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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
▪ Detrital sediments are subdivided on the basis of grain size and mineralogy.
▪ He retained an interest in mineralogy and served as president of the Mineralogical Society 1888-91.
▪ He studied mineralogy at Freiburg after some practical mining experience in Cornwall and Lancashire.
▪ In the same way, the earmarks of igneous rocks are their mineralogy, textures, and structures.
▪ Much of her work was in microscopic petrology and mineralogy, interests which she had developed when training under Bonney.
▪ Sedimentary rocks are identified as such mainly by their stratification, but also by their mineralogy and texture.
▪ She studied botany, taking the honours examinations as a private student, and also geology and mineralogy.
▪ Vertical differentiation in mineralogy in weathering profiles may also reflect the stage-by-stage alteration of primary rock minerals.
The Collaborative International Dictionary

Natural \Nat"u*ral\ (?; 135), a. [OE. naturel, F. naturel, fr. L. naturalis, fr. natura. See Nature.]

  1. Fixed or determined by nature; pertaining to the constitution of a thing; belonging to native character; according to nature; essential; characteristic; innate; not artificial, foreign, assumed, put on, or acquired; as, the natural growth of animals or plants; the natural motion of a gravitating body; natural strength or disposition; the natural heat of the body; natural color.

    With strong natural sense, and rare force of will.

  2. Conformed to the order, laws, or actual facts, of nature; consonant to the methods of nature; according to the stated course of things, or in accordance with the laws which govern events, feelings, etc.; not exceptional or violent; legitimate; normal; regular; as, the natural consequence of crime; a natural death; anger is a natural response to insult.

    What can be more natural than the circumstances in the behavior of those women who had lost their husbands on this fatal day?

  3. Having to do with existing system to things; dealing with, or derived from, the creation, or the world of matter and mind, as known by man; within the scope of human reason or experience; not supernatural; as, a natural law; natural science; history, theology.

    I call that natural religion which men might know . . . by the mere principles of reason, improved by consideration and experience, without the help of revelation.
    --Bp. Wilkins.

  4. Conformed to truth or reality; as:

    1. Springing from true sentiment; not artificial or exaggerated; -- said of action, delivery, etc.; as, a natural gesture, tone, etc.

    2. Resembling the object imitated; true to nature; according to the life; -- said of anything copied or imitated; as, a portrait is natural.

  5. Having the character or sentiments properly belonging to one's position; not unnatural in feelings.

    To leave his wife, to leave his babes, . . . He wants the natural touch.

  6. Connected by the ties of consanguinity. especially, Related by birth rather than by adoption; as, one's natural mother. ``Natural friends.''
    --J. H. Newman.

  7. Hence: Begotten without the sanction of law; born out of wedlock; illegitimate; bastard; as, a natural child.

  8. Of or pertaining to the lower or animal nature, as contrasted with the higher or moral powers, or that which is spiritual; being in a state of nature; unregenerate.

    The natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God.
    --1 Cor. ii. 14.

  9. (Math.) Belonging to, to be taken in, or referred to, some system, in which the base is 1; -- said of certain functions or numbers; as, natural numbers, those commencing at 1; natural sines, cosines, etc., those taken in arcs whose radii are 1.

  10. (Mus.)

    1. Produced by natural organs, as those of the human throat, in distinction from instrumental music.

    2. Of or pertaining to a key which has neither a flat nor a sharp for its signature, as the key of C major.

    3. Applied to an air or modulation of harmony which moves by easy and smooth transitions, digressing but little from the original key.

    4. Neither flat nor sharp; -- of a tone.

    5. Changed to the pitch which is neither flat nor sharp, by appending the sign [natural]; as, A natural.
      --Moore (Encyc. of Music).

  11. Existing in nature or created by the forces of nature, in contrast to production by man; not made, manufactured, or processed by humans; as, a natural ruby; a natural bridge; natural fibers; a deposit of natural calcium sulfate. Opposed to artificial, man-made, manufactured, processed and synthetic. [WordNet sense 2]

  12. Hence: Not processed or refined; in the same statre as that existing in nature; as, natural wood; natural foods.

    Natural day, the space of twenty-four hours.

    Natural fats, Natural gas, etc. See under Fat, Gas. etc.

    Natural Harmony (Mus.), the harmony of the triad or common chord.

    Natural history, in its broadest sense, a history or description of nature as a whole, including the sciences of botany, zo["o]logy, geology, mineralogy, paleontology, chemistry, and physics. In recent usage the term is often restricted to the sciences of botany and zo["o]logy collectively, and sometimes to the science of zoology alone.

    Natural law, that instinctive sense of justice and of right and wrong, which is native in mankind, as distinguished from specifically revealed divine law, and formulated human law.

    Natural modulation (Mus.), transition from one key to its relative keys.

    Natural order. (Nat. Hist.) See under order.

    Natural person. (Law) See under person, n.

    Natural philosophy, originally, the study of nature in general; the natural sciences; in modern usage, that branch of physical science, commonly called physics, which treats of the phenomena and laws of matter and considers those effects only which are unaccompanied by any change of a chemical nature; -- contrasted with mental philosophy and moral philosophy.

