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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
species
noun
COLLOCATIONS FROM OTHER ENTRIES
an insect species
▪ Large numbers of insect species are becoming extinct.
endangered species (=one that soon may no longer exist)
▪ The lizards are classed as an endangered species .
fish species (also species of fish) (= the group of fish that are similar and can breed together)
▪ 74 of California's 113 native fish species are in need of protection.
native species
▪ Singapore has many native species of palm.
protected species
▪ Spotted owls are a protected species.
COLLOCATIONS FROM CORPUS
■ ADJECTIVE
certain
▪ Forest Goblins even eat certain species of spiders which they regard as especially succulent and superior to any other kind of flesh.
▪ The growth of certain species of algae can become quite think if uncontrolled.
▪ In addition to certain species of cuckoo, there are about 30 species of birds worldwide that are also brood parasites.
▪ The extent to which certain species of marine fishes may be tamed was published some time ago in a popular weekly magazine.
▪ Now individual humans may honourably choose not to kill and or eat certain species of animals.
▪ During the same time, certain species dominating the initial reef disappeared.
▪ Little was known about the requirements of certain species.
▪ How is it, then, that caffeine is found in plants as unrelated as certain species of lilies and cacti?
different
▪ Loudspeakers play the songs of different cricket species from her left and right.
▪ Figure 2b illustrates that the exon-enriched probe detects conserved sequences in different species.
▪ Just one version is allowed to remain within a species, whatever happens when different species are compared.
▪ After all, his results and Roux's might have differed simply because they had worked on different species.
▪ Furthermore, a monograph of any large tropical group will show varying degrees of recognition of the ecological requirements of different species.
▪ It ignores the obvious discriminations which we make between similar treatment of different species within the animal kingdom.
▪ Month-by-month guide to the fascinating behaviour of a wide range of different animal species.
▪ Soil, for example, can easily have millions of bacteria - of very many different species - in just a gram.
endangered
▪ Today, with competition first from high street supermarkets and now from out of town hypermarkets, they are an endangered species.
▪ The legislation pertaining to protection of wetlands and endangered species is clearly being abused by extremists pursuing ulterior motives.
▪ It gives a detailed list of endangered areas and species.
▪ Ocelots, jaguars, otters, tapirs, harpy eagles, and other endangered species survive there.
▪ Now these animals are, basically, in the way, occupying caged needed for endangered species.
▪ Zoos contribute substantially to the captive banks of many endangered species and those that are less rare.
▪ It's one of a long list of endangered species in a 2 hour Central Documentary tonight.
▪ This region of unusual geological features is home to a number of endangered species, including ocelot and jaguar.
human
▪ In the human species those burdens are represented by the acceptance of personal responsibility.
▪ So long as the human species remains at once sentient and vulnerable, fear will influence thoughts and actions.
▪ The human species has probably not undergone much genetic change in recorded time.
▪ By analogy, we can see much the same process in our own human species, both biologically and culturally.
▪ Whereupon those High Masters - the self-proclaimed servants of the Emperor - could control the entire human species galaxy-wide, almost instantaneously.
▪ A good example is the human species.
▪ According to Blackwell, morality involved the evolution of self-consciousness which had developed only in the human species.
▪ No one thinks it an important proposition that what promotes survival of the human species promotes survival of the human species.
large
▪ This is a large species of eagle owl, hunting the large gerbil that lives on the short grass plains of Serengeti.
▪ These are mainly large species of the genus Echinodorus.
▪ It does not grow as fast as N. indicum, but the slender stalks produce more aerial leaves than the larger species.
▪ The taller plants should be mostly Aponogeton, Echinodorus, and the larger species of Anubias and Lagenandra.
▪ The Green Woodpecker - is the largest species of woodpecker in Britain.
▪ Apart from E. cordifolius this is the only large species penetrating to the edge of the temperate zone.
▪ I would have four pairs of dwarfs, or three pairs of dwarfs and one of the larger species.
▪ The acreage set aside is one of the largest for species protected by the federal Endangered Species Act.
native
▪ Zoologists say the problem's so bad native species could be at risk.
▪ Unchecked by natural predators and conditions, they reproduce by the millions, chasing out native species.
▪ The new Bill covers introduced as well as native species and will allow ministers to decide which animals may be commercially bred.
▪ However, it has been claimed that there are two native species of honey-producing wasps in California.
▪ The three native species are all winter visitors in the central and southern parts of the region.
▪ But 25 native species are endangered, seven to the verge of extinction.
▪ So many have been released in the wild that they're threatening native species.
▪ Stick to native species to ensure the tree is suitable for the soil in your area.
new
▪ As the Bishop underlines, the dark moth is not a new species.
▪ Each year thereafter new species blow in from outside the fence and take root.
▪ As Gould rightly assumed, vast areas of terraincognita held enormous possibilities for new and exotic species.
