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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
▪ This may represent either increased synthesis of the type 1 chain precursor or activation of the Le and Se genes.
▪ In theory the increased prostaglandin synthesis seen with Helicobacter pylori might explain such a reduction in minor mucosal injury.
▪ Indeed, animal studies have shown that the presence of a tumour results in increased hepatic protein synthesis.
▪ Such diurnal variations may possibly explain why two of the patients showed increased bile acid synthesis but normal SeHCAT values.
▪ The increase in laminin concentrations in these patients could be due to increased synthesis by Ito cells.
▪ Bile acid malabsorption and increased synthesis of bile acids were even detected in cholecystectomised patients without intestinal pathology.
▪ In conclusion, we investigated the influence of Helicobacter pylori colonisation on gastric mucosal eicosanoid synthesis in patients taking NSAIDs.
▪ The research will survey the history of thought in the field, examine existing theories, and construct a new synthesis.
▪ Two recent novels will illustrate Barth's attitude to used-up forms and his move towards a new synthesis.
▪ There was one fascinating lecture on chirality and organic synthesis including the design of Salbutamol, a drug used to treat asthma.
▪ Solution or solid phase synthesis is welcomed, as are combinatorial approaches to organic synthesis.
▪ Chromatography is particularly useful in organic synthesis in separating and recovering the components of a mixture.
▪ This is used to separate the products of an organic synthesis from water.
▪ In other respects the book has changed little and there is no attempt to deal with organic synthesis in its own right.
▪ It shows the close association that can exist between organic chemical synthesis and clay surfaces.
▪ It also needs long periods of ecological stability during which evolutionary epochs can bring about the necessary organic synthesis.
▪ Was there a natural organic synthesis?
▪ Cholesterol was added to increase the intestinal concentration of bile acids, because dietary cholesterol stimulates bile acid synthesis in rats.
▪ It could so happen that slight bile acid malabsorption may or may not affect bile acid synthesis.
▪ Such diurnal variations may possibly explain why two of the patients showed increased bile acid synthesis but normal SeHCAT values.
▪ The 3' untranslated trailer sequence is 937 nucleotides long and no poly A tail is present indicating internal priming during cDNA synthesis.
▪ So acyclovir phosphate and triphosphate are not formed in healthy cells, whose DNA synthesis is therefore not affected.
▪ Rat sciatic nerve Schwann cells were assayed for incorporation of DNA synthesis precursors, as described.
▪ Salicylate exerts its anti. inflammatory action in part by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis. 135.
▪ Linoleic acid is a precursor of prostaglandin synthesis from arachidonic acid.
▪ These reports suggested that inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis was unlikely to be sole mechanism responsible for the gastric damage induced by indomethacin.
▪ Other investigators claim that endogenous prostaglandins may not be essential since gastric cytoprotection persists after pretreatment with prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors.
▪ Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis by NSAIDs is the major established mechanism by which NSAIDs render the gastric mucosa vulnerable to mucosal injury.
▪ Another potentially useful system for laboratory study could well be the various steps in prostaglandin synthesis.
▪ Our data suggest that it is unlikely that the mechanism of this apparent synergy is enhanced depression of prostaglandin synthesis.
▪ The inhibitors might therefore be causing amnesia not because they prevent protein synthesis but because of their effect on increasing amino acid levels.
▪ Addition of this phosphate group impairs the function of the essential protein, and viral protein synthesis fails to begin.
▪ But exactly how viral protein synthesis is selectively inhibited, leaving cellular protein synthesis relatively unaffected, is still not clear.
▪ Measuring the rate of protein synthesis then becomes a matter of measuring the rate at which amino acids are incorporated into proteins.
▪ By contrast with their failure to affect habituation, the protein synthesis inhibitors did produce amnesia for associative learning.
▪ The rate of liver protein synthesis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease was 43% higher than the control group of patients.
▪ The contribution, therefore, of the pathological colon to this increased whole body protein synthesis and breakdown was unknown.
▪ Subsequently, he achieved a modified synthesis of the vitamin, which he had renamed ascorbic acid.
▪ If we could once achieve a synthesis Of the archaic and the entirely new ... We yearn for that reality in this.
▪ Helicobacter pylori also tended to increase thromboxane B 2 synthesis although this was not statistically significant.
▪ The increased synthesis of the metabolite is probably performed by the inflammatory cells that participate in this condition.
▪ Steroids inhibit the synthesis of all the eicosanoids; they reduce late radiation induced fibrosis in experimental models.
▪ Salicylate exerts its anti. inflammatory action in part by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis. 135.
▪ Much evidence now exists which shows that hypochlorites inhibit collagen synthesis and cause irreversible damage to the micro-circulation.
▪ The morphine used in its synthesis is generally obtained from opium.
▪ An interesting development is the direct synthesis of acetic anhydride, used to make cellulose acetate for photographic film base.
▪ In a human pharmaceutical factory the synthesis of a useful chemical needs a production line.
▪ In such situations there is reduced endogenous dermal synthesis of vitamin D precursors.
▪ Speech synthesis units are being incorporated into cars like the Maestro as part of the standard instrumentation.
▪ The second dynamically equivalent mechanism is to introduce delays into the loop that correspond to synthesis and transport delays.
▪ This book is the substance of his Lyell Lectures in 1983 but is the synthesis of thirty years' work.
▪ This slow process led in the direction of Hinduism, a vast eclectic synthesis to which we shall return shortly.
▪ What you hear will incorporate high-fidelity sound, speech synthesis, and speech recognition.
The Collaborative International Dictionary

