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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
calcium
noun
COLLOCATIONS FROM CORPUS
■ ADJECTIVE
dietary
▪ The present results show that dietary calcium has a site specific effect on the solubility of bile acids.
▪ This includes dietary phosphate and calcium restriction as well as aluminum hydroxide antacids.
▪ Moreover, one experimental study showed increased tumour formation with dietary calcium.
▪ Intestinal Calcium Absorption. Dietary calcium gains access to the organism mostly by transport in the small intestine.
▪ The bile acid concentration in faecal water also decreased with increasing dietary calcium, and this was not influenced by dietary phosphate.
▪ Supplementary dietary calcium has been shown in some studies to reduce colonic cell proliferation in man.
▪ Quantification of these interactions is essential for a proper discussion of the intestinal effects of dietary calcium and phosphate.
▪ Increased dietary calcium increased faecal phosphate because the formation of insoluble calcium phosphate inhibits the absorption of phosphate.
high
▪ Invitro, high extracellular calcium concentrations inhibit the proliferation of human colonic epithelial cells and several colonic cancer cell lines.
▪ They develop mainly in fresh tap water, especially if it contains a high percentage of calcium salts.
▪ Therefore some quantity of clay high in calcium content should be placed in the tank bottom.
▪ Aredia had been used for more than five years to periodically treat high calcium levels in myeloma patients, Berenson said.
▪ You could add a piece of cuttlefish bone, which is high in calcium, and would dissolve in the water.
intestinal
▪ Dietary phosphate did not interfere with these intestinal effects of calcium.
▪ Both increased bone resorption and increased intestinal absorption of calcium occur.
▪ In the chronic therapy of hypercalcemia caused by increased bone resorption or increased intestinal calcium absorption glucocorticoids are effective.
▪ Vitamin D deficiency decreases intestinal calcium absorption, resulting in hypocalcemia.
▪ Hydroxylation of vitamin D gives a derivative that will increase intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphates.
intracellular
▪ It is through its regulation of intracellular calcium that InsP 3 functions to regulate so many cellular processes.
▪ As indicated previously, intracellular calcium is usually an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, but this is not invariably the case.
▪ Therefore the release of intracellular membrane-bound calcium precedes the onset of the stimulus-induced degranulation.
▪ However, at high concentrations of intracellular calcium, all calmodulin binding sites are occupied.
low
▪ Supplementary dietary phosphate decreased the fatty acid concentration only on the low calcium diet.
▪ Thus, at low concentrations, calcium is an activator of the enzyme.
▪ Looking at the table we can see how low the calcium level is in cereals.
▪ The traditional bran mash is very low in calcium and can therefore add to the problem instead of helping it.
▪ Some glazes contain elevated magnesia which increases their durability; this was certainly necessary given the low calcium oxide levels.
▪ Another very unusual feature of these glasses is that they contain very low calcium oxide levels-c. 1 %.
▪ These are thought by researchers to be the result of low calcium and magnesium and high aluminium in the brain.
total
▪ If the serum albumin concentration is normal, the total serum calcium level reflects the ionized calcium concentration.
▪ To do so, a concurrent measurement of serum albumin and total calcium should be obtained.
■ NOUN
carbonate
▪ Calcareous regosols contain free calcium carbonate in the parent material, shelly sand.
▪ Absorbable antacids such as calcium carbonate must be discontinued.
▪ The skeletal parts of hard corals are made of calcium carbonate and if this is in short supply they can suffer.
▪ They use it to fashion the coccoliths shown here, their armoured skeletons made of chalk or calcium carbonate plates.
▪ As the time for the moult approaches, the animal absorbs much of the calcium carbonate from its shell into its blood.
▪ Calcareous soils are freely drained soils containing free calcium carbonate within the profile.
▪ Softies Leather corals lack the hard calcium carbonate skeleton of stony corals.
▪ Chemically, chalk is largely calcium carbonate, he argues, and so should yield carbon dioxide if immersed in an acid.
channel
