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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
liberal state/society/democracy etc
social democracy
▪ The system of direct democracy made the Soviet immediately responsive to the mood of rank-and-file workers.
▪ His ideal was to transplant the classical Athenian model of direct democracy to the new world.
▪ Democracy meant government by the people themselves; what is now tendentiously termed direct democracy.
▪ But direct democracy could not survive the size and complexity of the pluralistic, sprawling nation-states that developed in modern times.
▪ Mr Kinnock hinted at the weekend that direct democracy was likely to become mandatory relatively soon.
▪ Like or dislike it, direct democracy is on the way.
▪ The court was confident that elements of direct democracy can coexist within the representative republic.
▪ Many people argue that direct democracy is unworkable, that society needs representatives to debate and decide issues, Davis said.
▪ The first two studies find significant statistical evidence in support of a relationship between economic development and democracy.
▪ Chapter 4 assessed the many comparisons of the relationship between economic development and democracy.
▪ Overall, the statistical results confirm the relationship between economic development and democracy established by the comparative studies in the earlier phase.
▪ These studies demonstrate that the relationship between economic development and democracy does not hold for all countries.
▪ In other words, the effect of economic development on democracy is lower in newly developed and developing countries.
▪ Summary Table 4.5 summarizes the ` comparison of comparisons' on the relationship between economic development and democracy presented in this chapter.
▪ Simple analysis reveals that the relationship between levels of economic development and democracy is strong.
▪ This is a good overview of the entire topic of economic development and democracy.
▪ It was a system that could not endure, and agitations for greater democracy grew steadily louder.
▪ Interactivity was supposed to be great-democracy at its most cuddly.
▪ In his key-note National Day address to parliament in August Suharto appeared to endorse moves towards greater openness and democracy.
▪ This it sees as evidence of the shop-floor pressures for greater industrial democracy.
▪ Mr Patten pledged to continue fighting for greater democracy for the colony.
▪ First, we want steady progress towards a greater degree of democracy in Hong Kong.
▪ The deepest divisions have centered on demands for greater internal party democracy and the pace of party reform.
▪ Of course the continent needs greater democracy.
▪ That aim must be linked to industrial democracy, profit-sharing and share ownership.
▪ A thorough review of social movement theory and research in advanced industrial democracies.
▪ And in that separation, in that accommodation, there was no place for industrial democracy.
▪ The answer is: industrial democracy.
▪ This it sees as evidence of the shop-floor pressures for greater industrial democracy.
▪ It was, and remains, authentic industrial democracy.
▪ One feature of this shift was an emphasis on industrial democracy, which drew heavily on principles of codetermination.
▪ Legitimation for such delegated enforcement was usually sought through schemes for participation, such as industrial democracy, regional devolution or community action.
▪ Yet in a liberal democracy, such a declaration can not easily be made; indeed the opposite must be proclaimed.
▪ Bureaucratization and centralization were also tied to the growth of liberal democracy and socialism in intended and unintended ways.
▪ Elections provide a more stable method of succession, especially in liberal democracies.
▪ Pluralism or membership of associations, he suggests, provides the individual with the participation lacking in a liberal democracy.
▪ The libertarian theory of the media is based on western liberal democracy.
▪ Revolutions are only contemplated by cadres with intense preferences: most workers in liberal democracies will not vote for a revolution.
▪ In any liberal democracy a mobilization of bias is cumulatively created by the outcomes of political and social conflicts.
▪ By the early 1930s scepticism with liberal democracy was widespread.
▪ And last week the peers engaged in a debate on local democracy and local services moved by Lord Williams of Elvel.
▪ And it was reportedly a profitable slumber; many were allegedly being paid for their dedication to local democracy.
▪ Some commentators see such developments as further evidence of the erosion of local democracy.
▪ We believe that the principle of accountability in local democracy has gone out of the window under this Government.
▪ First under the poll tax and now under the council tax, central control has replaced local democracy in determining spending.
