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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
hormone replacement therapy
▪ Thus, antidiuretic hormone should be given, as well.
▪ It seems clear that glucocorticoid must be present for antidiuretic hormone release to be fully inhibited.
▪ Addition of solute causes a rise in tonicity with stimulation of both thirst and antidiuretic hormone release.
▪ It appears that thyroid hormone is also required for full suppression of antidiuretic hormone release.
▪ In the absence of antidiuretic hormone, the distal tubule and collecting duct are impermeable to water.
▪ When tonicity rises, release of antidiuretic hormone increases water reabsorption and reduces excretion of solute-free water.
▪ When antidiuretic hormone is present to a maximal degree, urine concentration is high.
▪ When antidiuretic hormone is absent, urinary dilution occurs.
▪ He was told by doctors he has higher natural levels of female hormones than most men.
▪ Boys who were exposed to female hormones are worse at spatial tasks.
▪ The human growth hormone is the next in a long line of chemicals to be manufactured industrially, using recombinant-DNA techniques.
▪ Testosterone and human growth hormones are among the substances mentioned in such accusations.
▪ Therefore it would be these human hormones that the shark would detect and home in on.
▪ Does human growth hormone really help?
▪ The disease has also been linked to treatment with human growth hormones extracted from pituitary glands after death.
▪ Because sebum production is stimulated by male hormones, severe, intractable acne can be eased in women with estrogen or spironolactone.
▪ It is linked to hormones, the male androgen hormones being responsible for spot and grease problems in both sexes.
▪ Girls who were exposed to male hormones in the womb are better at spatial tasks.
▪ Women usually have a small amount of the male hormone testosterone circulating in their bodies.
▪ His problem was one of testosterone - the major male hormone.
▪ I stayed at home as much as possible while I took massive doses of testosterone, the male hormone.
▪ But once Ollie had started to mature socially, his male hormone output enhanced his urge to gain a higher social level.
▪ Hyperparathyroidism was ruled out by a serum parathyroid hormone assay.
▪ Little is known about the side-effects of synthetic growth hormone, particularly in normal children.
▪ Then it was found that the use of synthetic hormones tended to produce cancer.
▪ The surgeons told them that they could always use synthetic hormones.
▪ Those species studied have large thyroid glands and a high level of circulating thyroid hormones.
▪ It appears that thyroid hormone is also required for full suppression of antidiuretic hormone release.
▪ As the epithelial cells manufacture the thyroid hormones, the hormones are stored in the thyroglobulin molecule.
▪ There are conflicting reports of spontaneous and stimulated growth hormone secretion in childhood Crohn's disease.
▪ These deer are grass-fed; growth hormones or other chemical additives are not used.
▪ The insulin like growth factors are thought to mediate some of the effects of growth hormone on tissues.
▪ Physical stimulation releases healing growth hormones into the immune sys-tem.
▪ Somatostatin, a hormone that inhibits the release of growth hormone, is now well know, but its opposite proved elusive.
▪ In 1987, the agency had directed blood banks to similarly disqualify donors who have received pituitary-derived growth hormone.
▪ Secretion of growth hormone was not assessed.
▪ Calcitonin and growth hormone are normally secreted by the thyroid and pituitary respectively.
▪ On the other hand the boredom factor can then set in, and hormone levels may drop because they are no longer stimulated.
▪ It is not absorbed into the bloodstream, nor does it influence hormone levels, the company says.
▪ Factors such as stress and a poor diet can affect these hormone levels, worsening the symptoms.
▪ The loser, on the other hand, is dejected, and his hormone level plummets.
▪ This suggests that the violence might have been caused by these high hormone levels, not conditioning.
▪ The problem lies not with hormone levels also known, is something that often runs in families.
▪ A woman who is not ovulating escapes the sharp changes in hormone levels that can lead to mood swings.
▪ In response to fluctuating hormone levels during each oestrous cycle, some eggs are released to resume development.
▪ It seems clear that glucocorticoid must be present for antidiuretic hormone release to be fully inhibited.
▪ Addition of solute causes a rise in tonicity with stimulation of both thirst and antidiuretic hormone release.
▪ It appears that thyroid hormone is also required for full suppression of antidiuretic hormone release.
▪ If they are elevated, you should consider alternative measures, such as hormone replacement, to prevent osteoporosis.
▪ The controls were 713 postmenopausal women aged 45-65 not taking hormone replacements.
▪ Some hormone replacement formulas now contain testosterone as well as estrogen and progesterone.
▪ I continually demanded my right to have hormone treatment and operations, to become a man physically as much as possible.
▪ The report, released earlier this week, showed hormone treatments posed no danger to humans.
▪ Certain women with negative lymph nodes, for example, might not need chemotherapy, radiation or hormone treatments following surgery.
▪ Maybe I secreted some hormone that gave the average Tellenorean a violently unpleasant feeling.
▪ Most tumors secrete hormones that stimulate new vessel growth around them, to speed delivery of oxygen-rich blood.
▪ The cockroach has two corpora cardiaca, which are the organs that secrete my precious hormone.
▪ The controls were 713 postmenopausal women aged 45-65 not taking hormone replacements.
▪ He said it would be necessary for the agricultural producing nations to use biotechnology and hormones to meet the growing demand.
▪ People who have type 2 diabetes do not produce enough insulin, or their bodies can not properly use the hormone.
▪ Not all cuttings benefit greatly from a rooting hormone, but it is worth using.
▪ Diabetes occurs when the body does not use or make the hormone insulin.
▪ The surgeons told them that they could always use synthetic hormones.
▪ growth hormone
▪ Addition of solute causes a rise in tonicity with stimulation of both thirst and antidiuretic hormone release.
▪ Antibiotics and hormones used in human drugs have been detected in drinking water and our rivers.
▪ Parents tend to blame their daughters' moody, erratic behavior on hormones, choice of friends or television-viewing habits.
▪ The hormone is known to affect reproduction and gonadal function, and to have an influence on the growth of tumours.
▪ The authors suggested that this might represent end organ resistance to growth hormone.
▪ The blame-if you can really call it that-can be placed on their active adolescent hormones.
▪ Thus, antidiuretic hormone should be given, as well.
▪ Traditionally, physicians have reserved testosterone replacement for men who are severely hormone deficient.
The Collaborative International Dictionary

