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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
gall bladder
▪ Our study also showed that postprandial gall bladder contraction was suppressed for at least four hours after octreotide injection.
▪ Like others, we saw postprandial gall bladder filling rather than contraction at 45 minutes and four hours after injection.
▪ After each mode of octreotide treatment, postprandial residual gall bladder volume increased.
▪ In pregnancy and obesity, increased fasting and postprandial residual gall bladder volumes are associated with increased risk of gall stone formation.
▪ This study indicates that octreotide injections impair postprandial gall bladder contraction for at least four hours.
▪ Eight hours after octreotide injection, postprandial gall bladder contraction was partially restored.
▪ The presence of symptomatic gall stones in eight patients is interesting and is the subject of a more thorough investigation.
▪ The rate of symptomatic gall bladder disease among women of parity 1 was generally twice that of their nulliparous counterparts.
▪ The introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy has changed the approach to the treatment of symptomatic gall stones.
▪ These results suggest that smoking and parity are important risk factors for the development of symptomatic gall bladder disease in women.
▪ The rate of symptomatic gall bladder disease roughly doubled once a woman had been pregnant.
▪ Women in social classes IV+V had a 25% greater risk of symptomatic gall bladder disease compared with those in social classes I+II.
▪ This study assessed symptomatic gall bladder disease rather the total occurrence of the condition.
▪ At eight hours after injection, about 70% of maximum gall bladder contraction was achieved at 45 minutes after the test meal.
▪ It was considered that many of these problems were related to inexperience in the management of stones within a retained gall bladder.
▪ Unfortunately, no effective gall bladder plug has been developed despite considerable research in this field.
▪ Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the most popular method for removing the gall bladder.
▪ We found that patients with acromegaly not receiving treatment, were able to contract their gall bladder almost completely after a meal.
▪ A direct relation between body mass index and the risk of gall bladder disease has been described.
▪ He later had to have his gall bladder removed.
▪ Only six of the 13 patients had a clear gall bladder at the end of the first procedure.
▪ The concentration of phospholipids was also higher in the cholesterol gall stone patients but not to a significant degree.
▪ In this study, a significantly greater total lipid concentration was found in the hepatic bile of cholesterol gall stone patients.
▪ The reason for the greater total lipid concentration in cholesterol gall stone patients is not clear at present.
▪ Paired hepatic and gall bladder bile samples were collected from 10 patients with cholesterol gall stones and six patients without gall stones.
▪ Whatever the mechanism is, the patients with cholesterol gall stones produce less metastable hepatic bile.
▪ In conclusion, patients with cholesterol gall stones produce less metastable hepatic bile measured by the evidence of shorter nucleation time.
▪ These findings suggest that factors, in addition to biliary cholesterol saturation, are responsible for the formation of cholesterol gall stones.
▪ The aetiology of cholesterol gall stones has not been completely elucidated.
▪ Many studies suggest that sludge formation is a marker of gall stone formation.
▪ The concentration of phospholipids was also higher in the cholesterol gall stone patients but not to a significant degree.
▪ Evidence was sought for factors that might predict gall stone recurrence.
▪ Trial criteria - Twenty one patients developed gall stone recurrence.
▪ Patients with gall stones or established inflammatory bowel disease were excluded.
▪ With the exception of these 11 patients, when ultrasonagraphy suggested gall stone recurrence it was always accompanied by an oral cholecystectography.
▪ In conclusion, patients with cholesterol gall stones produce less metastable hepatic bile measured by the evidence of shorter nucleation time.
▪ As yet, there is no information about nucleation times measured in this way in patients with complete gall stone dissolution.
▪ It galled him to have to sit impotently in silence; worse still, that it had been witnessed.
▪ One grain of trouble would gall the clergy and the councillors like a pin under a saddle.
The Collaborative International Dictionary

Gall \Gall\, v. i. To scoff; to jeer. [R.]


Gall \Gall\, n. A wound in the skin made by rubbing.


Gall \Gall\, v. t. (Dyeing) To impregnate with a decoction of gallnuts.


Gall \Gall\ (g[add]l), n.[OE. galle, gal, AS. gealla; akin to D. gal, OS. & OHG. galla, Icel. gall, SW. galla, Dan. galde, L. fel, Gr. ?, and prob. to E. yellow. [root]49. See Yellow, and cf. Choler]

  1. (Physiol.) The bitter, alkaline, viscid fluid found in the gall bladder, beneath the liver. It consists of the secretion of the liver, or bile, mixed with that of the mucous membrane of the gall bladder.

  2. The gall bladder.

  3. Anything extremely bitter; bitterness; rancor.

    He hath . . . compassed me with gall and travail.
    --Lam. iii. 5.

    Comedy diverted without gall.

  4. Impudence; brazen assurance. [Slang]

    Gall bladder (Anat.), the membranous sac, in which the bile, or gall, is stored up, as secreted by the liver; the cholecystis. See Illust. of Digestive apparatus.

    Gall duct, a duct which conveys bile, as the cystic duct, or the hepatic duct.

    Gall sickness, a remitting bilious fever in the Netherlands.

