the insulin sensitivity of the subjects, which could improve their overall health.
■ VERB
produce
▪ People who have type 2 diabetes do not produce enough insulin, or their bodies can not properly use the hormone.
▪ In type 2, the pancreas produces some insulin, but it is not used very well.
take
▪ She was a diabetic and hadn't taken any insulin with her.
▪ People with Type 1 diabetes must closely monitor their blood sugar and take daily insulin injections.
▪ This applies to patients taking short-acting insulin to cover meals and snacks.
▪ Responses to hypoglycaemia in a laboratory setting have been reported to be different in patients taking human and animal insulin.
▪ In patients taking insulin this may mean deliberately inducing hypoglycaemia under controlled circumstances.
EXAMPLES FROM CORPUS
▪ Also, about 15 percent of the patients on 400 milligrams were able to stop insulin injections altogether.
▪ But our results argue against any systematic adverse effect of human insulin.
▪ Case 3 - An insulin dependent diabetic woman aged 74 gave a history of nausea for one week and poor diabetic control.
▪ In 1918 insulin was still unknown.
▪ In a vicious cycle, weight gain increases insulin resistance increases weight gain.
▪ In most situations this seems to be a direct effect of insulin on the hepatic production of IGFBP-1.
▪ Tests revealed that he had abnormally high levels of insulin in his blood, which could only have been injected.
▪ The assay is particularly useful in patients with circulating insulin antibodies or in those being treated with insulin.
Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary
insulin

1922 (earlier insuline, 1914), coined in English from Latin insula "island," so called because the hormone is secreted by the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Insuline was coined independently in French in 1909.

Wiktionary
insulin

n. A polypeptide hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism.

WordNet
insulin

n. hormone secreted by the isles of Langerhans in the pancreas; regulates storage of glycogen in the liver and accelerates oxidation of sugar in cells

Wikipedia
Insulin (medication)

Insulin (medication) is the use of insulin and similar proteins as a medication to treat disease. Insulin comes in a number of different types including short acting (such as regular insulin) and long acting (such as NPH insulin). Insulin is used to treat a number of diseases including diabetes and its acute complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic states. It is also used along with glucose to treat high blood potassium levels. Side effects may include: low blood sugar levels, skin reactions at the site of injection and low potassium levels among others. Insulin was first used as a medication in Canada by Charles Best and Frederick Banting in January 1922.

Insulin

Insulin (from the Latin, insula meaning island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets, and by the Brockmann body in some teleost fish. It has important effects on the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein by promoting the absorption of, especially, glucosefrom the blood into fat, liver and skeletal muscle cells. In these tissues the absorbed glucose is converted into either glycogen or fats ( triglycerides), or, in the case of the liver, into both. Glucose production (and excretion into the blood) by the liver is strongly inhibited by high concentrations of insulin in the blood. Circulating insulin also affects the synthesis of proteins in a wide variety of tissues. In high concentrations in the blood it is therefore an anabolic hormone, promoting the conversion of small molecules in the blood into large molecules inside the cells. Low insulin levels in the blood have the opposite effect by promoting widespread catabolism.

The pancreatic beta cells (β cells) are known to be sensitive to the glucose concentration in the blood. When the blood glucose levels are high they secrete insulin into the blood; when the levels are low they cease their secretion of this hormone into the general circulation. Their neighboring alpha cells, probably by taking their cues from the beta cells, secrete glucagon into the blood in the opposite manner: high secretion rates when the blood glucose concentrations are low, and low secretion rates when the glucose levels are high. High glucagon concentrations in the blood plasma powerfully stimulate the liver to release glucose into the blood by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, thus having the opposite effect on the blood glucose level to that produced by high insulin concentrations. The secretion of insulin and glucagon into the blood in response to the blood glucose concentration is the primary mechanism responsible for keeping the glucose levels in the extracellular fluids within very narrow limits at rest, after meals, and during exercise and starvation.