▪ However, we should interfere in local government with some trepidation because local democracy and local accountability underpin parliamentary democracy and accountability.
▪ As far as local democracy was concerned, no evidence was clearly discernible either for an improvement or for a deterioration.
▪ A story of local democracy and participatory initiative dating from the reforms of the later 1880s came to its sad close.
▪ Vanhanen's democracy prediction Political parties are a central element of modern representative democracies.
▪ Feudalism was basically bad; modern democracies are good.
▪ It may yet serve as an unhappy reminder that there are divides greater than those between modern capitalism and modern social democracy.
▪ He insisted that he had acted within the Constitution and reaffirmed his commitment to multiparty democracy.
▪ As in many other countries, popular demands for the introduction of multiparty democracy grew in the first half of 1990.
▪ Two demonstrations in support of multiparty democracy had been held on Dec. 10 and Dec. 31.
▪ The arrests came soon after they had sent an open letter to Sassou Nguesso calling for multiparty democracy.
▪ The government was to be responsible for executing decisions of the conference during a transition to multiparty democracy.
▪ New constitutional committee A 14-member committee was appointed on Jan. 21 to draft a new constitution for multiparty democracy.
▪ The pressure is discreet - after all, the survival of a key Western ally and a new democracy is at stake.
▪ To Yacouba the new watchwords of democracy and modernization are vast improvements on the furore of the Revolution.
▪ Thus, the lesson for new democracies is that the choice of institutions is directly linked to the challenges of democratic consolidation.
▪ To refuse a debate would be to pass up an opportunity to breathe a little new life into democracy.
▪ I see no purpose in a further referendum on that matter - we are a parliamentary democracy.
▪ However, we should interfere in local government with some trepidation because local democracy and local accountability underpin parliamentary democracy and accountability.
▪ Is majority rule under a system of parliamentary democracy a sufficient guarantee of legitimacy?
▪ For the whole sample, the comparison reveals that presidential democracies are more likely to break down than parliamentary democracies.
▪ At £12 per table leader, parliamentary democracy is getting good value.
▪ Within our system of parliamentary democracy, only inter-party competition was seen as crucial and desirable.
▪ A new role for the courts has to be fashioned out of our system of parliamentary democracy - Justinian.
▪ In most parliamentary democracies voter turnout tends to be around half to three-quarters of the electorate.
▪ Several authors, who see the failings of our present system, do not wish to see an extension of participatory democracy.
▪ This book will explore both the opportunities and the dangers ahead for participatory democracy in the electronic information age.
▪ This can only occur in participatory or self-managing democracy.
▪ Power comes from the cultivation of the scientific spirit and participatory democracy.
▪ Bobbio has doubts, therefore, as to the educative benefits of participatory democracy.
▪ Thus we require participatory democracy to give the individual a real measure of control over the life and structure of his/her environment.
▪ They advocated some form of participatory democracy with free elections and a multi-party system.
▪ For Pateman, participatory democracy hinges on the premise that individuals and their institutions can not be placed apart.
▪ In the absence of broader political democracy, active community participation gets suppressed and distorted.
▪ This, it has been suggested, is the danger of overselling the norms of political democracy in the schools.
▪ In short, though not yet fully attained, political democracy had become respectable, and Socialism had become arguable.
▪ Nor will it do so in countries where genuine political democracy is firmly established and the electorate will no longer support the objectives.
▪ What would be the institutional conditions for a genuine cultural and political democracy, for example?
▪ Finally, further analysis demonstrates that the level of political democracy has a negative effect on the strike volume.
▪ The result is an absence of diversity - a key requirement for a truly representative press and one suited for political democracy.
▪ Monopolization required imperialism and both were incompatible with the political democracy represented by Weimar.
▪ What constraints are imposed by representative democracy?
▪ The wired village will inevitably lead the world in the direction of more direct rather than representative democracies.
▪ But neither has found an authentic expression in the institutions of representative democracy.