    Gall of the earth (Bot.), an herbaceous composite plant with variously lobed and cleft leaves, usually the Prenanthes serpentaria.


Gall \Gall\ (g[add]l), n. [F. galle, noix de galle, fr. L. galla.] (Zo["o]l.) An excrescence of any form produced on any part of a plant by insects or their larvae. They are most commonly caused by small Hymenoptera and Diptera which puncture the bark and lay their eggs in the wounds. The larvae live within the galls. Some galls are due to aphids, mites, etc. See Gallnut.

Note: The galls, or gallnuts, of commerce are produced by insects of the genus Cynips, chiefly on an oak ( Quercus infectoria syn. Quercus Lusitanica) of Western Asia and Southern Europe. They contain much tannin, and are used in the manufacture of that article and for making ink and a black dye, as well as in medicine.

Gall insect (Zo["o]l.), any insect that produces galls.

Gall midge (Zo["o]l.), any small dipterous insect that produces galls.

Gall oak, the oak ( Quercus infectoria) which yields the galls of commerce.

Gall of glass, the neutral salt skimmed off from the surface of melted crown glass;- called also glass gall and sandiver.

Gall wasp. (Zo["o]l.) See Gallfly.


Gall \Gall\, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Galled (g[add]ld); p. pr. & vb. n. Galling.] [OE. gallen; cf. F. galer to scratch, rub, gale scurf, scab, G. galle a disease in horses' feet, an excrescence under the tongue of horses; of uncertain origin. Cf. Gall gallnut.]

  1. To fret and wear away by friction; to hurt or break the skin of by rubbing; to chafe; to injure the surface of by attrition; as, a saddle galls the back of a horse; to gall a mast or a cable.

    I am loth to gall a new-healed wound.

  2. To fret; to vex; as, to be galled by sarcasm.

    They that are most galled with my folly, They most must laugh.

  3. To injure; to harass; to annoy; as, the troops were galled by the shot of the enemy.

    In our wars against the French of old, we used to gall them with our longbows, at a greater distance than they could shoot their arrows.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

"bile, liver secretion," Old English galla (Anglian), gealla (West Saxon) "gall, bile," from Proto-Germanic *gallon- "bile" (cognates: Old Norse gall "gall, bile; sour drink," Old Saxon galle, Old High German galla, German Galle), from PIE root *ghel- (2) "to shine," with derivatives referring to bright materials and gold, and bile or gall (see glass). Informal sense of "impudence, boldness" first recorded American English 1882; but meaning "embittered spirit, rancor" is from c.1200, from the medieval theory of humors.


"sore on skin caused by rubbing or chafing," Old English gealla "painful swelling, sore spot on a horse," probably from Latin galla "gall, lump on plant," originally "oak-gall" (see gall (n.3)). Perhaps from or influenced by gall (n.1) on notion of "poison-sore." Meaning "bare spot in a field" (1570s) is probably the same word. German galle, Dutch gal also are said to be from Latin.


"to make sore by chafing," mid-15c., from gall (n.2). Earlier "to have sores, be sore" (early 14c.). Figurative sense of "harass, vex, irritate, chafe the spirit of," is from 1570s. A past-participle adjective gealled is found in Old English, but OED says this is from the noun. Related: Galled; galling.


"excrescence on a plant caused by the deposit of insect eggs," especially on an oak leaf, late 14c., from Latin galla "oak-gall," which is of uncertain origin. They were harvested for use in medicines, inks, dyes.


Etymology 1 n. 1 (context anatomy obsolete uncountable English) bile, especially that of an animal; the greenish, profoundly bitter-tasting fluid found in bile ducts and gall bladders, structures associated with the liver. 2 (context anatomy English) The gall bladder. 3 (context uncountable obsolete English) Great misery or physical suffering, likened to the bitterest-tasting of substances. 4 (rfc-def) (context countable English) A bump-like imperfection resembling a gall. 5 (context uncountable English) A feeling of exasperation. 6 (context uncountable English) impudence or brazenness; temerity, chutzpah. 7 (context medicine obsolete countable English) A sore or open wound caused by chafing, which may become infected, as with a blister. 8 (context countable English) A sore on a horse caused by an ill-fitted or ill-adjusted saddle; a saddle sore. 9 (context countable English) A pit caused on a surface being cut caused by the friction between the two surfaces exceeding the bond of the material at a point. vb. (context transitive English) To trouble or bother. Etymology 2

n. (context countable English) A blister or tumor-like growth found on the surface of plants, caused by burrowing of insect larvae into the living tissues, especially that of the common oak gall wasp (taxlink Cynips quercusfolii species noshow=1). vb. To impregnate with a decoction of gallnuts in dyeing.

