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The Collaborative International Dictionary

Ion \I"on\ ([imac]"[o^]n), n. [Gr. 'io`n, neut, of 'iw`n, p. pr. of 'ie`nai to go.]

  1. (Elec. Chem.) an atom or goup of atoms (radical) carrying an electrical charge. It is contrasted with neutral atoms or molecules, and free radicals. Certain compounds, such as sodium chloride, are composed of complementary ions in the solid (crystalline) as well as in solution. Others, notably acids such as hydrogen chloride, may occur as neutral molecules in the pure liquid or gas forms, and ionize almost completely in dilute aqueous solutions. In solutions (as in water) ions are frequently bound non-covalently with the molecules of solvent, and in that case are said to be solvated. According to the electrolytic dissociation theory, the molecules of electrolytes are divided into ions by water and other solvents. An ion consists of one or more atoms and carries one unit charges of electricity, 3.4 x 10^ -10 electrostatic units, or a multiple of this. Those which are positively electrified (hydrogen and the metals) are called cations; negative ions (hydroxyl and acidic atoms or groups) are called anions.

    Note: Thus, hydrochloric acid ( HCl) dissociates, in aqueous solution, into the hydrogen ion, H+, and the chlorine ion, Cl-; ferric nitrate, Fe(NO3)3, yields the ferric ion, Fe+++, and nitrate ions, NO3-, NO3-, NO3-. When a solution containing ions is made part of an electric circuit, the cations move toward the cathode, the anions toward the anode. This movement is called migration, and the velocity of it differs for different kinds of ions. If the electromotive force is sufficient, electrolysis ensues: cations give up their charge at the cathode and separate in metallic form or decompose water, forming hydrogen and alkali; similarly, at the anode the element of the anion separates, or the metal of the anode is dissolved, or decomposition occurs. Aluminum and chlorine are elements prepared predominantly by such electrolysis, and depends on dissolving compounds in a solvent where the element forms ions. Electrolysis is also used in refining other metals, such as copper and silver. Cf. Anion, Cation.

  2. One of the small electrified particles into which the molecules of a gas are broken up under the action of the electric current, of ultraviolet and certain other rays, and of high temperatures. To the properties and behavior of ions the phenomena of the electric discharge through rarefied gases and many other important effects are ascribed. At low pressures the negative ions appear to be electrons; the positive ions, atoms minus an electron. At ordinary pressures each ion seems to include also a number of attached molecules. Ions may be formed in a gas in various ways.


H \H\ (h[aum]). (Mus.) The seventh degree in the diatonic scale, being used by the Germans for B natural. See B.


H \H\ ([=a]ch), the eighth letter of the English alphabet, is classed among the consonants, and is formed with the mouth organs in the same position as that of the succeeding vowel. It is used with certain consonants to form digraphs representing sounds which are not found in the alphabet, as sh, th, [th], as in shall, thing, [th]ine (for zh see [sect]274); also, to modify the sounds of some other letters, as when placed after c and p, with the former of which it represents a compound sound like that of tsh, as in charm (written also tch as in catch), with the latter, the sound of f, as in phase, phantom. In some words, mostly derived or introduced from foreign languages, h following c and g indicates that those consonants have the hard sound before e, i, and y, as in chemistry, chiromancy, chyle, Ghent, Ghibelline, etc.; in some others, ch has the sound of sh, as in chicane. See Guide to Pronunciation, [sect][sect] 153, 179, 181-3, 237-8.

Note: The name (aitch) is from the French ache; its form is from the Latin, and this from the Greek H, which was used as the sign of the spiritus asper (rough breathing) before it came to represent the long vowel, Gr. [eta]. The Greek H is from Ph[oe]nician, the ultimate origin probably being Egyptian. Etymologically H is most closely related to c; as in E. horn, L. cornu, Gr. ke`ras; E. hele, v. t., conceal; E. hide, L. cutis, Gr. ky`tos; E. hundred, L. centum, Gr. "e-kat-on, Skr. [.c]ata.