▪ Verapamil, a slow calcium channel blocker minimises cellular injury resulting from calcium influx into cells during hypoxia or ischaemia.
▪ Steroids and calcium channel blockers reversed the condition, and the patients improved.
▪ Similarly, the plasma membrane of olfactory cells seems to have an InsP 3 -sensitive calcium channel.
▪ Many are still prescribing calcium channel blockers, which increase the risk of death.
▪ That would introduce a bias toward heart trouble among calcium channel blocker users.
chloride
▪ Other co-products include calcium chloride, with applications ranging from the oil and chemical industries to dust-laying in coal mines.
▪ The use of calcium chloride must be discouraged because of the potential for serious burns in the infusion area.
▪ These ores were deposited from basinal brines rich in calcium chloride.
▪ Here, too, metal reinforcements set in the concrete have rusted because the concrete contained too much calcium chloride.
▪ And anyway, the calcium chloride was the most favoured.
concentration
▪ Invitro, high extracellular calcium concentrations inhibit the proliferation of human colonic epithelial cells and several colonic cancer cell lines.
▪ If the serum albumin concentration is normal, the total serum calcium level reflects the ionized calcium concentration.
▪ No other endocrine abnormalities were present and calcium concentrations returned to normal after surgery.
▪ When the uremia is severe enough to warrant dialysis, this therapy usually results in a correction of the serum calcium concentration.
▪ It acts by inhibiting bone resorption of calcium thereby preventing significant variations in plasma calcium concentrations.
content
▪ Being an alkaline-loving plant it requires some calcium content.
▪ Some tablets are labeled for their calcium content.
▪ Therefore some quantity of clay high in calcium content should be placed in the tank bottom.
▪ Like milk, they vary in both fat and calcium content.
▪ Whole milk contains fat, so a better choice that still retains the calcium content is semi-skimmed or skimmed milk.
▪ Acidity and calcium content of a lake are of paramount importance to fish health.
▪ However, we only need moderate amounts, though we do need milk for its calcium content.
ion
▪ As with Aplysia, a key player in this process appears to be calcium ions.
▪ The mineral calcite is made up of carbonate sheets and intervening planes of calcium ions.
level
▪ Looking at the table we can see how low the calcium level is in cereals.
▪ Its overall effect is to raise serum ionized calcium levels and lower serum phosphorus levels.
▪ Do not use coral sand as a filter bed substrate as this will gradually dissolve and affect the calcium level.
▪ You can take modest calcium supplements if your urine calcium levels are not elevated.
▪ And maintaining adequate calcium levels is important for women during the child-bearing years.
▪ If the serum albumin concentration is normal, the total serum calcium level reflects the ionized calcium concentration.
▪ The serum calcium level should occasionally be checked.
▪ Aredia had been used for more than five years to periodically treat high calcium levels in myeloma patients, Berenson said.
oxide
▪ Some glazes contain elevated magnesia which increases their durability; this was certainly necessary given the low calcium oxide levels.
▪ Another very unusual feature of these glasses is that they contain very low calcium oxide levels-c. 1 %.
▪ When calcium carbonate is heated it decomposes into calcium oxide and carbon dioxide.
phosphate
▪ As shown earlier, taurine conjugated bile acids are not precipitated by calcium or calcium phosphate.
▪ These include the development of tetany and the deposition of calcium phosphate in soft tissues.
▪ In contrast, the unconjugated, carboxylic, bile acids are easily precipitated by calcium phosphate.
▪ Over the past decade many synthetic bone fillers have been made, almost all of which are calcium phosphate or carbonate-based ceramics.
▪ Calcium supplementation increased the intestinal concentrations of insoluble phosphate, which indicates formation of insoluble calcium phosphate.
▪ Increased dietary calcium increased faecal phosphate because the formation of insoluble calcium phosphate inhibits the absorption of phosphate.
release
▪ This variability is evident when studying purified receptors in artificial membranes, calcium release in single cells or in cell populations.
▪ There are two main ways in which the sensitivity of InsP 3 -induced calcium release might vary.
serum