▪ In theory, our representative system of democracy gives us that ownership.
▪ Furthermore, the nature of political authority in representative democracies means that governments are bound by doctrines of accountability.
▪ Part I examines representative democracy and the end of the old politics.
▪ Local government is based on the system of representative democracy: councillors are elected to make policy on behalf of the general population.
▪ Vanhanen's democracy prediction Political parties are a central element of modern representative democracies.
▪ By no means all revolutionaries were converted to social democracy.
▪ Thus, the possibility of social democracy is also neatly nipped in the bud.
▪ Second, Labour under Mr Kinnock is belatedly making the transition to continental-style social democracy.
▪ Class-based social democracy also grew during the period.
▪ It may yet serve as an unhappy reminder that there are divides greater than those between modern capitalism and modern social democracy.
▪ It can be argued that Monsieur Guillotin was the true founder of democracy by eliminating class distinction in public executions.
▪ This is the true nature of democracy and of all distributed governance.
▪ Q: If this election results in a true democracy, is it exportable to the rest of the Arab world?
▪ Surely a true democracy also depends on such values as responsibility, caring, ingenuity, and the art of compromise.
▪ But Great Groups are rarely true democracies.
▪ In most Western democracies in the twentieth century, legislatures have lost a great deal of ground to executive branches.
▪ The market-based economies and private ownership in Western democracies make an essential difference in the scope and application of the centralization concepts.
▪ But the Note also made clear that the western democracies would not intervene to bring about the change of regime they advocated.
▪ Few other Western democracies expect their political leaders' wives to be national hostesses, homemakers or advocates.
▪ Other western democracies did no better.
▪ None of the legendary Western democracy operated in our relations, only the democracy of childhood.
▪ If so, public opinion in the western democracies would probably put up with quite a lot of blood and bodies.
▪ The United States can learn from other Western democracies that have developed policies that effectively protect their children from poverty.
▪ It has led to the election of President Chiluba, leader of the country's multi-party democracy movement.
▪ What started out as a relatively manageable protest against stolen elections has now mushroomed into a full-fledged democracy movement.
▪ While major political reforms had been secured, discontent remained among young supporters of the democracy movement.
▪ He has lived ever since on the ThaiBurma border, seeking to support and revive the democracy movement in his country.
▪ The other is a conversation with the poet Liao Yiwu active in the 1989 democracy movement and subsequently jailed.
▪ We agree that it is the best way to help those countries to establish sound democracies and a sound economy.
▪ Can he say what further action we may take to establish democracy firmly there?
▪ But the ruling party's congress last month promised to establish a multi-party democracy.
▪ What, then, are the grounds upon which local government can be said to promote democracy?
▪ The United States can promote both democracy and free markets.
▪ But, as a means of trying to break the deadlock and restore a little democracy, it was certainly worth discussing.
▪ In 1990 the Velvet Revolution restored democracy to Czechoslovakia.
▪ Our goal was to get rid of them, restore democracy and fix things up.
▪ He has lived ever since on the ThaiBurma border, seeking to support and revive the democracy movement in his country.
▪ Why say that the West gets another chance at supporting democracy?
long live democracy/freedom etc
▪ Adolfo Suarez supervised Spain's transition to democracy in the 1970s.
▪ Costa Rica is a democracy.
▪ In 1974, democracy returned to Greece after seven years of military rule.
▪ the democracies of Western Europe
▪ The team's partnership is not a democracy; executives Larry Baer and Bob Quinn are the ones who make decisions.
▪ And the growth of an emerging democracy over the past two years provides an outlet for his critics' denunciations.
▪ His statistical analysis reveals a strong positive effect of per capita income on the level of democracy.
▪ The answer is: industrial democracy.
▪ Until the past decade, the technology on which democracy had operated for some 2, 500 years had not changed much.
▪ We agree that it is the best way to help those countries to establish sound democracies and a sound economy.
▪ You say that this conflict is partly the result of governments in New Delhi undermining democracy in the state.
The Collaborative International Dictionary