▪ He was more interested in pinpointing areas where he could find the most new species.
▪ Figure 7.1 illustrates the very obvious way in which a new fossil species may seem to be diachronous.
▪ Smoked out An extraordinary new species has been sighted in the centre of Edinburgh recently.
▪ Slater seems to be a new species of skinhead.
▪ He supplied lists of fossils for publication in memoirs and described numerous new species in a great many papers.
other
▪ Dusky dolphins and Burmeister's porpoise are considerably more abundant and wide-ranging than the other three species.
▪ They certainly go beyond the pre-linguistic prototypes of language, and demonstrate the capability of certain individual apes to outpace other species.
▪ It is a peaceful community fish when kept with other species of similar size and behaviour.
▪ Many other prey species flee upwards to safety rather than downwards.
▪ Not only have tigers doubled in numbers, but other species and habitats have benefited.
▪ One or two other species of bird have developed a much more accurate technique of finding their way in the dark.
▪ It is adaptive for animals not to mate with members of other species.
▪ Cultivation: Unlike the other species, this one requires a nutritious bottom.
particular
▪ It is always important to find out as much as possible about the normal living conditions of a particular species.
▪ What was unusual was that the particular species of Discula which was able to kill dogwoods could not be identified.
▪ Under the treaty, exceptions are granted to countries who have a traditional dependence on a particular species.
▪ The golden stripe grouper is a particular hardy species in captivity and will eat cut fish and beef or horse meat.
▪ We have seen how the vibration frequencies may be observed and how each may be allocated to a particular symmetry species.
▪ Every year particular species arrive and disappear, and change in absolute and relative abundance.
▪ Often children develop animal phobias, even when they have always had good relations with a particular species of animal.
▪ You may like to experiment with colour schemes designed to display particular fish species to best advantage.
rare
▪ Today the locations of many rare or endangered species are closely guarded secrets.
▪ Or suppose the individual is an eaglet of a rare species anxiously watched by conservationists in its nest.
▪ Last year rare species worth half a million pounds pounds have been stolen in raids around the country.
▪ The rule is an attempt to prevent harm to pets or rare species that may wander into the traps.
▪ But the subject of both pieces is a rare species and one of the genuine and original characters.
▪ Certified divers can explore the crystal waters of San Solomon Springs and night dive to see two rare aquatic species.
▪ It is ideal for sighting rare arctic-alpine species of plant life.
▪ This time the threat is not to man, but to rare species of seal, por poise and sea birds.
single
▪ Because they were descended from them, many sometimes descending from a single ancestral species.
▪ The genus contains only a single species.
▪ Humans are not the centre of life, nor is any other single species.
▪ The cryptocorynes occur mainly in cultures of single species on overgrown river beds and are exposed to the conditions of amphibious life.
▪ So, think wisely before you devote all your time to carp - or any other single species.
▪ One-plant cultures of a single species developed vegetatively, occupying shallow brooks with a stony ground covered with sand, are typical.
▪ This compares with only three species in the predator assemblage, with 66 percent consisting of a single species.
▪ I have come to accept Joe AliTs premise that not a single species is unaffected by the rot taking place.
small
▪ The fish you first introduced were small species, and the aquarium is quite large.
▪ Outwardly the plant resembles the small species of the submersed Sagittaria.
▪ In fact the Minke whale, the smallest species, has always been hunted with a non-explosive grenade.
▪ In Echinodorus this is relatively rare and is found only in the smallest species, E. quadricostatus and E. tenellus.
▪ The tank has never had more than seven or eight small species at any time.
▪ Only a small number of species are found in the southern temperate zone or in the tropics.
▪ Barbel Corner gave chub, bream and smaller species.
various
▪ There are various species of Sizewell men - no, in modern political circles, Sizewell people.
▪ Clearly this is much easier if we can associate bands in the spectrum with the various possible symmetry species.
▪ Binding sites for ET-1 and its receptor mRNA are found in the airways and pulmonary vasculature of various species including man.
▪ Imagine the myriads of such infrared and other pathways and signals that the various insect species must be utilizing.
▪ There are many different kinds of mating systems in the various species of animals.
▪ Mussels and various species of barnacle are obvious examples.
■ NOUN
animal
▪ Half the animal species of the world and 90,000 out of 250,000 known plant species, live in the rainforests.
▪ A team of volunteers works with each animal species, and ducks are the only species fed after release, Lacye said.
▪ Month-by-month guide to the fascinating behaviour of a wide range of different animal species.
▪ Native peoples who depend on the forests for their livelihoods, and animal species like the Siberian tiger, have suffered.
▪ Any animal species that happens to be superficially dull will be ignored, perhaps even maltreated.
▪ In the meantime, what are the natural levels of social grouping for other animal species?
▪ These have a carcinogenic effect in 39 animal species, including primates.
bird
▪ The forests are home to 12 % of the world's mammal species and almost a fifth of bird species.
▪ More than 100 bird species and 35 mammal species have been identified at the park.