Synthesis \Syn"the*sis\, n.; pl. Syntheses. [L., a mixture, properly, a putting together, Gr. ?, fr. ? to place or put together; sy`n with + ? to place. See Thesis.]

  1. Composition, or the putting of two or more things together, as in compounding medicines.

  2. (Chem.) The art or process of making a compound by putting the ingredients together, as contrasted with analysis; thus, water is made by synthesis from hydrogen and oxygen; hence, specifically, the building up of complex compounds by special reactions, whereby their component radicals are so grouped that the resulting substances are identical in every respect with the natural articles when such occur; thus, artificial alcohol, urea, indigo blue, alizarin, etc., are made by synthesis.

  3. (Logic) The combination of separate elements of thought into a whole, as of simple into complex conceptions, species into genera, individual propositions into systems; -- the opposite of analysis.

    Analysis and synthesis, though commonly treated as two different methods, are, if properly understood, only the two necessary parts of the same method. Each is the relative and correlative of the other.
    --Sir W. Hamilton.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

1610s, "deductive reasoning," from Latin synthesis "collection, set, suit of clothes, composition (of a medication)," from Greek synthesis "composition, a putting together," from syntithenai "put together, combine," from syn- "together" (see syn-) + tithenai "put, place" (see theme). From 1733 as "a combination of parts into a whole." Earlier borrowed in Middle English as sintecis (mid-15c.). Plural syntheses.


n. 1 The formation of something complex or coherent by combining simpler things. 2 (context chemistry English) The reaction of elements or compounds to form more complex compounds. 3 (context logic English) A deduction from the general to the particular. 4 (context philosophy English) The combination of thesis and antithesis. 5 (context military English) In intelligence usage, the examining and combining of processed information with other information and intelligence for final interpretation; (JP 1-02). 6 (context rhetoric English) An apt arrangement of elements of a text, especially for euphony.

  1. n. the process of producing a chemical compound (usually by the union of simpler chemical compounds)

  2. the combination of ideas into a complex whole [syn: synthetic thinking] [ant: analysis]

  3. reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect) [syn: deduction, deductive reasoning]

  4. [also: syntheses (pl)]


In general, the noun synthesis (from the ancient Greek , σύν "with" and θέσις "placing") refers to a combination of two or more entities that together form something new; alternately, it refers to the creating of something by artificial means. The corresponding verb, to synthesize (or synthesise), means to make or form a synthesis.

Synthesis or synthesize may also refer to:

Synthesis (magazine)

Synthesis is a website, weekly newspaper, and US magazine that deals with popular music, movies, technology, and other interests of pop culture. It is owned by Bill Fishkin, who began the newspaper in Chico, California in his apartment in Chico, CA in 1994. The magazine is known for publishing eclectic information and opinions. The magazine has a special focus on MySpace, often interviewing frequent users of the website.

Synthesis (journal)

Synthesis is a scientific journal published from 1969 to the present day by Thieme. Its stated purpose is the "advancement of the science of synthetic chemistry".

From August 2006, selected articles are offered free of charge. The impact factor of this journal is 2.689 (2014).