H piece (Mining), the part of a plunger pump which contains the valve.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

the pronunciation "aitch" was in Old French (ache "name of the letter H"), and is from a presumed Late Latin *accha (compare Italian effe, elle, emme), with the central sound approximating the value of the letter when it passed from Roman to Germanic, where it at first represented a strong, distinctly aspirated -kh- sound close to that in Scottish loch. In earlier Latin the letter was called ha.\n

\nIn Romanic languages, the sound became silent in Late Latin and was omitted in Old French and Italian, but it was restored in Middle English spelling in words borrowed from French, and often later in pronunciation, too. Thus Modern English has words ultimately from Latin with missing -h- (as in able, from Latin habile); with a silent -h- (as in heir, hour); with a formerly silent -h- now often vocalized (as in humble, humor, herb); and even a few with an excrescent -h- fitted in confusion to words that never had one (as in hostage, hermit).\n

\nRelics of the formerly unvoiced -h- persist in pedantic insistence on an historical (object) and in obsolete mine host. The use in digraphs (as in -sh-, -th-) goes back to the ancient Greek alphabet, which used it in -ph-, -th-, -kh- until -H- took on the value of a long "e" and the digraphs acquired their own characters. The letter passed into Roman use before this evolution, and thus retained there more of its original Semitic value.


Etymology 1 letter (Latn-def en letter 8 aitch) num. (Latn-def en ordinal 8 aitch) Etymology 2

init. 1 (context science English) abbreviation for hour (qualifier particularly when used as a (non-SI#English SI) unit of time alongside International System of Units (SI) units) 2 (context baseball English) the statistic reporting the number of hits by a player 3 (context slang English) heroin 4 (context computing English) hexadecimal (following a number)


H ( namedaitch or haitch plural aitches or haitches) is the eighth letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.


Ĥ, or ĥ is a consonant in Esperanto orthography, representing a voiceless velar fricative or voiceless uvular fricative . Its name in Esperanto is ĥo (pronounced ).

It is also used in the revised Demers/Blanchet/St Onge orthography for Chinook Jargon.

In the case of the minuscule, some fonts place the circumflex centred above the entire base letter h, others over the riser of the letter, and others over the shoulder.

:{| | |- |ĥ in the fonts Code2000, Sylfaen, Pragmatica Esperanto |}

H (S-train)

H is an S-train service in Metropolitan Copenhagen, Denmark that serves mainly the outer part of Frederikssundbanen, running partially non-stop between Ballerup and Flintholm. It is one of the six base lines of the S-train network, running every 20 minutes all days from about 5:00 until 1:00. It is the only base line in the network whose frequency is not doubled in the daytime; instead approximate 10-minute service on the outer part of the radial is provided by extending some trains on service C from Ballerup to Frederikssund.

H (EP)

H is an EP by Japanese recording artist Ayumi Hamasaki, featuring songs later included on her fifth studio album Rainbow (2002). The EP contains the songs "Independent", "July 1st" and "Hanabi", all written and co-composed by Hamasaki (under the alias Crea), alongside composer Dai Nagao and producer Max Matsuura. Hamasaki had written and recorded the three songs when she was still hurt and influenced by the events of the September 11 attacks and the completion of her fourth studio album I Am... (2002).

The attacks influenced Hamasaki's lyrical and musical direction, and had made her decide to create more worldly-inspired music. The EP utilizes dance and pop music, with each song being influenced by pop rock, electronica, and trip hop music. Like Rainbow, it contains ambient-influenced sounds such as handclaps and cheering. The lyrical content deals with freedom, fun and sadness, continuing themes seen on her previous album.

The EP received mostly positive reviews from music critics, who commended the production value. Many critics praised it as being one of Hamasaki's career highlights. The EP was commercially successful in her native Japan, peaking at number one on the weekly Oricon Singles Chart. It became the only single in 2002 the same year to sell over one million units in Japan, and was certified by the Recording Industry Association of Japan for one million copies shipped to stores.

No music videos were created to promote the EP, which makes only one of three single or extended play releases by Hamasaki to lack videos (including A (1999), " Unite!" (2001) and " Terminal" (2014). However, the singles did have commercial endorsed videos by product companies that featured Hamasaki. The songs have been performed several times on her domestic and nationwide tours including A-nation and her stadium tours Ayumi Hamasaki Stadium Tour 2002 A and Ayumi Hamasaki Countdown Live 2002–2003 A.

