Find the word definition

Crossword clues for endemic

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
endemic (=always present)
▪ Firstly, we need to tackle the corruption that is endemic in the system.
▪ Furthermore, there is concern about foodstuffs imported from newly endemic areas.
▪ Using narrow-necked water containers to reduce the risk of cholera in homes without running water in cholera-endemic areas.
▪ Cholera was endemic in Mexico in the 19th century.
▪ Diagnostic and then treatment centers would be set up in those states where the disease was endemic.
▪ In the first world, misfortune and suffering were endemic and unavoidable.
▪ Quite apart from the class conflict endemic in capitalism, the economic system itself is beset with instabilities.
▪ Sutherland demonstrated that corporate crime was widespread and virtually endemic in contemporary national and transnational corporations.
▪ This identification of the problems provides the foundation for the solving of these endemic deficiencies.
▪ Though such rumours can not be proved, they are so endemic that they suggest something of the sort has been occurring.
▪ We know that once these organisms get introduced into a hospital, they just become endemic.
The Collaborative International Dictionary

Endemic \En*dem"ic\, n. (Med.) An endemic disease.

Fear, which is an endemic latent in every human heart, sometimes rises into an epidemic.
--J. B. Heard.


Endemic \En*de"mic\, Endemical \En*de"mic*al\, a. [Gr. ?, ?; ? + ? the people: cf. F. end['e]mique.] (Med.)

  1. Peculiar to a district or particular locality, or class of persons; as, an endemic disease.

    Note: An endemic disease is one which is constantly present to a greater or less degree in any place, as distinguished from an epidemic disease, which prevails widely at some one time, or periodically, and from a sporadic disease, of which a few instances occur now and then.

  2. Belonging or native to a particular people or country; native as distinguished from introduced or naturalized; hence, regularly or ordinarily occurring in a given region; local; as, a plant endemic in Australia; -- often distinguished from exotic.

    The traditions of folklore . . . form a kind of endemic symbolism.
    --F. W. H. Myers.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

"particular to a people or locality," 1650s (endemical), with -ic + Greek endemos "native, dwelling in (a place), of or belonging to a people," from en "in" (see en- (2)) + demos "people, district" (see demotic). From 1660s as a noun.


a. 1 native to a particular area or culture; originating where it occurs. 2 (Especially of plants and animals.) peculiar to a particular area or region; not found in other places. 3 (Especially of diseases.) prevalent in a particular area or region. n. An individual or species that is endemic to a region.

  1. n. a disease that is constantly present to a greater or lesser degree in people of a certain class or in people living in a particular location [syn: endemic disease]

  2. a plant that is native to a certain limited area; "it is an endemic found only this island"

  1. adj. of or relating to a disease (or anything resembling a disease) constantly present to greater or lesser extent in a particular locality; "diseases endemic to the tropics"; "endemic malaria"; "food shortages and starvation are endemic in certain parts of the world" [syn: endemical] [ant: epidemic, ecdemic]

  2. native to or confined to a certain region; "the islands have a number of interesting endemic species" [ant: cosmopolitan]

  3. originating where it is found; "the autochthonal fauna of Australia includes the kangaroo"; "autochthonous rocks and people and folktales"; "endemic folkways"; "the Ainu are indigenous to the northernmost islands of Japan" [syn: autochthonal, autochthonic, autochthonous, indigenous]

Endemic (epidemiology)

In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic (from Greek ἐν en "in, within" and δῆμος demos "people") in a population when that infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs. For example, chickenpox is endemic (steady state) in the UK, but malaria is not. Every year, there are a few cases of malaria reported in the UK, but these do not lead to sustained transmission in the population due to the lack of a suitable vector (mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles).

For an infection that relies on person-to-person transmission to be endemic, each person who becomes infected with the disease must pass it on to one other person on average. Assuming a completely susceptible population, that means that the basic reproduction number (R) of the infection must equal 1. In a population with some immune individuals, the basic reproduction number multiplied by the proportion of susceptible individuals in the population (S) must be 1. This takes account of the probability of each individual to whom the disease may be transmitted actually being susceptible to it, effectively discounting the immune sector of the population.

For the disease to be in an endemic steady state:

R × S = 1

In this way, the infection neither dies out nor does the number of infected people increase exponentially but the infection is said to be in an endemic steady state. An infection that starts as an epidemic will eventually either die out (with the possibility of it resurging in a theoretically predictable cyclical manner) or reach the endemic steady state, depending on a number of factors, including the virulence of the disease and its mode of transmission.

If a disease is in endemic steady state in a population, the relation above allows us to estimate the R (an important parameter) of a particular infection. This in turn can be fed into the mathematical model of an epidemic.

While it might be common to say that AIDS is "endemic" in Africa—meaning found in an area—this is a use of the word in its etymological not epidemiological form. AIDS cases in Africa are still increasing, so the disease is not in an endemic steady state. It is correct to call the spread of AIDS in Africa an epidemic.

Usage examples of "endemic".

The halfling, with the luck endemic to her race, had skidded to a stop in a particularly soft, boggy area.

Turin, Novara, Vercelli, Casale, Ivrea, Biella, Alessandria, and Aosta have no endemic art comparable to that of the cities east of Milan.

Since the durian is endemic in a very restricted portion of the globe, and since those who have watched the vital process may be comparatively few in number and therefore unlikely to be jaded by the truisms of these pages, a few words in explanation may not be resented.

The virus was endemic during two periods of the Helliconian year, in the Spring and in the late Autumn of the Great Year, with minor epicycles between these cycles.

Then twenty-two years ago, after nearly twenty years of ill-tempered confrontation with his fellow theorists, he had, with characteristic abruptness, resigned from his position at Cambridge and retreated to Launde Abbey to pursue his theories without carping interference from lesser minds, his brilliance and loud vocal intolerance of the dry, crusty world endemic to academia creating a media legend of Bohemian eccentricity in the process.

Many analogous facts could be given: indeed it is an almost universal rule that the endemic productions of islands are related to those of the nearest continent, or of other near islands.

Hence we have only to suppose that such wandering species have been modified through natural selection in their new homes in relation to their new position, and we can understand the presence of endemic bats on islands, with the absence of all terrestrial mammals.

Soon, however, the mood endemic to Pastorale, the country they had now entered, laid itself on him.

But it is our firm conviction that the endemic form of criminality, insanity, and suicide will disappear, and that nothing will remain of them but rare sporadic forms caused by lesion or telluric and other influences.

His falling short of these ideals shows that someone as unstinting in the free pursuit of knowledge as Broca could still be deflected by endemic and respectable bigotry.

Cows that forage on marrow-stem kale in parts of Tasmania transmit goitrogens through their milk, which accounts for endemic goiter in the population.

Husayn and other Baath leaders have always regarded the ability to balance endemic intraparty tensions--such as those between military and civilian elements and among personalities across boundaries of specialization--as the key to success in Baghdad.

Brissaud shows the intimate relation between myxedema, endemic cretinism, sporadic cretinism, or myxedematous idiocy, and infantilism.

Young came to Cheltenham races the following day in spite of the basic contempt he held for steeplechasing because of its endemic shortage of brass.

Motion detectors were planted in such overlapping profusion that a large, dung-eating beetlelike creature endemic to the scrub could be tracked to within millimeters throughout its range.