  1. v. become or make sore by or as if by rubbing [syn: chafe, fret]

  2. irritate or vex; "It galls me that we lost the suit" [syn: irk]

  1. n. an open sore on the back of a horse caused by ill-fitting or badly adjusted saddle [syn: saddle sore]

  2. a skin sore caused by chafing

  3. abnormal swelling of plant tissue caused by insects or microorganisms or injury

  4. a feeling of deep and bitter anger and ill-will [syn: resentment, bitterness, rancor, rancour]

  5. a digestive juice secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder; aids in the digestion of fats [syn: bile]

  6. the trait of being rude and impertinent; inclined to take liberties [syn: crust, impertinence, impudence, insolence, cheekiness, freshness]

Gall (Native American leader)

Gall (c. 1840–December 5, 1894) Lakota Phizí, ( gall bladder) was a battle leader of the Hunkpapa Lakota in the long war against the United States. He was also one of the commanders in the Battle of Little Bighorn.

Gall (disambiguation)

Gall may refer to:

  • Gall, plant growth
  • Galling, a form of metal wear when two surfaces slide across one another
  • Bile, a fluid that aids in digestion
  • Colocynth, the bitter apple or vine of Sodom

Galls or cecidia are a kind of swelling growth on the external tissues of plants or animals. Plant galls are abnormal outgrowths of plant tissues, similar to benign tumors or warts in animals. They can be caused by various parasites, from fungi and bacteria, to insects and mites. Plant galls are often highly organized structures and because of this the cause of the gall can often be determined without the actual agent being identified. This applies particularly to some insect and mite plant galls. The study of plant galls is known as cecidology.

In human pathology, a gall is a raised sore on the skin, usually caused by chafing or rubbing.

Gall (surname)

Gall is a surname. Notable people with the name include:

  • Gall (Native American leader) (c. 1840–1894), Hunkpapa Lakota war leader
  • Saint Gall (c. 550–c. 646), Irish disciple
  • Benny Gall (born 1974), Danish football goalkeeper
  • Boris Gáll (born 1994), Slovak football midfielder
  • Bruce Gall, New Zealand rugby league player
  • Carlotta Gall, British journalist and author
  • Endre Gáll (1868–1935), Hungarian jurist
  • France Gall (born 1947), French singer
  • Franz Joseph Gall (1758–1828), German neuroanatomist
  • Franz Gall (general) (1884–1944), Generalleutnant in the Wehrmacht during World War II
  • Greg Gall (born 1965), American death metal drummer
  • Hugh Gall (c. 1888–1938), Canadian football player
  • James Gall (1808–1895), Scottish clergyman
  • John Gall (disambiguation), multiple people, including:
    • John Gall (author) (born 1925), American author, pediatrician, and theorist of systems
    • John Gall (baseball) (born 1978), Major League Baseball player
    • John Gall (designer), American graphic designer
  • Joseph G. Gall (born 1928), American cell biologist
  • Karl Gall (1903–1939), Austrian motorcycle racer
  • Kevin Gall (born 1982), Welsh footballer
  • Robert Gall (1918–1990), French lyricist
  • Sandy Gall (born 1927), British journalist and newscaster
  • Yvonne Gall (1885–1972), French operatic soprano
  • Zlatko Gall (born 1954), Croatian journalist

Usage examples of "gall".

THE AUTUMN OF 1786 produced no improvement in relations with the British, whose icy civility Adams found all the more galling after the respect and affection he had been shown in Holland.

Gall published a joint edict condemning Anabaptists to death, and under this law two Anabaptists were sentenced in 1528 and two more in 1532.

I did not know which galled me more: that Artemisia had the power to arouse me along with her Heloise, or that this same Artemisia who wrote so convincinglynot to mention eroticallywas in love with my Michael.

And it was galling to the priest that young Basque cavers, boys who should have chosen their idols from the ranks of the priesthood, told stories of his spelunking exploits and of the time he had crossed with Le Cagot into Spain and broken into a military prison in Bilbao to release ETA prisoners.

The tendency of the new doctrine was to break up the system of caste, and free the people from the galling yoke of the Brahminical hierarchy and dogmas.

You know, what really galled me most was that Brie had figured out my disappearing act.

They exist essentially for the purpose of the Universe, just as the gall exists for the purposes of the body as a whole not less than for its own immediate function: it is to be the inciter of the animal spirits but without allowing the entire organism and its own especial region to run riot.

But it galled Parmenion that Gryllus was accepted - even liked - by other youths in the barracks.

Sandy could tell that the priestess knew Haz dared not harm her, and that she went out of her way to gall him.

It was the latter truth that galled him most, that in point of fact, as far as the Ila cared and as far as the soldiers cared, he had become no different than the rest of them.

The most permanent ordinary inks were shown to be composed of the best blue gall nuts with copperas and gum, and the proportions found on experiment to yield the most persistent black were six parts of best blue galls to four parts of copperas.

Gradual evaporation of moisture causes a change not only in color but in the case of the iron and gall inks, in their chemical constitution, being immediately affected by their environment, whether due to the character of the paper on which they rest, the kind or condition of the pen used, or most important of all, the elements.

Friends and sycophants were gathering round the governor of Lapan, addressing him with the half-congratulatory and half-envious admiration usually shown by people towards a man who has done something which, though they may consider it reckless and foolhardy, they cannot help wishing they had had the gall to do themselves.

Yankees had suddenly learned the value of the railbed and were using its protection to start a galling rifle fire on the Legion.

While Fleming used the past tense to narrate his adventure, Gall prefers verbs in the present tense.