Glauber is a small lunar crater that is located just to the north of the large walled plain Mendeleev, on the Moon's far side. This crater lies just outside the irregular rim of Mendeleev, but well within the outer skirt of ejecta. It is a circular crater with a rim that has not been significantly eroded. The simple inner walls slope down to a small floor at the midpoint with a peak at the center. The diameter of the floor is only about one-third that of the crater.
Glauber was written, among other programs, by Pat Langley, Herbert A. Simon, G. Bradshaw and J. Zytkow to demonstrate how scientific discovery may be obtained by problem solving methods, in their book Scientific Discovery, Computational Explorations on the Creative Mind.
Their programs simulate historical scientific discoveries based on the empirical evidence known at the time of discovery.
Glauber was named after Johann Rudolph Glauber, a 17th-century alchemist whose work helped to develop acid-base theory. Glauber (the method) rediscovers the law of acid-alkali reactions producing salts, given the qualities of substances and observed facts, the result of mixing substances. From that knowledge Glauber discovers that substances that taste bitter react with substances tasting sour, producing substances tasting salty.
In few words, the law:Acid + Alkali --> Salt
Glauber was designed by Pat Langley as part of his work on discovery heuristics in an attempt to have a computer automatically review a host of values and characteristics and make independent analyses from them. In the case of Glauber, the goal was to have an autonomous application that could estimate, even perfectly describe, the nature of a given chemical compound by comparing it to related substances. Langley formalized and compiled Glauber in 1983.
The software were supplied with information about a variety of materials as they had been described by 17-18th century chemists, before most of modern chemical knowledge had been uncovered or invented. Qualitative descriptions like taste, rather than numerical data such as molecular weight, were programmed into the application. Chemical reactions that were known in that era and the distinction between reactants and products were also provided. From this knowledge, Glauber was to figure out which substances were acids, bases, and salts without any quantitative information. The system examined chemical substances and all of their most likely reactions and correlates the expected taste and related acidity or saltiness according to the rule that acids and bases produce salts.
Glauber was a very successful advance in theoretical chemistry as performed by computer and it, along with similar systems developed by Herbert A. Simon including Stahl (which examines oxidation) and DALTON (which calculates atomic weight), helped form the groundwork of all current automated chemical analysis.
Gláuber Leandro Honorato Berti (born 5 August 1983), more commonly known as Gláuber, is a Brazilian retired footballer who last played for Columbus Crew in Major League Soccer.
Glauber can mean:
- Glauber, a computer software system
- Glauber (crater)
Glauber can refer to the following people:
- Gláuber (footballer), Brazilian footballer
- Roy J. Glauber, American physicist
- Johann Rudolf Glauber, Dutch-German alchemist and chemist
- Lucky Glauber, fictional video game character
- Glauber Rocha, Brazilian filmmaker
''' Gláuber Vian Corrêa ''' (born 9 February 1981), also known as ''' Gláuber ''', is a Brazilian footballer who played with Akratitos and with Pogoń Szczecin.
Usage examples of "glauber".
The older of the two boys beside Herr Glauber shoved his chair back and got up with a grin and a glance at the crowded bar of the Thuringen Gardens.
Herr Glauber shoved the plate toward Martin and out of the grasping hands of Heinrich.
Every time Herr Glauber had mentioned Master Blacksmith Hubner, Heinrich had puffed out his cheeks and sucked in his lips, in a nearly perfect parody of Herr Hubner.
A glance showed that Herr Glauber was leaning toward him, his face a studied calm.
Herr Glauber removed his jacket and carefully laid it on the wagon seat before taking one of the sickles.
Herr Glauber paid the boys and Adolf unloaded the food onto a blanket in the shade.
Eagerly he pulled out his knife to test the metal and stopped, suddenly aware Herr Glauber was standing beside him.
Standing straight and fighting tears, Martin took the hand Glauber extended and shook it.
His stomach turned over as he wondered what new scheme Herr Glauber was going to present.
Still, Martin often wondered if he would ever get used to Herr Glauber or, more rightly, Herr Glauber's enthusiasms.
Martin eyed his staff—all visibly interested in what Herr Glauber might say.
Herr Glauber smiled and rocked back and forth on the balls of his feet, giving the impression of barely suppressed energy.
Herr Glauber had found it while cleaning out an attic during another of his projects.
Herr Glauber was grinning like a fool but Martin didn't take him for one.
No matter how Herr Master Carpenter Glauber might laugh or grin or caper about, the man was no fool.