Crossword clues for hormone
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
The Collaborative International Dictionary
Hormone \Hor"mone\ (h[^o]r"m[=o]n), n. [From Gr. "orma`ein to excite.]
(Physiological Chem.) A chemical substance formed in one organ and carried in the circulation to another organ on which it exerts a specific effect on cells at a distance from the producing cells; thus, pituitary hormones produced in the brain may have effects on cells in distant parts of the body..
(Physiological Chem.) a chemical substance, whether natural or synthetic, that functions like a hormone in a living organism. Thus, synthetic steroid hormones may be more effective than their natural counterparts.
(Bot.) A substance that controls growth rate or differentiation in plants; also called phytohormone. The most well-known are the auxins that stimulate growth at the growing tips of plants, and control root formation and the dropping of leaves; and the gibberellins, which are used in agriculture to promote plant growth.
Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary
1905, from Greek hormon "that which sets in motion," present participle of horman "impel, urge on," from horme "onset, impulse," from PIE *or-sma-, from root *er- "to move, set in motion." Used by Hippocrates to denote a vital principle; modern meaning coined by English physiologist Ernest Henry Starling (1866-1927). Jung used horme (1915) in reference to hypothetical mental energy that drives unconscious activities and instincts. Related: Hormones.
n. 1 (context physiology English) Any substance produced by one tissue and conveyed by the bloodstream to another to effect physiological activity. 2 (context pharmacology English) A synthetic compound with the same activity. 3 Any similar substance in plants.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “”) is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour. Hormones have diverse chemical structures, mainly of 3 classes: eicosanoids, steroids, and amino acid derivatives ( amines, peptides, and proteins). The glands that secrete hormones comprise the endocrine signaling system. The term hormone is sometimes extended to include chemicals produced by cells that affect the same cell ( autocrine or intracrine signalling) or nearby cells ( paracrine signalling).
Hormones are used to communicate between organs and tissues for physiological regulation and behavioral activities, such as digestion, metabolism, respiration, tissue function, sensory perception, sleep, excretion, lactation, stress, growth and development, movement, reproduction, and mood. Hormones affect distant cells by binding to specific receptor proteins in the target cell resulting in a change in cell function. When a hormone binds to the receptor, it results in the activation of a signal transduction pathway. This may lead to cell type-specific responses that include rapid non-genomic effects or slower genomic responses where the hormones acting through their receptors activate gene transcription resulting in increased expression of target proteins. Amino acid–based hormones (amines and peptide or protein hormones) are water-soluble and act on the surface of target cells via second messengers; steroid hormones, being lipid-soluble, move through the plasma membranes of target cells (both cytoplasmic and nuclear) to act within their nuclei.
Hormone secretion may occur in many tissues. Endocrine glands are the cardinal example, but specialized cells in various other organs also secrete hormones. Hormone secretion occurs in response to specific biochemical signals from a wide range of regulatory systems. For instance, serum calcium concentration affects parathyroid hormone synthesis; blood sugar (serum glucose concentration) affects insulin synthesis; and because the outputs of the stomach and exocrine pancreas (the amounts of gastric juice and pancreatic juice) become the input of the small intestine, the small intestine secretes hormones to stimulate or inhibit the stomach and pancreas based on how busy it is. Regulation of hormone synthesis of gonadal hormones, adrenocortical hormones, and thyroid hormones is often dependent on complex sets of direct influence and feedback interactions involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA), -gonadal (HPG), and -thyroid (HPT) axes.
Upon secretion, certain hormones, including protein hormones and catecholamines, are water-soluble and are thus readily transported through the circulatory system. Other hormones, including steroid and thyroid hormones, are lipid-soluble; to allow for their widespread distribution, these hormones must bond to carrier plasma glycoproteins (e.g., thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)) to form ligand-protein complexes. Some hormones are completely active when released into the bloodstream (as is the case for insulin and growth hormones), while others are prohormones that must be activated in specific cells through a series of activation steps that are commonly highly regulated. The endocrine system secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream typically into fenestrated capillaries, whereas the exocrine system secretes its hormones indirectly using ducts. Hormones with paracrine function diffuse through the interstitial spaces to nearby target tissue.
Hormone or Hormones may refer to:
- Hormone, a chemical that sends messages in a plant or animal
- "Hormone", the NATO reporting name for the Soviet/Russian Kamov Ka-25 military helicopter
- Hormones (film), a 2008 Thai film
- Hormones, a medical journal now named Hormone Research in Paediatrics
Usage examples of "hormone".
Stillbirths, abortuses, and placentas are in hot demand at the BLI for the dozen or so groups doing hormone research.
In adolescence the feelings of the Child replay in greatly amplified form as the hormones turn on and as the adolescent turns away from his parents as the principal source of stroking to his own age group for stroking of a new kind.
That gland, the adrenal cortex, also produces sex hormones, and especially androgens.
It works this way-any kind if stress situation causes the pituitary gland to release a protein substance called adrenocorticotrophic hormone, ACTH for short.
It stands to reason that reduced DHEA levels can translate into reductions of these other hormones, particularly the other androgens, androstenedione and testosterone.
KX3 reacts with one of the hormones overproduced in an anorectic body.
Whatever hormone Cor had in his kith, it made Xishi as crazed for him as he was for her.
It stimulates your release of growth hormone and ornithine decarboxylase enzymes.
Jane, who started dieting about forty years ago at the age of twelve, the same time her adolescent hormones began to go haywire.
A lot of things release growth hormones: high-intensity exercise, hypoglycemia, trauma, sleep, dopaminergic stimulants, such amino acids as L-arginine and L-ornithine.
When, a little over a decade later, Bayliss and Starling worked out the concept of a hormone, it seemed very likely that the islets of Langerhans were ductless glands producing a hormone and that lack of this hormone brought on diabetes mellitus.
Recent studies give indications that there are more dyslexic boys than girls not only because of genetics but also because exposure to the male hormone testosteroneaffects boys during prenatal development of the brain.
One might think that this would be determined by a hormone that is secreted at the proper time, neutralizing ecdysone, ending the molts, and initiating metamorphosis.
She could taste the hormone spilling into her mouth as the engorged glands began to fill and demand the sharing.
Female hormones feminize the male body by softening the skin, reducing the growth of body hair, broadening the hips, and enlarging the breasts and nipples.