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The Collaborative International Dictionary

J \J\ (j[=a]). J is the tenth letter of the English alphabet. It is a later variant form of the Roman letter I, used to express a consonantal sound, that is, originally, the sound of English y in yet. The forms J and I have, until a recent time, been classed together, and they have been used interchangeably.

Note: In medical prescriptions j is still used in place of i at the end of a number, as a Roman numeral; as, vj, xij. J is etymologically most closely related to i, y, g; as in jot, iota; jest, gesture; join, jugular, yoke. See I. J is a compound vocal consonant, nearly equivalent in sound to dzh. It is exactly the same as g in gem. See Guide to Pronunciation, [sect][sect] 179, 211, 239.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

the letter is a late modification of Roman -i-, originally a scribal creation in continental Medieval Latin to distinguish small -i- in cursive writing from the strokes of other letters, especially in the final positions of words. But in English, -y- was used for this, and -j- was introduced c.1600-1640 to take up the consonantal sound that had evolved from -i- since Late Latin times. This usage first was attested in Spanish, where it was in place before 1600. English dictionaries continued to lump together words beginning in -i- and -j- until 19c., and -j- formerly was skipped when letters were used to express serial order.\n

\nUsed in modern writing to represent Latin -i- before a, e, o, u in the same syllable, which in Latin was sounded as the consonant in Modern English you, yam, etc., but the custom is controversial among Latinists:\n\nThe character J, j, which represents the letter sound in some school-books, is an invention of the seventeenth century, and is not found in MSS., nor in the best texts of the Latin authors.



letter (Latn-def en letter 10 jay) n. 1 (context slang English) A term for a marijuana cigarette ('joint'). 2 (context mathematics English) An alternative version of ''i'', the positive square root of -1; used in the context of electronics. 3 (context mathematics English) The second unit vector, after ''i''

J (programming language)

The J programming language, developed in the early 1990s by Kenneth E. Iverson and Roger Hui, is a synthesis of APL (also by Iverson) and the FP and FL function-level languages created by John Backus.

To avoid repeating the APL special-character problem, J uses only the basic ASCII character set, resorting to the use of the dot and colon as inflections to form short words similar to digraphs. Most such "primary" (or "primitive") J words serve as mathematical symbols, with the dot or colon extending the meaning of the basic characters available. Also, many characters which in other languages often must be paired (such as [] {} "" `` or <>) are treated by J as stand-alone words or, when inflected, as single-character roots of multi-character words.

J is a very terse array programming language, and is most suited to mathematical and statistical programming, especially when performing operations on matrices. It has also been used in Extreme Programming and network performance analysis.

Like the original FP/FL languages, J supports function-level programming (not the same as functional programming) via its tacit programming features.

Unlike most languages that support object-oriented programming, J's flexible hierarchical namespace scheme (where every name exists in a specific locale) can be effectively used as a framework for both class-based and prototype-based object-oriented programming.

Since March 2011, J is free and open-source software under the GPLv3 license. One may also purchase source for commercial use under a negotiated license.


Ĵ or ĵ (J circumflex) is a letter in Esperanto orthography representing the sound .

While Esperanto orthography uses a diacritic for its four postalveolar consonants, as do the Latin-based Slavic alphabets, the base letters are Romano-Germanic. Ĵ is based on the French pronunciation of the letter j to better preserve the shape of borrowings from that language (such as ĵurnalo from journal) than Slavic ž would.


J is the tenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its normal name in English is jay or, now uncommonly, jy . When used for the palatal approximant, it may be called yod ( or ) or yot ( or ).

J (South Korean singer)

Chung Jae Young (born May 2, 1977), better known by her stage name J or, is a Korean R&B/ soul singer-songwriter.

J (disambiguation)

J is the tenth letter of the Latin alphabet.

J may also refer to:

  • Palatal approximant in the International Phonetic Alphabet
  • J, Cyrillic letter Je
J (text editor)


J is a text editor for programmers, available under the GNU General Public License.

J (Los Angeles Railway)

J was a line operated by the Los Angeles Railway from 1911 to 1945, by Los Angeles Transit Lines from 1945 to 1958, and by the Los Angeles Metropolitan Transit Authority from 1958 to 1963

J (novel)

J is a 2014 novel by Howard Jacobson. It was shortlisted for the 2014 Man Booker Prize.

J (musician)

, known exclusively by his stage nameJ, is a Japanese musician, singer-songwriter and record producer. He is best known as bassist and co-founder of the rock band Luna Sea. After the group disbanded in 2000 he focused on his solo career, for which he performs lead vocals and bass. He rejoined Luna Sea when they reunited in August 2010.

Since 1997, J has had prominent names in the music industry playing either on his albums, as his backing band, or showing up as guests at some of his concerts including Raymond Watts ( PIG), Ray McVeigh ( Zilch), Takashi Fujita ( Doom), Scott Garrett, Billy Duffy and Ian Astbury (all three from The Cult), Steve Jones ( The Sex Pistols), Duff McKagan and Slash (both from Velvet Revolver), Franz Stahl ( Scream) and Youjeen ( Cherry Filter).

Usage examples of "j".

CHAPTER XV The pity which Jed felt for Phineas Babbitt caused him to keep silent concerning his Thanksgiving evening interview with the hardware dealer.

Jed had taken one long stride to where Babbitt was standing, seized the furious little creature by the right arm with one hand and with the other covered his open mouth, covered not only the mouth, but a large section of face as well.

After a few seconds we were outside the station, dropping down the Beanstalk after Jen and Larry.

Not for a moment did Hugh think that Jer might tell Bids, or worse, her grim father, that his brother was promised to a girl in Trafalgar.

Hugh was going to make up to Bids Tookey again, and he, Jer, would never have a home with his brother.

He told her about Bids Tookey passing through on her way to Sydney, and Jer carrying his farewell.

Amy watched now as Jed turned away from the bigeye to follow a small school of exotic blue and yellow butterfly fish.

I hoped that Jen and Larry would keep their attention up, watching an endless succession of buckets flash past them and checking each one for radioactivity count.

Jen, Claus knew, cared for the shapes of nonmammalian life even less than he did.

Jen, Claus knew, cared for the shapes of non-mammalian life even less than he did.

Shortly after sunrise next morning, Claus and Jen went out for an early swim.

Tetrick, Richard Freeborn, Robert Silverberg, Cory Doctorow, Michael Swanwick, Charles Stross, Craig Engler, Linn Prentis, Vaughne Lee Hansen, Jed Hartman, Mary Anne Mohanraj, Susan Marie Groppi, Patrick Swenson, Tom Vander Neut, Andy Cox, Steve Pendergrast, Laura Ann Gilman, Alastair Reynolds, Warren Lapine, Shawna McCarthy, David Hartwell, Darrell Schweitzer, Robert Sawyer, Jennifer A.

The cast, with two notable exceptions and a nailbiting Jed Tilbury in charge, his colour today like that of a very old elephant, sat around in the greenroom, looking at Enderby.

For once Jed enjoyed a guilty delight at the way he intimidated Miri and Navar, forbidding them to have anything to do with it.

Jed brought Gari and Navar, who were intensely curious, twittering together as they walked down the length of the corridor.