H (2002 film)

H is a 2002 South Korean urban horror-thriller film. It was written and directed by Lee Jong-hyeok, and stars Ji Jin-hee, Jo Seung-woo and Yum Jung-ah.

A serial killer who preyed on pregnant women has been behind bars for 10 months, when a copycat killer becomes active. Detectives meet with the imprisoned killer and search for clues in an effort to head off the copy cat killer before he kills more.

( minuscule: ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from H with the addition of a dot diacritic. The letter has significance in various writing systems.

These include:

  • Visarga, the phone in Sanskrit phonology in the International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration. Other transliteration systems use different symbols.
  • Transliteration of Heth or Ḥet, the reconstructed name of the eighth letter of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, which in Modern Israeli Hebrew usually has the sound value of a voiceless uvular fricative , as in Ashkenazi Hebrew. In other phonologies, such as Arabic, it is pronounced as a voiceless pharyngeal fricative and is still among Mizrahim (especially among the older generation and popular Mizrahi singers), in accordance with oriental Jewish traditions.
  • The phone ( voiceless glottal fricative) or ( voiceless velar fricative) in the Asturian language.

, ( h- breve below) is an extended Latin letter to transliterate. Its Unicode code is U+1E2A.

  • Arabic
  • Akkadian
  • Hittite laryngealh (probably pronounced or ), see Hittite cuneiform
  • Egyptian x, see Egyptian hieroglyphs
  • Khalaj Latin alphabet
H (TV series)

H is a French sitcom with seventy-one, 22-minute episodes. The series was created by Abd-el-Kader Aoun, Xavier Matthew and Éric Judor, and produced by Phillippe Berthe, Édouard Molinaro, Jean-Luc Moreau and Charles Némès. It ran from 24 October 1998 to 20 April 2002 on Canal+. In Canada, it is shown weekly on TV5.1

The title "H" comes from the three words that characterize the series: Humour, Histoire et Hôpital ( Humour, Story and Hospital).

H (disambiguation)

H is the eighth letter of the Latin alphabet.

H may also refer to:

H (1990 film)

H is a 1990 Canadian film written, directed, and produced by Darrell Wasyk.

H (magazine)

h Magazine was an American magazine, published by Apple Ridge Films, a company founded by photographer, Robert Todd Williamson. The publication covered entertainment news, film, television, music, theater, books, multimedia, and popular culture. h's primary focus was entertainment media and critical reviews, and, while it was aimed at the wider consumer market, the magazine's viewpoint was from an industry insider perspective.

H (Bob James album)

H is the eighth album by Bob James.

Usage examples of "h".

Die Zunge hing ihm aus dem Maul, seine Augen waren toll vor Angst, und die fremden Hunde rannten dicht hinter ihm drein!

High in a tower of Castle Hes, Princess Cassandra of Reec cocked an eyebrow toward the window, marveling at the soldiers approaching her home.

The price current of some of the inks and colors of antiquity, as quoted by Arbuthnot, are cited herewith: Armenian purple 30 hs.

Ice guy, a guy narneacl Fred whod be,, two years behumm, n high school, and hed tuned up Skips truck so Ing as he drove along the -- it was On her dress.

Hed carefully avoided Gareth thus far, afraid the Knight might find out whose slingstone nearly killed him.

July 9th, in the morning began my hed to ake and be hevy more then of late, and had some wambling in my stomach.

When hes through with you, hell chuck you out fast enough, but in the meantime he doesnt want any competition.

I likewise fixt a wax figger up to represent Sir Edmun Hed the Govner Ginral.

Somehow, I think this killer believes hes making these boys martyrs, saving them from something.

In a curt voice, hed sent her over the sand dunes and into the palmettos and pine trees.

Stark took in two stepbrothers hed never even met because he understood what their parents divorce was doing to them.

If someone really wants to steal my tapenade recipe, hes welcome to it.

I beleve hes got the will but hes a beest and theers a game up you may take your hothe so I remain C.

He remained mostly in his room, and whenever he did show hisself he walkt in a moody and morose manner in the garding, with his hed bowed down and his arms foldid across his brest.

He couldnt ask for a better present than the one hed given himself: control of Noir Manor, and all lands, buildings, funds, and other objects accrued to it.