Democracy \De*moc"ra*cy\ (d[-e]*m[o^]k"r[.a]*s[y^]), n.; pl. Democracies (d[-e]*m[o^]k"r[.a]*s[i^]z). [F. d['e]mocratie, fr. Gr. dhmokrati`a; dh^mos the people + kratei^n to be strong, to rule, kra`tos strength.]

  1. Government by the people; a form of government in which the supreme power is retained and directly exercised by the people.

  2. Government by popular representation; a form of government in which the supreme power is retained by the people, but is indirectly exercised through a system of representation and delegated authority periodically renewed; a constitutional representative government; a republic.

  3. Collectively, the people, regarded as the source of government.

  4. The principles and policy of the Democratic party, so called. [U.S.]

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

1570s, from Middle French démocratie (14c.), from Medieval Latin democratia (13c.), from Greek demokratia "popular government," from demos "common people," originally "district" (see demotic), + kratos "rule, strength" (see -cracy).\n\nDemocracy implies that the man must take the responsibility for choosing his rulers and representatives, and for the maintenance of his own 'rights' against the possible and probable encroachments of the government which he has sanctioned to act for him in public matters.

[Ezra Pound, "ABC of Economics," 1933]


n. 1 (context uncountable English) Rule by the people, especially as a form of government; either directly or through elected representatives (representative democracy). 2 (context countable government English) A government under the direct or representative rule of the people of its jurisdiction. 3 (context uncountable English) Belief in political freedom and equality; the "spirit of democracy".

  1. n. the political orientation of those who favor government by the people or by their elected representatives

  2. a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them [syn: republic, commonwealth] [ant: autocracy]

  3. the doctrine that the numerical majority of an organized group can make decisions binding on the whole group [syn: majority rule]

Democracy (disambiguation)

Democracy is a political concept or form of government.

Democracy may also refer to:

Democracy (play)

Democracy is a play by Michael Frayn which premiered in London at the Royal National Theatre on September 9, 2003. Directed by Michael Blakemore, and starring Roger Allam as Willy Brandt and Conleth Hill as Günter Guillaume, it won the Evening Standard and Critics' Circle awards for Best Play.

Democracy premiered on Broadway at the Brooks Atkinson Theatre on November 18, 2004, and ran for 173 performances. It was nominated for the Tony Award and Drama Desk Award as Best Play.

It has also been staged in Copenhagen, Oslo, Stockholm, Wellington, Vancouver and Toronto.

A revival of the play, directed by Paul Miller at Sheffield's Crucible Theatre, transferred to London's Old Vic Theatre in 2012.

The play, based on actual events, deals with the decision West German chancellor Willy Brandt had to make about exposing the Communist spy Günter Guillaume who worked as his secretary and had heard some of the state's most important secrets.

Democracy (album)

Democracy is the tenth studio album by English rock band Killing Joke. It was released on 1 April 1996 by record label Big Life.

Democracy (novel)

Democracy, Joan Didion's fourth novel, was published in 1984. Set in Hawaii and Southeast Asia at the end of the Vietnam War, the book tells the story of Inez Victor, wife of U.S. Senator and one-time presidential hopeful Harry Victor, and her enduring romance with Jack Lovett, a CIA agent/war profiteer who dies shortly after extricating Inez's daughter Jessie from Saigon, where the girl had incautiously ventured.

Democracy is unusual in that its narrator is not a character within the novel's world but a voice whom Didion identifies as herself, a writer self-consciously struggling with the ambiguities of her ostensible material, the ironies attendant to narration, and the inevitable contradictions at the heart of any story-telling. Didion's deft and economical use of this conceit allows her to comment not only upon the novel she chose to write, a romantic tragedy, but also upon the novel she chose not to write, a family epic encompassing generations of Inez's wealthy Hawaiian family, artless emblems of the colonial impulse.

At the time Democracy was published, the work was widely recognized as Didion's best novel to date for the skillful way she combined reportorial skill with literary style. However, some critics felt the book's realism undercut its overall achievement as a novel.

Category:1984 American novels Category:Novels by Joan Didion Category:Metafictional novels Category:Novels set in Hawaii

Democracy (film)

Democracy is a 1918 British silent war film directed by Sidney Morgan and starring Bruce Gordon, Queenie Thomas and Alice O'Brien.

Democracy (Fiction)

Democracy is a fiction short story, written by Fatima Bhutto. It was released as an e-book in February 2015. The book is based on the political events in Pakistan. It is her latest book that failed to get the best responses from the media comparing her other collections. Her previous work includes four books. She received the Women's Prize for Fiction, the Orange Prize, in 2014.