▪ The Amazon rainforests alone are home to many unique animals and to one fifth of the world's bird species.
▪ This has profound implications for our understanding of the evolution of sexually monomorphic ornaments in many other bird species.
▪ About 1,000 bird species are deemed at risk of extinction, and 88 of those are parrots.
▪ Individuals of many bird species give alarm calls when they spot a dangerous predator.
▪ Fewer than 50 bird species are polyandrous.
▪ You can see many different bird species on the canal.
plant
▪ Half the animal species of the world and 90,000 out of 250,000 known plant species, live in the rainforests.
▪ Exactly how and when these plant species came to the Great Plains is not certain.
▪ According to the report, traditional pasturelands support up to 200 plant species whereas modern fields support only three or four.
▪ An aquarium is only a small water reservoir into which only a few plant species can be planted.
▪ It argues that it is impractical for countries to protect their interests by patenting plant species.
▪ This property has been recognised in many plant species.
▪ There are, in fact, many animal and plant species that have taken this road.
▪ These include dragonflies, in particular the blue tailed damselfly, and several rare plant species.
tree
▪ The black and white feeds in a narrow range of tree species and when none is fruiting it eats leaves.
▪ The defoliation oil preferred tree species is complete, with trees utterly denuded in the space of a week.
▪ On Tobago, the fruits of the tree species had significantly more thickened layers and higher frequencies of multiple seeds and so on.
▪ The process of both clearance and replanting continues today, although different tree species are often involved.
▪ Over the years a mix of tree species of varying ages has been established creating valuable wildlife habitats.
▪ Within the range of a single tree species, there may be very distinctly different assemblages of birds taking the fruits.
■ VERB
endanger
▪ The birds are included in the same category as tigers on the list of most endangered species.
▪ It is not believed that any endangered species are at risk from the fire.
▪ More importantly, perhaps, they represent the Return of the Director, an endangered species rarely glimpsed in recent years.
▪ Stand-alone hospitals are an endangered species unless they have a unique service to offer.
▪ He says what endangered species conflicts are really all about is a lack of planning.
▪ Unlawfully killing an endangered species can result in a one-year sentence and a $ 50, 000 fine.
▪ As a result of anti-pollution laws, some companies have become endangered species. 14.
▪ The winter-run chinook was listed as a protected species under the state and federal endangered species acts in 1989.
find
▪ He was more interested in pinpointing areas where he could find the most new species.
▪ Under these conditions are found all the species preferring the terrestrial way of life.
▪ Cultural behaviour is therefore most likely to be found in species that form social groups.
Find a new vent site and you are guaranteed to find new species.
▪ It is rare to find two or more species of Cryptocoryne living together.
▪ On examination, it was found that two species were largely insectivorous, two largely fig-eaters and five were generalist frugivores.
▪ Research is under way at the Open University to find out which species of trees and shrubs and which management regimes are best.
protect
▪ The winter-run chinook was listed as a protected species under the state and federal endangered species acts in 1989.
▪ The plan also provided for measures to protect endangered species, protect the ozone layer and increase energy conservation.
▪ Great economic sacrifices have been made by developers, loggers and fishermen to protect endangered species.
▪ The legislation that exists to protect endangered species is often inadequate and lacks proper enforcement.
▪ Yet it has no law protecting threatened species.
threaten
▪ Individual immortality would threaten the species as a whole - almost certainly with fatal results.
▪ The Nature Company is no longer a threatened species.
▪ This is a practice that has threatened several species.
▪ As a threatened species, the snowy plover is protected under the federal Endangered Species Act.
▪ In some regions of the state, this is threatening several species of fish, he says.
▪ The release was part of a yearlong Towson State University study of the threatened species.
▪ A new airport may still threaten many bird species.
▪ Some threatened species have special qualities or abilities and may hold the key to undiscovered benefits.
EXAMPLES FROM OTHER ENTRIES
▪ Many species of aquatic plants can exist in very little light.
▪ Scientists have discovered a new species of Eucalyptus tree.
▪ The giant panda is an endangered species. There are fewer than a thousand living in the wild.
▪ There are over forty species of bird living on the island.
EXAMPLES FROM CORPUS
▪ Clear lakes have more species than do those with muddy water.
▪ If world insect species totals are as high as 50 million, this would extend to 28,345 species per insect specialist.
▪ Scientists have begun to investigate and to identify some of the possible causes, which may differ from species to species.
▪ The achenes of Sagittaria species differ from those of Echinodorus species by not being ribbed.
▪ The eggs of this species are shed in a packet - that is several stuck together - and sink.
▪ The large numbers of wild orchids being traded threatens some species with extinction.
▪ Then the bans on the cull grenade, released at the same time, came into effect for all species of whales.
▪ This sweeping view of our species makes it clear that we must urgently learn from our past to plan for our future.
The Collaborative International Dictionary
Species

Species \Spe"cies\, n. sing. & pl. [L., a sight, outward appearance, shape, form, a particular sort, kind, or quality, a species. See Spice, n., and cf. Specie, Special.]

  1. Visible or sensible presentation; appearance; a sensible percept received by the imagination; an image. [R.] ``The species of the letters illuminated with indigo and violet.''
    --Sir I. Newton.

    Wit, . . . the faculty of imagination in the writer, which searches over all the memory for the species or ideas of those things which it designs to represent.
    --Dryden.

    Note: In the scholastic philosophy, the species was sensible and intelligible. The sensible species was that in any material, object which was in fact discerned by the mind through the organ of perception, or that in any object which rendered it possible that it should be perceived. The sensible species, as apprehended by the understanding in any of the relations of thought, was called an intelligible species. ``An apparent diversity between the species visible and audible is, that the visible doth not mingle in the medium, but the audible doth.''
    --Bacon.

  2. (Logic) A group of individuals agreeing in common attributes, and designated by a common name; a conception subordinated to another conception, called a genus, or generic conception, from which it differs in containing or comprehending more attributes, and extending to fewer individuals. Thus, man is a species, under animal as a genus; and man, in its turn, may be regarded as a genus with respect to European, American, or the like, as species.

  3. In science, a more or less permanent group of existing things or beings, associated according to attributes, or properties determined by scientific observation.

    Note: In mineralogy and chemistry, objects which possess the same definite chemical structure, and are fundamentally the same in crystallization and physical characters, are classed as belonging to a species. In zo["o]logy and botany, a species is an ideal group of individuals which are believed to have descended from common ancestors, which agree in essential characteristics, and are capable of indefinitely continued fertile reproduction through the sexes. A species, as thus defined, differs from a variety or subspecies only in the greater stability of its characters and in the absence of individuals intermediate between the related groups.

  4. A sort; a kind; a variety; as, a species of low cunning; a species of generosity; a species of cloth.

  5. Coin, or coined silver, gold, or other metal, used as a circulating medium; specie. [Obs.]

    There was, in the splendor of the Roman empire, a less quantity of current species in Europe than there is now.
    --Arbuthnot.

  6. A public spectacle or exhibition. [Obs.]
    --Bacon.

  7. (Pharmacy)

    1. A component part of a compound medicine; a simple.

    2. (Med.) An officinal mixture or compound powder of any kind; esp., one used for making an aromatic tea or tisane; a tea mixture.
      --Quincy.

  8. (Civil Law) The form or shape given to materials; fashion or shape; form; figure.
    --Burill.

    Incipient species (Zo["o]l.), a subspecies, or variety, which is in process of becoming permanent, and thus changing to a true species, usually by isolation in localities from which other varieties are excluded.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary
species

late 14c. as a classification in logic, from Latin species "a particular sort, kind, or type" (opposed to genus), originally "a sight, look, view, appearance," hence also "a spectacle; mental appearance, idea, notion; a look; a pretext; a resemblance; a show or display," typically in passive senses; in Late Latin, "a special case;" related to specere "to look at, to see, behold," from PIE *spek- (see scope (n.1)). From 1550s as "appearance, outward form;" 1560s as "distinct class (of something) based on common characteristics." Biological sense is from c.1600. Endangered species first attested 1964.

Wiktionary
species

n. 1 A type or kind of thing. 2 # A group of plants or animals having similar appearance.

WordNet
species
  1. n. (biology) taxonomic group whose members can interbreed

  2. a specific kind of something; "a species of molecule"; "a species of villainy"

Wikipedia
Species (disambiguation)

Species is one of the basic units of biological classification.

Species may also refer to:

Species (metaphysics)

Species, in metaphysics, is a specific genus-differentia defined item that is described first by its genus (genos) and then its differentia (diaphora). Put differently, it is an item, not necessarily biological, that belongs to a group and can be distinguished from other species in that group.

For example, a human being as a species can be defined as an animal (genus) that can reason (differentia).

The term is derived from the Greek word eidos, which means form in Plato's dialogues but should be taken to mean species in Aristotle's corpus.

Species (Christianity)

Species is an older English word meaning 'external form or appearance'. In Christianity, when the wine is turned into blood, it is believed to literally become blood, which then retains only the species of the wine, meaning the appearance, taste, smell and feel of the wine.

Category:Christian terminology

Species (film)

Species is a 1995 American science fiction horror thriller film directed by Roger Donaldson and written by Dennis Feldman. It stars Natasha Henstridge, Ben Kingsley, Michael Madsen, Alfred Molina, Forest Whitaker and Marg Helgenberger. In the film, a motley crew of scientists and government agents tries to track down an alien seductress played by Natasha Henstridge before she successfully mates with a human male. Due to her ruthlessness, the alien character was cited as an example of negative treatment of female sexuality and aliens by the Hollywood film industry. The design of Sil was also linked to a chupacabra sighting.

The film was conceived by Feldman in 1987, and was originally pitched as a film treatment in the style of a police procedural, entitled The Message. When The Message failed to attract the studios, Feldman re-wrote it as a spec script, which ultimately led to the making of the film. The extraterrestrial in Species, an alien woman named Sil, was designed by H. R. Giger, also responsible for the beings from the Alien franchise. The effects combined practical models done by Giger collaborator Steve Johnson and XFX, with computer-generated imagery done by Richard Edlund's Boss Film Studios. Giger felt the film and the character were too similar to Alien, so he pushed for script changes.

Most of the principal photography was done in Los Angeles, California, where the film is set. Several scenes were filmed in Utah and at the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico. The film was poorly received by critics, but nevertheless turned out to be a box office success, grossing US$113 million ($ million in dollars). It spawned one theatrical sequel ( Species II), as well as two direct-to-video sequels ( Species III and Species: The Awakening). Species was adapted into a novel by Yvonne Navarro and two comic book series by Dark Horse Comics, one of which was written by Feldman.

Species

In biology, a species (abbreviated sp., with the plural form species abbreviated spp.) is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals are capable of reproducing fertile offspring, typically using sexual reproduction. While in many cases this definition is adequate, the difficulty of defining species is known as the species problem. For example, a species complex is a group of closely related species that are very similar in appearance to the point that the boundaries between them are often unclear. Differentiating measures include similarity of DNA, morphology, or ecological niche. Presence of specific locally adapted traits may further subdivide species into " infraspecific taxa" such as subspecies (and in botany other taxa are used, such as varieties, subvarieties, and formae).

Species hypothesized to have the same ancestors are placed in one genus, based on similarities. The similarity of species is judged based on comparison of physical attributes, and where available, their DNA sequences. All species are given a two-part name, a "binomial name", or just "binomial". The first part of a binomial is the generic name, the genus to which the species belongs. The second part is either called the specific name (a term used only in zoology) or the specific epithet (the term used in botany, which can also be used in zoology). For example, Boa constrictor is one of four species of the Boa genus. While the genus gets capitalized, the specific epithet does not. The binomial is written in italics when printed and underlined when handwritten.

A usable definition of the word "species" and reliable methods of identifying particular species are essential for stating and testing biological theories and for measuring biodiversity, though other taxonomic levels such as families may be considered in broad-scale studies. Extinct species known only from fossils are generally difficult to assign precise taxonomic rankings, which is why higher taxonomic levels such as families are often used for fossil-based studies.

The total number of non- bacterial and non- archaeal species in the world has been estimated at 8.7 million, with previous estimates ranging from two million to 100 million.

Usage examples of "species".

I think this must be admitted, when we find that there are hardly any domestic races, either amongst animals or plants, which have not been ranked by some competent judges as mere varieties, and by other competent judges as the descendants of aboriginally distinct species.

But to extend the hypothesis so far as to suppose that species, aboriginally as distinct as carriers, tumblers, pouters, and fantails now are, should yield offspring perfectly fertile, inter se, seems to me rash in the extreme.

I have ever conversed, or whose treatises I have read, are firmly convinced that the several breeds to which each has attended, are descended from so many aboriginally distinct species.

In some cases, I do not doubt that the intercrossing of species, aboriginally distinct, has played an important part in the origin of our domestic productions.

For when it is stated, for instance, that the German Spitz dog unites more easily than other dogs with foxes, or that certain South American indigenous domestic dogs do not readily cross with European dogs, the explanation which will occur to everyone, and probably the true one, is that these dogs have descended from several aboriginally distinct species.

Evidently, the Acme shop simply carried red primroses, of the species primula obconica because there was a call for them.

His upper lip was furry and mobile, making his face more expressive than those of earlier adapid species.

Throughout our history we have proved to be a remarkably adaptable species.

Hence since it is seen in its proper species, and is adored in heaven, it is not seen under its proper species in this sacrament.

She had found four species that adsorbed heavy metals, and two that absorbed dissolved silicates and fixed them into their rigid stalks.

Pleistocene Age, when the world warmed up and people became much more mobile, and that the cultivation of wild species, before agriculture proper, encouraged the birth of more children.

Among the molluscs and zoophytes, I found in the meshes of the net several species of alcyonarians, echini, hammers, spurs, dials, cerites, and hyalleae.

Because they evolved rapidly, had worldwide distribution by virtue of their open-water habitats, and species are readily distinguished, ammonoids are index fossils for the Jurassic.

Fourteen species of autotrophic nannoflagellates, twenty heterotrophic flagellates, forty heterotrophic dinoflagellates, and several metazoans, including polychaetes, amphipods, copepods, euphausids, and fish.

Meanwhile, thanks to the genius of our Ancestral Hosts, we have found a way to reclaim some of our lost species.