Synthesis (clothing)

The synthesis ( Greek for something "put together"), probably synonymous with cenatoria, "dinner clothes" (from Latin cena, "dinner"), was a garment or outfit worn in ancient Rome for dining or special occasions such as the Saturnalia. It seems to have been worn by both men and women, and was particularly a fashion of the mid-1st to early 2nd century AD. More is known about the etiquette of wearing the synthesis than its appearance. It is mentioned mainly by Martial, who also uses the word cenatoria. This attire was characteristically colorful, but lacking further description in ancient literature or a secure identification of the synthesis in art, scholars have viewed it variously as an ensemble or suit, or a single garment that was a sort of robe or tunic- mantle combination.

The synthesis was part of the urbanite's wardrobe, and fashionable Romans might own several. The garment might be conspicuously expensive, and Martial mentions one of his friends giving a fine synthesis to his mistress on the occasion of the Matronalia. Residents of the municipalities would have rare occasion to wear the synthesis.

The toga, the Roman male citizen's characteristic garment, was cumbersome and considered inappropriate for reclining at dinner. At the same time, exposing too much flesh at dinner was offensive to Romans; funerary dining scenes in Roman art showing bare torsos have a symbolic or religious meaning. The synthesis was a colorful alternative for private leisure, and wearing it in everyday public life was a faux pas. It could be worn during the day in public only during the Saturnalia, the December festival during which social norms were turned topsy-turvy. Martial treats the wearing of the synthesis as characteristic of the holiday, as was the wearing of the "cap of freedom" ( pilleus). It may originally have been women's clothing, adopted by men as part of the holiday's role reversals. The emperor Nero was criticized for choosing a loose-belted synthesis as everyday attire.

The priesthood of the Arval Brothers wore a white version of the garment at their ceremonial banquets. The officers of the Arvals (magister and flamen) held annual office from one Saturnalia (December 17) to the next.

Synthesis (album)

Synthesis is the third album by The Cryan' Shames and was released in 1968. It contains some lineup changes from their second album, A Scratch in the Sky. Drummer Dennis Conroy was replaced by Alan Dawson, and Jim Fairs moved on with Dave Carter on guitar. Synthesis is an apt name for an album that, like its predecessor, A Scratch in the Sky, proved the Cryan' Shames to be among the most versatile mainstream pop/rock groups of the late 1960s.

"Greenburg, Glickstein, Charles, David, Smith and Jones" was covered by Proto-Kaw, a reformed version of Kerry Livgren's early-1970s pre- Kansas band, on their 2004 album Before Became After.

Usage examples of "synthesis".

You develop a thesis, you contradict it with an anthesis and then you resolve the contradiction with a synthesis.

Thus, so long as the child is able to apperceive only the three sides and three angles of a triangle, his idea of triangle includes a synthesis of these.

When later, through the building up of his geometric knowledge, he is able to apperceive that the interior angles equal two right angles, his knowledge of a triangle expands through the synthesis of this with the former knowledge.

Even in the fascinating novels of Musil and Broch which provide an example of incomparable syntheses in the production of the first half of the twentieth century, the architectonic balance is not always successfully maintained.

Synthesis when the angry bleat of a rumbling mosso frightened him half out of his wits.

The reports are horribly confused and contradictory but have responded to multivariate synthesis.

Second Synthesis group wanted biology to take, the path Penn Brown so vehemently opposed.

These channels make the membrane permeable to ions or molecules, which can then enter the cell and act as signals for the initiation of the biochemical cascades which ultimately lead, in ways that I shall describe in the next chapter, to the synthesis of new synaptic membrane components and hence to synaptic remodeling.

I knew him fairly well ten years ago, when he was working on porphyrin syntheses.

China in the coming decades, but the reality beneath any such formal predominance will be the absorption of Russia beyond the range of the European pull by the synthesis of Eastern Asia.

Irnerius had done for Roman law producing a convenient synthesis appropriate for academic consumption.

One could rightly say that FDR resolved the contradictions of american progressivism by forging a synthesis of the American imperialist vocation and reformist capitalism, represented by Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson.

But the Synthesis was not religion, Quath argued to herself, it was a philosophical discovery.

The isotopes arc pumped up through lead-shielded pipes to a radiochemistry laboratory in which complex syntheses are done in automated equipment designed to produce pure labelled organic chemicals from the fast-decaying isotopes within a few moments of arrival.

But because the brain is such a finely equilibrated and dynamic system, with great capacities for self-adjustment and control, the effect of disrupting its biochemistry by flooding it, via a pill, with some drug which affects protein synthesis, or particular neurotransmitters or neuromodulators, is more likely to be the equivalent of trying to retune a radio or reprogram a computer by jamming a screwdriver into its circuit boards.