Democracy, (from Greek: "δημοκρατία") or "rule of the commoners", was originally conceived in Classical Greece, whereby political representatives were chosen by lot (as in a jury) from amongst the male citizens: rich and poor. In modern times it has become equated to elections or "a system of government in which all the people of a state or polity....elect representatives to a parliament or similar assembly", as defined by the Oxford English Dictionary. Democracy is further defined as (a:) "government by the people; especially : rule of the majority (b:) "a government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation ...."

The American Founding Fathers rejected 'democracy' as defined by the Greeks, preferring instead 'a natural aristocracy', whereby only the landed gentry were entitled to a place in Congress. The Americans, as with the English, took their cue from the Roman republic model: only the patrician classes were involved in government. As such, many people today, including academics, have come to understand democracy in terms of elections, rather than selection by lot. For example, according to political scientist Larry Diamond, it consists of four key elements: (a) A political system for choosing and replacing the government through free and fair elections; (b) The active participation of the people, as citizens, in politics and civic life; (c) Protection of the human rights of all citizens, and (d) A rule of law, in which the laws and procedures apply equally to all citizens.

In the 5th century BC, to denote the political systems then existing in Greek city-states, notably Athens, the term is an antonym to ἀριστοκρατία (aristokratía) "rule of an elite". While theoretically these definitions are in opposition, in practice the distinction has been blurred historically. The political system of Classical Athens, for example, granted democratic citizenship to free men and excluded slaves and women from political participation. In virtually all democratic governments throughout ancient and modern history, democratic citizenship consisted of an elite class until full enfranchisement was won for all adult citizens in most modern democracies through the suffrage movements of the 19th and 20th centuries. The English word dates to the 16th century, from the older Middle French and Middle Latin equivalents.

Democracy contrasts with forms of government where power is either held by an individual, as in an absolute monarchy, or where power is held by a small number of individuals, as in an oligarchy. Nevertheless, these oppositions, inherited from Greek philosophy, are now ambiguous because contemporary governments have mixed democratic, oligarchic, and monarchic elements. Karl Popper defined democracy in contrast to dictatorship or tyranny, thus focusing on opportunities for the people to control their leaders and to oust them without the need for a revolution.

Democracy (Judge Dredd storyline)

Democracy in the fictional future city of Mega-City One has been a significant recurring theme in the Judge Dredd comic strip in 2000 AD. In particular, a number of stories published since 1986 have addressed the issue of the Judges' dictatorial system of government, and efforts by the citizens to re-establish democracy. Besides being a notable story arc in itself, the "Democracy" stories also had wider repercussions which led directly to the events depicted in the story " Necropolis".

The stories include " America", which is regularly voted by fans in polls as the best Dredd story ever written, and is Dredd creator John Wagner's favourite Judge Dredd story. Editor David Bishop called it "the best Judge Dredd story ever written." The first Democracy story, "Letter From a Democrat", is co-writer Alan Grant's favourite Dredd story.

All of the stories in the "Democracy" arc were written by Wagner or under his direction.

Democracy (video game)

Democracy is a government simulation game that was first developed by Positech Games in 2005, with a sequel released in December 2007 and a third game in 2013. The player plays as if they are the president or prime minister of a democratic government. The player must introduce and alter policies in seven areas – tax, economy, welfare, foreign policy, transport, law and order and public services. Each policy has an effect on the happiness of various voter groups, as well as affecting factors such as crime and air quality. The player has to deal with "situations", which are typically problems such as petrol protests or homelessness, and also has to make decisions on dilemmas that arise each turn.

Democracy (journal)

Democracy is a quarterly journal of progressive and liberal politics, as well as culture, founded by Kenneth Baer and Andrei Cherny in 2006. While new, Democracy is intended to be the progressive/liberal answer to such prominent and influential conservative journals as The Public Interest, Policy Review, Commentary, and The National Interest. Baer and Cherny state in a message to readers in the first issue that they intend to "regenerate the strength of the progressive movement" with "big ideas." Contrasting themselves with National Review's William F. Buckley, Baer and Cherny proclaim their journal will "stand athwart history and yell, Forward!" The editors put forward Democracy as "a place where ideas can be developed and important debates can be spurred" at a "time when American politics has grown profoundly unserious."