▪ At the time of sacrifice, blood was obtained for measurement of serum calcium, phosphate, and albumin.
▪ Therefore, to diagnose hypercalcemia in a suspected case, one must obtain at least three separate measurements of the serum calcium.
▪ They both participate in the regulation of the concentration of serum calcium.
▪ Intravenous phosphate has been recommended for lowering the serum calcium when other measures have failed.
▪ If the serum albumin concentration is normal, the total serum calcium level reflects the ionized calcium concentration.
▪ The serum calcium level should occasionally be checked.
▪ The sources for the elevated serum calcium in dialysis patients are multiple.
▪ When the uremia is severe enough to warrant dialysis, this therapy usually results in a correction of the serum calcium concentration.
supplement
▪ It is made from a solution of calcium hydroxide, and, as this implies, it is a calcium supplement.
▪ On the other hand, calcium supplements are recommended to prevent osteoporosis after menopause.
▪ Eat extra protein from other sources and take a calcium supplement, which your doctor can prescribe.
▪ The Nurses' Health Study also found that women who took calcium supplements had the highest risks for kidney stones.
▪ If grain is fed to a horse it is essential to add a calcium supplement.
▪ A shortcut quickly comes to mind: Just take a calcium supplement.
supplementation
▪ The most rational therapy in these conditions is calcium supplementation and vitamin D replacement.
▪ The treatment of this condition consists of vitamin D therapy and calcium supplementation.
▪ Nevertheless, the director of the study stressed the importance of calcium supplementation during pregnancy.
■ VERB
add
▪ Just add calcium to the oocyte and meiosis will run to completion.
▪ If grain is fed to a horse it is essential to add a calcium supplement.
contain
▪ Non-calcareous rock which does not contain calcium.
▪ Calcareous regosols contain free calcium carbonate in the parent material, shelly sand.
▪ These initiation sites may represent areas containing calcium stores that are particularly sensitive to activators such as InsP 3.
▪ Calcareous soils are freely drained soils containing free calcium carbonate within the profile.
▪ Another very unusual feature of these glasses is that they contain very low calcium oxide levels-c. 1 %.
increase
▪ The bile acid concentration in faecal water also decreased with increasing dietary calcium, and this was not influenced by dietary phosphate.
▪ Both increased bone resorption and increased intestinal absorption of calcium occur.
▪ In the chronic therapy of hypercalcemia caused by increased bone resorption or increased intestinal calcium absorption glucocorticoids are effective.
▪ This results in prolonging the action potential and thus increases calcium influx into the cell.
▪ Hydroxylation of vitamin D gives a derivative that will increase intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphates.
need
▪ As mentioned above, to remove magnesium bicarbonate hardness requires twice as much lime as is needed for calcium bicarbonate.
▪ This can have disastrous consequences for growing horses who need calcium for bone formation.
▪ So women around, or beyond, this age will probably need more calcium than before.
▪ Which child needs more calcium and iron?
▪ So, to answer the question, it's the child on the left who needs more calcium and iron.
▪ However, we only need moderate amounts, though we do need milk for its calcium content.
remove
▪ The resin removes the calcium bicarbonate, leaving behind all the essential trace elements.
▪ It removes the calcium compounds in the bone.
▪ This unit removes calcium and magnesium from the water, preventing limescale from building up in the machine and on your tableware.
EXAMPLES FROM CORPUS
▪ And another for six to twelve year olds, with extra vitamins plus calcium and iron.
▪ Control: Watering regularly, especially when fruits are swelling, and apply Chempak calcium nitrate.
▪ During calcium ingestion, factors such as calcitonin might attenuate bone resorption, while bone calcium deposition continues.
▪ In one path, the 40K decays to a calcium isotope, 40Ca.
▪ It also favours a small quantity of calcium.
▪ Just keep the oocyte in a medium that is lacking in calcium.
▪ Since compliance is a problem with disulfiram, this shorter duration of action would appear to limit the effectiveness of calcium carbamide.
▪ They both participate in the regulation of the concentration of serum calcium.
The Collaborative International Dictionary
Calcium

