Crossword clues for corporation
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
The Collaborative International Dictionary
Corporation \Cor`po*ra"tion\ (k[^o]r`p[-o]*r[=a]"sh[u^]n), n. A body politic or corporate, formed and authorized by law to act as a single person, and endowed by law with the capacity of succession; a society having the capacity of transacting business as an individual.
Note: Corporations are aggregate or sole. Corporations aggregate consist of two or more persons united in a society, which is preserved by a succession of members, either forever or till the corporation is dissolved by the power that formed it, by the death of all its members, by surrender of its charter or franchises, or by forfeiture. Such corporations are the mayor and aldermen of cities, the head and fellows of a college, the dean and chapter of a cathedral church, the stockholders of a bank or insurance company, etc. A corporation sole consists of a single person, who is made a body corporate and politic, in order to give him some legal capacities, and especially that of succession, which as a natural person he can not have. Kings, bishops, deans, parsons, and vicars, are in England sole corporations. A fee will not pass to a corporation sole without the word ``successors'' in the grant. There are instances in the United States of a minister of a parish seized of parsonage lands in the right of his parish, being a corporation sole, as in Massachusetts. Corporations are sometimes classified as public and private; public being convertible with municipal, and private corporations being all corporations not municipal.
Close corporation. See under Close.
Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary
mid-15c., "persons united in a body for some purpose," from such use in Anglo-Latin, from Late Latin corporationem (nominative corporatio), noun of action from past participle stem of Latin corporare "to embody" (see corporate). Meaning "legally authorized entity" (including municipal governments and modern business companies) is from 1610s.
n. A group of individuals, created by law or under authority of law, having a continuous existence independent of the existences of its members, and powers and liabilities distinct from those of its members.
The term corporation refers to different kinds of student organizations worldwide. Generally, universities in the various European countries have student organizations called corporations. The name is derived from the Latin corporatio meaning a body or group. There was an earlier type of student organization, called a nation from the Middle Ages, where students from all over Europe at a particular university would unite according to national (actually regional) lines. Today, many student organizations in Sweden, Finland, and, to a lesser degree, Scotland are still termed nations, while most of the rest of European universities, the organizations are considered corporations.
Below are short entries on the organizations found at universities on a country-by-country basis. There are also references to longer articles.
In feudal Europe, a corporation (from the Latin corpus, corporis a body) was an aggregation of business interests into a single legal body, entity or compact, usually with an explicit license from city, church, or national leaders. These functioned as effective monopolies for a particular good or labor.
The term "corporation" was used as late as the 18th century in England to refer to such ventures as the East India Company or the Hudson's Bay Company: commercial organizations that operated under royal patent to have exclusive rights to a particular area of trade. In the medieval town, however, corporations were a conglomeration of interests that existed either as a development from, or in competition with, guilds. The most notable corporations were in trade and banking.
The effects of a corporation were similar to a monopoly. On the one hand, the ability to have sole access to markets meant that the business was encouraged (e.g., the ability to be an exclusive trader provided an incentive to the East India Company to accept financial risks in exploration) and the negative effects of competition were avoided (to take the same example, exclusive patents cut down on merchants sponsoring piracy). Innovation was stifled, however, and prices were unregulated. (In the case of patent corporations, the town or monarch was ostensibly able to regulate prices by revoking the patent, but this rarely occurred.)
The Corporation is a fictional organization in the Marvel Universe.
Corporation is a Canadian business documentary television series which aired on CBC Television in 1975.
A corporation is a company or group of people authorized to act as a single entity ( legally a person) and recognized as such in law. Early incorporated entities were established by charter (i.e. by an ad hoc act granted by a monarch or passed by a parliament or legislature). Most jurisdictions now allow the creation of new corporations through registration.
Corporations come in many different types but are usually divided by the law of the jurisdiction where they are chartered into two kinds: by whether or not they can issue stock, or by whether or not they are for profit.
Where local law distinguishes corporations by ability to issue stock, corporations allowed to do so are referred to as "stock corporations", ownership of the corporation is through stock, and owners of stock are referred to as "stockholders." Corporations not allowed to issue stock are referred to as "non-stock" corporations, those who are considered the owners of the corporation are those who have obtained membership in the corporation, and are referred to as a "member" of the corporation.
Corporations chartered in regions where they are distinguished by whether they are allowed to be for profit or not are referred to as "for profit" and "not-for-profit" corporations, respectively.
There is some overlap between stock/non-stock and for profit/not-for-profit in that not-for-profit corporations are always non-stock as well. A for profit corporation is almost always a stock corporation, but some for profit corporations may choose to be non-stock. To simplify the explanation, whenever " stockholder" is used in the rest of this article to refer to a stock corporation, it is presumed to mean the same as "member" for a non-profit corporation or for profit, non-stock corporation.
Registered corporations have legal personality and are owned by shareholders whose liability is limited to their investment. Shareholders do not typically actively manage a corporation; shareholders instead elect or appoint a board of directors to control the corporation in a fiduciary capacity.
In American English the word corporation is most often used to describe large business corporations. In British English and in the Commonwealth countries, the term company is more widely used to describe the same sort of entity while the word corporation encompasses all incorporated entities. In American English, the word company can include entities such as partnerships that would not be referred to as companies in British English as they are not a separate legal entity.