When the pancreatic beta cells are destroyed by an autoimmune process, insulin can no longer be synthesized or be secreted into the blood. This results in type 1 diabetes mellitus, which is characterized by very high blood sugar levels, and generalized body wasting, which is fatal if not treated. This can only be corrected by injecting the hormone, either directly into the blood if the patient is very ill and confused or comatosed, or subcutaneously for routine maintenance therapy, which must be continued for the rest of the person’s life. The exact details of how much insulin needs to be injected, and when during the day, has to be adjusted according to the patient’s daily routine of meals and exercise, in order to mimic the physiological secretion of insulin as closely as is practically possible.

In type 2 diabetes mellitus the destruction of beta cells is less pronounced than in type 1 diabetes, and probably not due to an autoimmune process. Instead there is an accumulation of amyloid in the pancreatic islets, which disrupts the anatomy and physiology of the pancreatic islets. What causes this amyloid deposition is unknown, and precisely how it affects the secretion of insulin and glucagon is not known. What is known is that type 2 diabetes is characterized by high rates of glucagon secretion into the blood which are unaffected by, and unresponsive to the blood glucose levels. Insulin is still secreted into the blood in response to the blood glucose level, but there seems to be a “resistance” to its actions, which may be, at least partly, due to the high glucagon concentrations in the blood. As a result, the insulin levels, even when the blood sugar level is normal, are much higher than they are in healthy persons. There are a variety of treatment regimens, very few of which are entirely satisfactory. When the pancreas’ capacity to secrete insulin can no longer keep the blood sugar level within normal bounds, insulin injections are given. Over 40% of patients with type 2 diabetes require insulin injections as part of their diabetes management plan.

Insulin may have originated more than a billion years ago. The molecular origins of insulin go at least as far back as the simplest unicellular eukaryotes. Apart from animals, insulin-like proteins are also known to exist in the Fungi and Protista kingdoms. The human insulin protein is composed of 51 amino acids, and has a molecular mass of 5808 Da. It is a dimer of an A-chain and a B-chain, which are linked together by disulfide bonds. Insulin's structure varies slightly between species of animals. Insulin from animal sources differs somewhat in effectiveness (in carbohydrate metabolism effects) from human insulin because of these variations. Porcine insulin is especially close to the human version, and was widely used to treat type 1 diabetics before human insulin could be produced in large quantities by recombinant DNA technologies.

The crystal structure of insulin in the solid state was determined by Dorothy Hodgkin; she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1964. It is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.

Usage examples of "insulin".

I gave him the invoices and explained the significance of insulin and collagenase, and the way they could be ordered.

The company that had sent insulin and collagenase had had similar headings.

Unfortunately, the alcohol extraction also removes the phytoestrogens, which are beneficial for promoting estrogen-like activity and decreasing insulin response.

Water extraction of soy flour produces a soy protein isolate that contains more than 90 percent protein by weight, and retains more of the phytoestrogens, which are beneficial for promoting estrogen-like activity and decreasing insulin response.

The diabetologist makes sure to let us know a week in advance when a patient is going home so we can teach the patient about his insulin injections.

Unfortunately, the higher amounts of carbohydrates in these little extras will elevate your insulin and shoot you right out of the Zone.

The excess insulin has a disastrous effect on our waistlines: it causes our fat cells to store extra calories, whether from proteins, fats, or carbohydrates, in the form of body fat.

Since fruits and vegetables are low-density carbohydrates, it is very difficult to overconsume them, and hence difficult to overproduce insulin.

But even complex carbohydrates like bread and potatoes have a high glycemic index and trigger a rush of insulin, while simple carbohydrates like fructose do not.

The total glycemic load of a meal will determine the amount of insulin released after a meal.

This insulinase sees to it that no insulin remains to push the blood glucose level too low.

In the same study, overweight but nondiabetic individuals had a 40 percent decrease in their elevated insulin levels.

He grew up keeping his blood sugars under control through insulin, diet, and exercise, and led a relatively normal life until he was past 30, long enough to prove that doctor, the one overheard outside his hospital room when he as nine, dead wrong.

I was not well up in medical discoveries, but everybody knew about insulin and how Banting and Best evolved it in a shed on the Toronto campus.

It was reported in 1963 that the parathyroid produces a second hormone, calcitonin, acting in opposition to tbe parathyroid hormone, as insulin acts in opposition to glucagon.