Hormone \Hor"mone\ (h[^o]r"m[=o]n), n. [From Gr. "orma`ein to excite.]

  1. (Physiological Chem.) A chemical substance formed in one organ and carried in the circulation to another organ on which it exerts a specific effect on cells at a distance from the producing cells; thus, pituitary hormones produced in the brain may have effects on cells in distant parts of the body..

  2. (Physiological Chem.) a chemical substance, whether natural or synthetic, that functions like a hormone in a living organism. Thus, synthetic steroid hormones may be more effective than their natural counterparts.

  3. (Bot.) A substance that controls growth rate or differentiation in plants; also called phytohormone. The most well-known are the auxins that stimulate growth at the growing tips of plants, and control root formation and the dropping of leaves; and the gibberellins, which are used in agriculture to promote plant growth.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

1905, from Greek hormon "that which sets in motion," present participle of horman "impel, urge on," from horme "onset, impulse," from PIE *or-sma-, from root *er- "to move, set in motion." Used by Hippocrates to denote a vital principle; modern meaning coined by English physiologist Ernest Henry Starling (1866-1927). Jung used horme (1915) in reference to hypothetical mental energy that drives unconscious activities and instincts. Related: Hormones.


n. 1 (context physiology English) Any substance produced by one tissue and conveyed by the bloodstream to another to effect physiological activity. 2 (context pharmacology English) A synthetic compound with the same activity. 3 Any similar substance in plants.


n. the secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect [syn: endocrine, internal secretion]


A hormone (from the Greek participle “”) is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour. Hormones have diverse chemical structures, mainly of 3 classes: eicosanoids, steroids, and amino acid derivatives ( amines, peptides, and proteins). The glands that secrete hormones comprise the endocrine signaling system. The term hormone is sometimes extended to include chemicals produced by cells that affect the same cell ( autocrine or intracrine signalling) or nearby cells ( paracrine signalling).