Despite not being an individual human being, corporations, as far as the law is concerned, are legal persons, and have many of the same rights and responsibilities as natural persons do. Corporations can exercise human rights against real individuals and the state, and they can themselves be responsible for human rights violations. Corporations can be "dissolved" either by statutory operation, order of court, or voluntary action on the part of shareholders. Insolvency may result in a form of corporate failure, when creditors force the liquidation and dissolution of the corporation under court order, but it most often results in a restructuring of corporate holdings. Corporations can even be convicted of criminal offenses, such as fraud and manslaughter. However corporations are not considered living entities in the way that humans are.
Corporation is an independent live music venue and nightclub located in city centre of Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. Corporation is known for hosting live music from touring bands and club nights which play a variety of alternative and rock music, but it also hosts the club night skool disco, predominantly a student pop music night.
The club is one of the major rock and alternative clubs not only in Sheffield but in England as a whole and rivals the multiplicity of Rock City in Nottingham as both a rock club and live venue. It is more commonly referred to by the nickname of Corp by locals.
Corporation also plays host to the Resistanz Festival, an annual festival of industrial, synthetic and electronic music.
Corporation (released as Cyber-Cop in North America) is a video game for Amiga, Atari ST and DOS, later ported to the Mega Drive/Genesis. It was developed for Core Design by Dimension Creative Designs by Bill Allen with graphics and design by Kevin Bulmer.
The PC and Sega versions were published by Virgin Games. Originally released for Amiga in 1990, it is one of the earliest 3D first-person shooter games, predating ID Software's Wolfenstein 3D (1992). It was also the first of its kind to utilize dynamic lighting. Gameplay was very complex for its time, featuring role-playing, stealth and hacking elements, similar to the later System Shock and Deus Ex series of games.
A corporation is most often a type of legal entity, often formed to conduct business but public bodies, charities and clubs are often corporations as well. Corporations take many forms including: statutory corporations, corporations sole, joint-stock companies and cooperatives. It may also refer to:
- Any group of persons united or regarded as united in one body.
- Municipal corporation, type of local government body
- Corporation (feudal Europe)
- Corporation (university), a type of social organization, also called fraternities and sororities
- Corporation (nightclub), a nightclub in Sheffield, England
- Corporation Bank, in India
- Slang for a pot belly
- Corporation, County Down, a townland in County Down, Northern Ireland
- Corporation Park, Blackburn
- Corporation Street, Birmingham
- Corporation (comics), a Marvel Comics criminal organization
- Corporation (role playing game), a tabletop roleplaying game
- Corporation (TV series), a 1975 Canadian business documentary television series
- Corporation (video game), a first-person shooter for the IBM/PC, Atari ST, Commodore Amiga and Sega Mega Drive/Genesis
- The Corporation (film), the 2003 documentary film
Corporation is a science fiction role-playing game created by Brutal Games. It has been inspired by many Science fiction films and books, including The Fifth Element, Gattaca, Johnny Mnemonic, and Total Recall. It has a small, but growing, fan base worldwide. The game makers have also set up a forum for players to ask questions relating to the fictional world the game is set in, the rules, and even to discuss scenarios.
Games are often played in a cinematic style, with description, storytelling, and role-playing often more important than dice rolling.
Usage examples of "corporation".
Soyana corporation back in 2058, and they made a great deal of money from selling bonded servitors before the worsening social and religious situation on Earth virtually closed down the market.
The people of Massachusetts were to have the sole and exclusive right of governing themselves, and in an article intended to prevent the formation of a hereditary monarchy, an expanded version of a similar article in the Virginia constitution, Adams wrote: No man, nor corporation or association of men have any other title to obtain advantages or particular and exclusive privileges distinct from those of the community, than what arises from the consideration of services rendered to the public.
Rattisbon threatened him shrilly with the Municipal Corporation Aet of 1822 and looked about him for a constable.
Corporation gossip had her running with a procession of pretty if airheaded starlets, none of whom seemed to last for more than a couple of weeks.
He further suggested that the corporations would include the electronic ministries of the airwaves, and their tax-exempt revenues.
For instance, in 1981 Harry Oppenheimer, chairman of the giant Anglo American Corporation that controls gold and diamond mining, sales and distribution in the world, stated that he was about to launch into the North American banking market.
Phibro is the business arm of the Oppenheimers of Anglo American Corporation.
Gem is a test engineer and pilot for the Historica Antiqua Corporation.
After graduating from the University of Mississippi law school, Barnett built up one of the biggest and most profitable law firms in the state, specializing in personal-injury damage suits against corporations.
Wells Fargo Bank, Bechtel Corporation, Hewlett Packard, Bank of America, McDonnell-Douglas Corporation, Blyth, Eastman Dillon and TRW Company.
At the center of this story were huge American and British corporations, including Bechtel of San Francisco.
The fanciful accusation was put out on a Bechtel Corporation news release, but hey, a corporate press release is better than a fact.
Secretary of State George Shultz, who had once headed Bechtel Corporation, a major government contractor.
It is natural, therefore, that the corporation should be made to bear some proportion of the burdens of government.
In effect, through the global distribution of capitals, technologies, goods, and populations, the transnational corporations construct vast networks of communication and provide the satisfaction of needs.