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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
▪ The issue of animal experimentation is an emotive subject with strong views held on both sides.
▪ Nevertheless, live animal experimentation is deeply embedded in the culture of contemporary biomedical science.
▪ Ideas about representing the structure of energy and movement were sought through experimentation with new materials and light.
▪ Innovation and experimentation can be honored only if the end result is awe-inspiring.
▪ Is the kind of thinking required for scientific experimentation the same kind required for civic virtue?
▪ It is precisely because such a code does not exist, that we live in a period of uncertainty and experimentation.
▪ Policies must be flexible, and allow for extensive experimentation in new forms of rural economic activity.
▪ True, we still lost, 7-2, but that is what experimentation is all about.
▪ We want to understand it better and to encourage openness and experimentation in these early stages.
▪ Yet he knew from bitter experience that forging such a bond in the late twentieth century entailed experimentation and error.
The Collaborative International Dictionary

Research \Re*search"\ (r?-s?rch"), n. [Pref. re- + search: cf OF. recerche, F. recherche.]

  1. Diligent inquiry or examination in seeking facts or principles; laborious or continued search after truth; as, researches of human wisdom; to research a topic in the library; medical research.

    The dearest interests of parties have frequently been staked on the results of the researches of antiquaries.

  2. Systematic observation of phenomena for the purpose of learning new facts or testing the application of theories to known facts; -- also called scientific research. This is the research part of the phrase ``research and development'' (R&D).

    Note: The distinctive characteristic of scientific research is the maintenance of records and careful control or observation of conditions under which the phenomena are studied so that others will be able to reproduce the observations. When the person conducting the research varies the conditions beforehand in order to test directly the effects of changing conditions on the results of the observation, such investigation is called experimental research or experimentation or experimental science; it is often conducted in a laboratory. If the investigation is conducted with a view to obtaining information directly useful in producing objects with commercial or practical utility, the research is called applied research. Investigation conducted for the primary purpose of discovering new facts about natural phenomena, or to elaborate or test theories about natural phenomena, is called basic research or fundamental research. Research in fields such as astronomy, in which the phenomena to be observed cannot be controlled by the experimenter, is called observational research. Epidemiological research is a type of observational research in which the researcher applies statistical methods to analyse patterns of occurrence of disease and its association with other phenomena within a population, with a view to understanding the origins or mode of transmission of the disease.

    Syn: Investigation; examination; inquiry; scrutiny.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

1670s, noun of action from experiment (v.).


n. 1 The act of experimenting; practice by experiment. 2 (context sciences English) A set of actions and observations, performed to verify or falsify a hypothesis or to research a causal relationship between phenomena.

  1. n. the testing of an idea; "it was an experiment in living"; "not all experimentation is done in laboratories" [syn: experiment]

  2. the act of conducting a controlled test or investigation [syn: experiment]

Usage examples of "experimentation".

It is necessary at the outset, however, to draw a careful distinction between those phases of experimentation upon man which seem to be legitimate and right, and those other pases of inquiry which are clearly immoral.

In defence of vivisection or of unrestricted experimentation, he says that UNTRUTHFUL CLAIMS OF UTILITY have been made.

We find a Royal Commission in England, composed almost entirely of scientific men, everyone of them favourable to animal experimentation, devoting years to an inquiry concerning not vivisection only, but the working of the law by which it is regulated.

But James knew precisely what the vivisection of animals meant, for he had taught physiology, and had been engaged in experimentation for more than a quarter of a century.

It was not animal experimentation that he condemned, but the cruelty that sometimes accompanies it, and to which, if vivisection be unregulated by law, it is so often liable.

APPENDIX X In the spring of 1915, the Society for the Prevention of Abuse in Animal Experimentation decided to ascertain whether certain of the principal facts connected with vivisection would be freely given if courteously asked.

It has led to innumerable men and women of education and refinement to remit all questions of animal experimentation to the vivisector and his friends, precisely as they would have done had they lived three centuries ago, and had it been theirs to decide on the morality of burning a witch.

It concerns not the prevention of all experimentation upon animals, but rather the abolition of its cruelty, its secrecy, its abuse.

Though the first edition of the present work was quite large, yet no challenge of the accuracy of any of its statements concerning experimentation upon human beings or animals has yet appeared.

Is public opinion to-day inclined to be any more favourable to the legal abolition of all scientific experimentation upon animals than it was a third of a century ago?

Both are wrong if one meaning is to answer for all varieties of experimentation upon living things.

Some years ago the attempt was made to obtain the view of animal experimentation held by certain classes of intelligent men and women.

The cruelties that accompany research will always accompany it, until all scientific experimentation upon animals is made a criminal offence.

In other words, every conceivable phase of scientific experimentation upon living creatures, even if absolutely painless, should be made a legal offence.

During their medical studies they were continually imbued with the idea that the opposition to laboratory freedom of experimentation was an agitation of comparatively recent date, and confined to a small class of unthinking sentimentalists.