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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
▪ The reader may question, in the light of all of the above criticisms and suggested limitations, the objective validity of citation analysis.
▪ Fundamental issues in epistemology have also raised questions concerning the limitations of citation analysis.
▪ So what of the other reasons for rejecting citation analysis as a help in deciding where the money should go?
▪ This factor has already been alluded to in earlier discussions on bibliographies, and on citation analysis in general.
▪ When a thesis receives one citation in each of five separate years, it is impossible to assign a peak.
▪ Sons of the school had received 160 decorations or citations.
▪ This again was impossible to calculate for those theses which had received only one citation.
▪ The following table lists universities which have produced highly cited theses, i.e. those which have received five or more citations.
▪ The Oxford English Dictionary's first citation for the word "garage" is from 1902.
▪ Another possible measure was the average number of citations within the citation period.
▪ Confirmation of influence is provided by subsequent citation of that paper.
▪ If the writer feels strongly about including drawings, citations, and explanations, then by all means include such material.
▪ Since they are not identical, this unexpected result suggests that citations by others occur before the majority of self-citations.
▪ Sons of the school had received 160 decorations or citations.
▪ The relative frequencies of citations may be inaccurate, if allowance is not made for the growth of the literature.
▪ They suggest that there is a bimodal distribution of citation counts, with short-term and long-term components.
The Collaborative International Dictionary

Citation \Ci*ta"tion\, n. [F. citation, LL. citatio, fr.L. citare to cite. See Cite]

  1. An official summons or notice given to a person to appear; the paper containing such summons or notice.

  2. The act of citing a passage from a book, or from another person, in his own words; also, the passage or words quoted; quotation.

    This horse load of citations and fathers.

  3. Enumeration; mention; as, a citation of facts.

  4. (Law) A reference to decided cases, or books of authority, to prove a point in law.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

c.1300, "summons, written notice to appear," from Old French citation or directly from Latin citationem (nominative citatio) "a command," noun of action from past participle stem of citare "to summon, urge, call; put in sudden motion, call forward; rouse, excite" (see cite). Meaning "passage cited, quotation" is from 1540s. From 1918 as "a mention in an official dispatch."


n. 1 An official summons or notice given to a person to appear; the paper containing such summons or notice. 2 The act of cite a passage from a book, or from another person, in his own words. 3 An entry in a list of source(s) from which one took information, words or literary or verbal context. 4 The passage or words quoted; quotation. 5 enumeration; mention; as, a citation of facts. 6 A reference to decided cases, or books of authority, to prove a point in law. 7 A commendation in recognition of some achievement, or a formal statement of an achievement.

  1. n. an official award (as for bravery or service) usually given as formal public statement [syn: commendation]

  2. (law) the act of citing (as of spoken words or written passages or legal precedents etc.)

  3. a short note recognizing a source of information or of a quoted passage; "the student's essay failed to list several important citations"; "the acknowledgments are usually printed at the front of a book"; "the article includes mention of similar clinical cases" [syn: acknowledgment, credit, reference, mention, quotation]

  4. a passage or expression that is quoted or cited [syn: quotation, quote]

  5. a summons that commands the appearance of a party at a proceeding

  6. thoroughbred that won the triple crown in 1948

Citation (horse)

Citation (April 11, 1945 – August 8, 1970) was the eighth American Triple Crown winner, and one of three major North American Thoroughbreds (along with Zenyatta and Cigar) to win at least 16 consecutive races in major stakes race competition. He was the first horse in history to win one million dollars.

Citation (disambiguation)

A citation is a credit or reference to another document or source.

Citation may also refer to:

Citation (album)

Citation is the 4th album recorded by alternative country musician Scott Miller. It was released on March 24, 2006.


Broadly, a citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source). More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears. Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not). References to single, machine-readable assertions in electronic scientific articles are known as nanopublications, a form of microattribution.

Citations have several important purposes: to uphold intellectual honesty (or avoiding plagiarism), to attribute prior or unoriginal work and ideas to the correct sources, to allow the reader to determine independently whether the referenced material supports the author's argument in the claimed way, and to help the reader gauge the strength and validity of the material the author has used. As one article has argued, citations relate to the way authors perceive the substance of their work, their position in the academic system, and the moral equivalency of their place, substance, and words.

The forms of citations generally subscribe to one of the generally accepted citations systems, such as the Oxford, Harvard, MLA, American Sociological Association (ASA), American Psychological Association (APA), and other citations systems, as their syntactic conventions are widely known and easily interpreted by readers. