The Collaborative International Dictionary
diabetes \di`a*be"tes\, n. [NL., from Gr. ?, fr. ? to pass or cross over. See Diabase.] (Med.) Any of several diseases which is attended with a persistent, excessive discharge of urine; when used without qualification, the term usually refers to diabetes mellitus. The most common form is diabetes mellitus, in which the urine is not only increased in quantity, but contains saccharine matter, and the condition if untreated is generally fatal.
Note: The two major subtypes recognized are
diabetes mellitus. In diabetes insipidus there is
excretion of large amounts of urine of relatively low
density, accompanied by extreme thirst, but the urine
contains no abnormal constituent. The more serious form
diabetes mellitus (from Latin mellitus, sweetened with
honey) is a metabolic disease in which the utilization of
carbohydrate is reduced and that of lipids and proteins is
increased. This form is caused by a deficiency in insulin
(which is mostly formed in the pancreas), and may be
accompanied by glucosuria, hyperglycemia, elecrolyte loss,
ketoacidosis, and sometimes coma. It has severe long-term
effects, including damage to the nerves, the retina, and
the kidney, and degeneration of blood vessels which may
lead to poor circulation, especially in the limbs,
subsequent infection, and eventual loss of limbs.
Diabetes mellitus itself has recognized variants, being
divided into insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and
non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is also called
adult-onset diabetes (abbreviated NIDDM), and is the
less severe form of diabetes mellitus, occurring mostly in
obese individuals over the age of 35. It may be treated by
diet and oral hypoglycemic agents, though occasionally
serious degenerative effects may develop.
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (abbreviated IDDM),
also called type I diabetes, is a severe form of the
disease, usually starting when the affected person is
young (hence also called juvenile-onset diabetes). In
addition to the increased urine (polyuria) common to all
forms of diabetes, this form is characterized by low
levels of insulin in the blood, ketoacidosis, increased
appetite, and increased fluid intake, and may lead to
weight loss and eventually the severe degenerative effects
mentioned above. Treatment requires administration of
insulin and careful regulation of the diet.
Diabetes mellitus [NL., sweet diabetes], that form of diabetes in which the urine contains saccharine matter.
Diabetes insipidus [NL., lit., diabetes], the form of diabetes in which the urine contains no abnormal constituent.
n. A medical disorder characterized by varying or persistent hyperglycemia, especially after eating.
n. diabetes caused by a relative or absolute deficiency of insulin and characterized by polyuria; "when doctors say `diabetes' they usually mean `diabetes mellitus'" [syn: DM]
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, nonketotic hyperosmolar coma, or death. Serious long-term complications include heart disease, stroke, chronic kidney failure, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.
- Type 1 DM results from the pancreas's failure to produce enough insulin. This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes". The cause is unknown.
- Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly. As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop. This form was previously referred to as "non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes". The primary cause is excessive body weight and not enough exercise.
- Gestational diabetes is the third main form and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood-sugar levels.
Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco. Control of blood pressure and maintaining proper foot care are important for people with the disease. Type 1 DM must be managed with insulin injections. Type 2 DM may be treated with medications with or without insulin. Insulin and some oral medications can cause low blood sugar. Weight loss surgery in those with obesity is sometimes an effective measure in those with type 2 DM. Gestational diabetes usually resolves after the birth of the baby.
, an estimated 415 million people had diabetes worldwide, with type 2 DM making up about 90% of the cases. This represents 8.3% of the adult population, with equal rates in both women and men. , trends suggested the rate would continue to rise. Diabetes at least doubles a person's risk of early death. From 2012 to 2015, approximately 1.5 to 5.0 million deaths each year resulted from diabetes. The global economic cost of diabetes in 2014 was estimated to be billion. In the United States, diabetes cost $245 billion in 2012.
Usage examples of "diabetes mellitus".
Even the oldest kids tried not to get too serious, because they did not want to marry and have children who might get diabetes mellitus.
But in essence, it's this way: I have what is called 'juvenile diabetes mellitus'.
Why, I have even had wonderful success with such disorders as diabetes mellitus.
I have been told that in two years time your work may lead to the full suppression of diabetes mellitus for good.
According to Schwartz (1906) the seeds of Lupinus Arabicus contain a crystalline substance to which he gave the name of Magolan, which is a useful remedy in diabetes mellitus.