    Natural scale (Mus.), a scale which is written without flats or sharps.

    Note: Model would be a preferable term, as less likely to mislead, the so-called artificial scales (scales represented by the use of flats and sharps) being equally natural with the so-called natural scale.

    Natural science, the study of objects and phenomena existing in nature, especially biology, chemistry, physics and their interdisciplinary related sciences; natural history, in its broadest sense; -- used especially in contradistinction to social science, mathematics, philosophy, mental science or moral science.

    Natural selection (Biol.), the operation of natural laws analogous, in their operation and results, to designed selection in breeding plants and animals, and resulting in the survival of the fittest; the elimination over time of species unable to compete in specific environments with other species more adapted to survival; -- the essential mechanism of evolution. The principle of natural selection is neutral with respect to the mechanism by which inheritable changes occur in organisms (most commonly thought to be due to mutation of genes and reorganization of genomes), but proposes that those forms which have become so modified as to be better adapted to the existing environment have tended to survive and leave similarly adapted descendants, while those less perfectly adapted have tended to die out through lack of fitness for the environment, thus resulting in the survival of the fittest. See Darwinism.

    Natural system (Bot. & Zo["o]l.), a classification based upon real affinities, as shown in the structure of all parts of the organisms, and by their embryology.

    It should be borne in mind that the natural system of botany is natural only in the constitution of its genera, tribes, orders, etc., and in its grand divisions.

    Natural theology, or Natural religion, that part of theological science which treats of those evidences of the existence and attributes of the Supreme Being which are exhibited in nature; -- distinguished from revealed religion. See Quotation under Natural, a., 3.

    Natural vowel, the vowel sound heard in urn, furl, sir, her, etc.; -- so called as being uttered in the easiest open position of the mouth organs. See Neutral vowel, under Neutral and Guide to Pronunciation, [sect] 17.

    Syn: See Native.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

1680s, a hybrid from mineral (n.) + -logy or else from French minéralogie (1640s). Related: Mineralogist; mineralogical.


n. 1 (context petrology English) The branch of petrology that studies minerals. 2 Its mineral materials. 3 A treatise on mineralogy.


n. the branch of geology that studies minerals: their structure and properties and the ways of distinguishing them


Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals. Specific studies within mineralogy include the processes of mineral origin and formation, classification of minerals, their geographical distribution, as well as their utilization.

Mineralogy (mining company)

Mineralogy is a mining company owned by Clive Palmer of Queensland, Australia. Mineralogy's mining projects are not in production or generating income.

Mineralogy signed a deal with the Chinese infrastructure company CITIC Pacific to develop a small portion of a large iron ore deposit in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. The agreement involves the development of two magnetite mines and construction of port infrastructure at Cape Preston. According to Palmer the company owns more than of land in the region. Mineralogy was paid 415 million for the rights to mine the ore. According to Palmer the reserves contain 160 billion tonnes of iron ore.

The company owns thermal coal deposits situated in the Galilee Basin. Estimates of the size of the deposits reach 100  billion tonnes of coal.

Mineralogy has tried several times to raise capital to develop mines by floating a subsidiary company called Resourcehouse on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. Another subsidiary called Chinampa Exploration owns offshore exploration licences in the Gulf of Papua that covers more than .

In a declaration to the Electoral Commission of Queensland it was revealed that Mineralogy donated $66,000 to the Liberal National Party of Queensland in 2011. In 2010, a similar disclosure revealed the company had donated $700,000 to the Liberal/ National coalition.

The company has recorded a loss in the three financial years from 2008 to 2011 and as a result paid no taxes during that period.

Usage examples of "mineralogy".

The two favorite studies of my youth were botany and mineralogy, and subsequently, when I learned that the use of simples frequently explained the whole history of a people, and the entire life of individuals in the East, as flowers betoken and symbolize a love affair, I have regretted that I was not a man, that I might have been a Flamel, a Fontana, or a Cabanis.

Steinfield persuaded the university authorities to allow selected samples from their collection to be loaned to the UNSA Mineralogy and Petrology Laboratories in Pasadena, California, for further testing of an extremely specialized nature, suitable equipment for which existed at only a few establishments in the world.

UNSA spokesman stated that data collected recently at the Lunar bases, following research at the University of Nebraska, Omaha, and the UNSA Mineralogy and Petrology Laboratories, Pasadena, California, indicate that a large-scale nuclear conflict took place on the Moon at the time the Lunarians were there.

General Carpenter asked for one hundred and fifty billion dollars, fifteen hundred ambitious dollar-a-year men, three thousand able experts in mineralogy, petrology, mass production, chemical warfare and air-traffic time study.

There was no opportunity to get myself certified until I came to New Seattle to get my degree in Synergistic Crystal Mineralogy at the university.

Miss Euthymia was not behind the rest in her attainments in classical or mathematical knowledge, and she was one of the very best students in the out-door branches,--botany, mineralogy, sketching from nature,-- to be found among the scholars of the Institute.

Webster was at this time Professor of Chemistry and Mineralogy in Harvard University, a Doctor of Medicine and a Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the London Geological Society and the St.