Calcium \Cal"ci*um\ (k[a^]l"s[i^]*[u^]m), n. [NL., from L. calx, calcis, lime; cf F. calcium. See Calx.] (Chem.) An elementary substance; a metal which combined with oxygen forms lime. It is of a pale yellow color, tenacious, and malleable. It is a member of the alkaline earth group of elements. Atomic weight 40. Symbol Ca.

Note: Calcium is widely and abundantly disseminated, as in its compounds calcium carbonate or limestone, calcium sulphate or gypsum, calcium fluoride or fluor spar, calcium phosphate or apatite.

Calcium light, an intense light produced by the incandescence of a stick or ball of lime in the flame of a combination of oxygen and hydrogen gases, or of oxygen and coal gas; -- called also Drummond light and lime light.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary
calcium

coined 1808 by English chemist Sir Humphrey Davy (1778-1829), who first succeeded in isolating it, from Latin calx (genitive calcis) "limestone" (see chalk (n.)) + metallic element ending -ium.

Wiktionary
calcium

n. A chemical element, atomic number 20, that is an alkaline earth metal and occurs naturally as carbonate in limestone and as silicate in many rocks.

WordNet
calcium

n. a white metallic element that burns with a brilliant light; the fifth most abundant element in the earth's crust; an important component of most plants and animals [syn: Ca, atomic number 20]

Gazetteer
Calcium, NY -- U.S. Census Designated Place in New York
Population (2000): 3346
Housing Units (2000): 1134
Land area (2000): 5.586979 sq. miles (14.470208 sq. km)
Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km)
Total area (2000): 5.586979 sq. miles (14.470208 sq. km)
FIPS code: 11671
Located within: New York (NY), FIPS 36
Location: 44.034761 N, 75.842114 W
ZIP Codes (1990): 13616
Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs.
Headwords:
Calcium, NY
Calcium
Wikipedia
Calcium

Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20. Calcium is a soft gray Group 2 alkaline earth metal, fifth-most-abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust. The ion Ca is also the fifth-most-abundant dissolved ion in seawater by both molarity and mass, after sodium, chloride, magnesium, and sulfate. Free calcium metal is too reactive to occur in nature. Calcium is produced in supernova nucleosynthesis.

Calcium is essential for living organisms, particularly in cell physiology where movement of the calcium ion into and out of the cytoplasm functions as a signal for many cellular processes. As a major material used in mineralization of bone, teeth and shells, calcium is the most abundant metal by mass in many animals.

Usage examples of "calcium".

A one-quarter cup serving of prepared agave provides thirty calories and more calcium than does a half glass of milk.

There are nitrogen and carbon in those masses of sea vegetation, and there are phosphorus and calcium in the bathybic deposit.

The calcium chloride does not enter into the chemical reaction, but raises the temperature at which the solution boils, and is essential for the completion of the distillation.

The commonest soluble impurity is calcium sulphate, which produces a whitish scum on the face of the brick in drying, and as the scum becomes permanently fixed in burning, such bricks are of little use except for common work.

Calcium hypochlorite can be used to purify water, which, in combination with a good filtration system, can cut typhoid and diarrheal diseases practically to zero.

Bone putty is a mixture of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate and tetra calcium phosphate.

Algernon Charles Swinburne, and calcium disodium, an allegedly natural preservative.

These chemists electrolyse either pure calcium chloride, or a mixture of this salt with fluorspar, in a graphite vessel which serves as the anode.

Just as glucagon mobilizes the glycogen reservoir in the liver, bringing about its breakdown to glucose, which pours into the blood, so the parathyroid hormone mobilizes the calcium stores in bone, bringing about its breakdown to calcium ions in solution, which pours into the blood.

Thus, calcium atoms make up an active metal that would be quite poisonous to living tissue, but calcium ions are much blander and are necessary components of living tissue.

It may be in this fashion that vitamin D encourages the growth of bones, by altering the membrane of bone cells to permit the entry of calcium ions at a greater-than-normal rate.

Proper amounts of calcium help keep your joints free of inflammation and arthritis, as well as help your muscles contract.

Omega-8 fatty acids help lubricate joints, and the spinach contains bone-boosting calcium.

Photographed with the spectroheliograph, using the light emitted by glowing calcium vapor.

The statocysts in such creatures open to the outside world through narrow apertures, and the statoliths are not bits of calcium carbonate but are, rather, sand particles the creature actually places within the statocysts.