Find the word definition

Crossword clues for galen

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

celebrated Greek physician of 2c.; his work still was a foundation of medicine in the Middle Ages and his name is used figuratively for doctors.


Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (; ; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon , was a prominent Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman empire. Arguably the most accomplished of all medical researchers of antiquity, Galen influenced the development of various scientific disciplines, including anatomy, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, and neurology, as well as philosophy and logic.

The son of Aelius Nicon, a wealthy architect with scholarly interests, Galen received a comprehensive education that prepared him for a successful career as a physician and philosopher. Born in Pergamon (present-day Bergama, Turkey), Galen traveled extensively, exposing himself to a wide variety of medical theories and discoveries before settling in Rome, where he served prominent members of Roman society and eventually was given the position of personal physician to several emperors.

Galen's understanding of anatomy and medicine was principally influenced by the then-current theory of humorism (also known as the four humors - black bile, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm), as advanced by ancient Greek physicians such as Hippocrates. His theories dominated and influenced Western medical science for more than 1,300 years. His anatomical reports, based mainly on dissection of monkeys, especially the Barbary macaque, and pigs, remained uncontested until 1543, when printed descriptions and illustrations of human dissections were published in the seminal work De humani corporis fabrica by Andreas Vesalius where Galen's physiological theory was accommodated to these new observations. Galen's theory of the physiology of the circulatory system endured until 1628, when William Harvey published his treatise entitled De motu cordis, in which he established that blood circulates, with the heart acting as a pump. Medical students continued to study Galen's writings until well into the 19th century. Galen conducted many nerve ligation experiments that supported the theory, which is still accepted today, that the brain controls all the motions of the muscles by means of the cranial and peripheral nervous systems.

Galen saw himself as both a physician and a philosopher, as he wrote in his treatise entitled That the Best Physician is also a Philosopher. Galen was very interested in the debate between the rationalist and empiricist medical sects, and his use of direct observation, dissection and vivisection represents a complex middle ground between the extremes of those two viewpoints. Many of his works have been preserved and/or translated from the original Greek, although many were destroyed and some credited to him are believed to be spurious. Although there is some debate over the date of his death, he was no younger than seventy when he died.

In medieval Europe, Galen's writings on anatomy became the mainstay of the medieval physician's university curriculum; but they suffered greatly from stasis and intellectual stagnation. Some of Galen's ideas were incorrect: he did not dissect a human body nor did the medieval lecturers.

Galen's original Greek texts gained renewed prominence during the early modern period. In the 1530s, Belgian anatomist and physician Andreas Vesalius took on a project to translate many of Galen's Greek texts into Latin. Vesalius's most famous work, De humani corporis fabrica, was greatly influenced by Galenic writing and form.

Galen (crater)

Galen is a small lunar impact crater that lies in the rugged region between the Montes Apenninus range to the west and the Montes Haemus in the east. It is located to the south-southeast of the crater Aratus, a slightly larger formation. Further to the west is the crater Conon, near the flanks of the Montes Apeninnus. Galen was previously designated Aratus A before being given a name by the IAU.

Galen is a circular crater with a bowl-shaped interior and a sharp rim that has not undergone significant erosion. The small interior floor has a lower albedo than the surrounding walls.

Galen (disambiguation)

Galen was an ancient Roman physician of Greek origin.

Galen may also refer to:

Usage examples of "galen".

Galen led the way out of the room into the hall where the mosaic floor and plastered walls presented colored temple scenes--priests burning incense at the shrine of Aesculapius, the sick and maimed arriving and the cured departing, giving praise.

Galen with eyes still sharp, a scrutinizing gaze that had kept the dwarves of Clan Battlehammer ducking defensively out of sight for many, many decades.

The tunnels were tighter, lower, and not as wide, which the dwarves thought a good thing, particularly with huge and ugly trolls chasing them, but which only made Galen spend half his time walking bent over.

He and the other four fell back, then, moving right to the base of the hole, just behind Galen, who continued to ferry dwarves up.

The Galenists were bitterly decrying his refusal to accept Galen on many points, and both of these works would have added fuel to the flame of controversy.

Circe and Maskelyne, standing beside Gowen, stopped their questioning, and they too looked toward Galen.

Galen and Gowen stopped outside, and as the doors closed, Galen caught a glimpse of a plain dais at the far end of the large, empty room.

The herpetologist lifted Folliet out of his travel cage and handed him to Galen.

The works of Hippocrates, Aretxeus, Galen, Celsus, and Aetius contain nothing relative to records of successful Cesarean sections.

At last, with the hint of some strange, scissorlike action, the shape moved to the side, and Galen passed by, nearly brushing against it.

Galen, that thou secretest veiled within thy deepest heart, is like to me!

Both Hippocrates and Aristotle discuss somnambulism, and it is said that the physician Galen was a victim of this habit.

Though he was called the Galen of his time, and looked up to the Greek physician as his master, even the authority of Galen did not override that of the Stagirite in his estimation.

Galen, although Pertinax welcomed her calmness as excusing unenthusiasm in herself.

Academy at Adigia, expecting to spend the rest of his life there, until Adigia was attacked by savage Adepts under the direction of a Reader: Galen, a boy Lenardo had trained but who had turned traitor to the empire.