Baer told The Hill “We think that the party is rich in tactics and poor in ideas. What we really need for long-term success is deep, serious thinking about how we’re going to apply long-held progressive values to new challenges.”

Cherny added “I had started thinking about where all of the conservative ideas, for better or worse, had come from. Every big idea — Social Security privatization, supply-side economics, preemption, faith-based initiatives — had come out of one of their journals in their intellectual infrastructure.”

In an editorial for the Los Angeles Times on July 10, 2006, Baer and Cherny laid out a case for making a break with what they characterized as the "ad hoc approach to politics" they claim the current Democratic Party is engaged in.

On March 3, 2009 Michael Tomasky replaced Kenneth Baer as editor when Baer left to become associate director of the White House Office of Management and Budget.

Democracy (Numbers)

"Democracy" is the 18th episode of the third season of the American television show Numb3rs. Written by Cheryl Heuton and Nicolas Falacci, the episode highlights a Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) investigation into the murder of one of their math consultant's friends while an agent learns that she has been selected for a United States Department of Justice (DOJ) assignment. Heuton and Falacci also brought back fan favorite Oswald Kittner, portrayed by Jay Baruchel.

The episode marks series regular Diane Farr's final appearance before delivering her baby. Her pregnancy during season three presented writers and producers with the challenge of deciding whether to include a pregnancy into the season's storyline. They decided against it and opted to hide her pregnanacy. While filming "Democracy", Farr had her baby.

"Democracy" first aired in the United States on March 9, 2007. Critics gave the episode positive reviews.

Usage examples of "democracy".

American people believed more in Americanism than they did in democracy.

Is there not hope for democracy if in the places of its greatest strain and stress, in the midst of its fiercest passions, there is a deliberate, affectionate, intelligent striving toward cities that have been revealed not in apocalyptic vision but in the long-studied plans of terrestrial architects and engineers and altruistic souls, such as that of Jane Addams, cities that to such amphionic music shall out of the shards of the past build themselves silently, impregnably--if not in a diviner clime, at any rate in a diviner spirit--on shores and slopes and plains of that broad valley of the new democracy, conterminous in its mountain boundaries with New France in America?

Its proponents claim that it is also antiracist, because it suggests that all people can make rapid progress toward democracy regardless of their race, culture, or economic level.

The Cantons of Unterwalden, Schwytz, Glarus, and Appenzell retain to-day the simple, primitive forms of democracy which had their origin in the spirit of the people nearly six hundred years ago.

Kameimore overtly idealistic and ideologicalcame to personify the forbidden terrain of the new censored democracy.

The whole conception of the militarized continental state, with its secret police, its censored literature and its conscript labour, is utterly different from that of the loose maritime democracy, with its slums and unemployment, its strikes and party politics.

Even assuming that their special malaises are wholly offset by the effects of alcoholism in the male, they suffer patently from the same adenoids, gastritis, cholelithiasis, nephritis, tuberculosis, carcinoma, arthritis and so on--in short, from the same disturbances of colloidal equilibrium that produce religion, delusions of grandeur, democracy, pyaemia, night sweats, the yearning to save humanity, and all other such distempers in men.

Social Democracy at this time provoked a reaction in the form of conciliationism, of which Trotsky became the main spokesman.

In the complete democracy a man must in some way be made to serve the nation in the very act of contributing to his own individual fulfillment.

Then, two months after the Czechoslovakian fiasco, we were sent into China to save a billion-odd people for democracy.

The division into demes or wards, whence comes the word democracy, was a real territorial division, not personal nor genealogical.

They sought rapid recovery and maximum economic growth, of coursebut they were just as concerned with achieving economic demilitarization and economic democracy.

Some Nazis will surely slip through the great sieve and they are going to be the real screamers who demand justice, denazification, and democracy.

Whatever differs from this, to the extent of the difference, is no democracy.

Both James and Dolley hated the institution, considering it not only a denial of democracy but a grievous, unpardonable sin.