Hormones are used to communicate between organs and tissues for physiological regulation and behavioral activities, such as digestion, metabolism, respiration, tissue function, sensory perception, sleep, excretion, lactation, stress, growth and development, movement, reproduction, and mood. Hormones affect distant cells by binding to specific receptor proteins in the target cell resulting in a change in cell function. When a hormone binds to the receptor, it results in the activation of a signal transduction pathway. This may lead to cell type-specific responses that include rapid non-genomic effects or slower genomic responses where the hormones acting through their receptors activate gene transcription resulting in increased expression of target proteins. Amino acid–based hormones (amines and peptide or protein hormones) are water-soluble and act on the surface of target cells via second messengers; steroid hormones, being lipid-soluble, move through the plasma membranes of target cells (both cytoplasmic and nuclear) to act within their nuclei.

Hormone secretion may occur in many tissues. Endocrine glands are the cardinal example, but specialized cells in various other organs also secrete hormones. Hormone secretion occurs in response to specific biochemical signals from a wide range of regulatory systems. For instance, serum calcium concentration affects parathyroid hormone synthesis; blood sugar (serum glucose concentration) affects insulin synthesis; and because the outputs of the stomach and exocrine pancreas (the amounts of gastric juice and pancreatic juice) become the input of the small intestine, the small intestine secretes hormones to stimulate or inhibit the stomach and pancreas based on how busy it is. Regulation of hormone synthesis of gonadal hormones, adrenocortical hormones, and thyroid hormones is often dependent on complex sets of direct influence and feedback interactions involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA), -gonadal (HPG), and -thyroid (HPT) axes.

Upon secretion, certain hormones, including protein hormones and catecholamines, are water-soluble and are thus readily transported through the circulatory system. Other hormones, including steroid and thyroid hormones, are lipid-soluble; to allow for their widespread distribution, these hormones must bond to carrier plasma glycoproteins (e.g., thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)) to form ligand-protein complexes. Some hormones are completely active when released into the bloodstream (as is the case for insulin and growth hormones), while others are prohormones that must be activated in specific cells through a series of activation steps that are commonly highly regulated. The endocrine system secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream typically into fenestrated capillaries, whereas the exocrine system secretes its hormones indirectly using ducts. Hormones with paracrine function diffuse through the interstitial spaces to nearby target tissue.

Hormone (disambiguation)

Hormone or Hormones may refer to:

  • Hormone, a chemical that sends messages in a plant or animal
  • "Hormone", the NATO reporting name for the Soviet/Russian Kamov Ka-25 military helicopter
  • Hormones (film), a 2008 Thai film
  • Hormones, a medical journal now named Hormone Research in Paediatrics

Usage examples of "hormone".

Stillbirths, abortuses, and placentas are in hot demand at the BLI for the dozen or so groups doing hormone research.

In adolescence the feelings of the Child replay in greatly amplified form as the hormones turn on and as the adolescent turns away from his parents as the principal source of stroking to his own age group for stroking of a new kind.

That gland, the adrenal cortex, also produces sex hormones, and especially androgens.

It works this way-any kind if stress situation causes the pituitary gland to release a protein substance called adrenocorticotrophic hormone, ACTH for short.

It stands to reason that reduced DHEA levels can translate into reductions of these other hormones, particularly the other androgens, androstenedione and testosterone.

KX3 reacts with one of the hormones overproduced in an anorectic body.

Whatever hormone Cor had in his kith, it made Xishi as crazed for him as he was for her.

It stimulates your release of growth hormone and ornithine decarboxylase enzymes.

Jane, who started dieting about forty years ago at the age of twelve, the same time her adolescent hormones began to go haywire.

A lot of things release growth hormones: high-intensity exercise, hypoglycemia, trauma, sleep, dopaminergic stimulants, such amino acids as L-arginine and L-ornithine.

When, a little over a decade later, Bayliss and Starling worked out the concept of a hormone, it seemed very likely that the islets of Langerhans were ductless glands producing a hormone and that lack of this hormone brought on diabetes mellitus.

Recent studies give indications that there are more dyslexic boys than girls not only because of genetics but also because exposure to the male hormone testosteroneaffects boys during prenatal development of the brain.

One might think that this would be determined by a hormone that is secreted at the proper time, neutralizing ecdysone, ending the molts, and initiating metamorphosis.

She could taste the hormone spilling into her mouth as the engorged glands began to fill and demand the sharing.

Female hormones feminize the male body by softening the skin, reducing the growth of body hair, broadening the hips, and enlarging the breasts and nipples.