The Collaborative International Dictionary
Research \Re*search"\ (r?-s?rch"), n. [Pref. re- + search: cf OF. recerche, F. recherche.]
Diligent inquiry or examination in seeking facts or principles; laborious or continued search after truth; as, researches of human wisdom; to research a topic in the library; medical research.
The dearest interests of parties have frequently been staked on the results of the researches of antiquaries.
Systematic observation of phenomena for the purpose of learning new facts or testing the application of theories to known facts; -- also called scientific research. This is the research part of the phrase ``research and development'' (R&D).
Note: The distinctive characteristic of scientific research is the maintenance of records and careful control or observation of conditions under which the phenomena are studied so that others will be able to reproduce the observations. When the person conducting the research varies the conditions beforehand in order to test directly the effects of changing conditions on the results of the observation, such investigation is called experimental research or experimentation or experimental science; it is often conducted in a laboratory. If the investigation is conducted with a view to obtaining information directly useful in producing objects with commercial or practical utility, the research is called applied research. Investigation conducted for the primary purpose of discovering new facts about natural phenomena, or to elaborate or test theories about natural phenomena, is called basic research or fundamental research. Research in fields such as astronomy, in which the phenomena to be observed cannot be controlled by the experimenter, is called observational research. Epidemiological research is a type of observational research in which the researcher applies statistical methods to analyse patterns of occurrence of disease and its association with other phenomena within a population, with a view to understanding the origins or mode of transmission of the disease.
Syn: Investigation; examination; inquiry; scrutiny.
Applied research is a form of systematic inquiry involving the practical application of science. It accesses and uses some part of the research communities' (the academia's) accumulated theories, knowledge, methods, and techniques, for a specific, often state-, business-, or client-driven purpose. Applied research is contrasted with pure research (basic research) in discussion about research ideals, methodologies, programs, and projects. Applied research deals with solving practical problems and generally employs empirical methodologies. Because applied research resides in the messy real world, strict research protocols may need to be relaxed. For example, it may be impossible to use a random sample. Thus, transparency in the methodology is crucial. Implications for interpretation of results brought about by relaxing an otherwise strict canon of methodology should also be considered. Since Applied Research has a provisional close to the problem and close to the data orientation it may also use a more provisional conceptual framework such as working hypothesis or pillar questions. The OECD's Frascati Manual describes Applied Research as one of the three forms of research, along with Basic research & Experimental Development.
Due to its practical focus, applied research information will be found in the literature associated with individual disciplines.
The military is an organization that performs a lot of applied research. For example, they may want to know about the efficacy of soldier training, how well recruitment practices work, how best to deal with host nationals in times of war, how to use the internet to reduce home grown terrorists, and the effectiveness of operational styles.
Usage examples of "applied research".
Not only funding to the Department, and an opportunity for applied research.
Deets role in the library had begun as applied research--joining the library staff in order to confirm her theory of community formation.
From the visionary writings and applied research of a relatively small number of men came an entire industry that really did change life on Earth.
Although it had been a boom for the armaments industry and done amazing things for applied research, the monetary cost had been staggering.
The Japanese were happy to sponsor non-applied research which might only bear fruit in twenty or thirty years’.
Deet's role in the library had begun as applied research-- joining the library staff in order to confirm her theory of community formation.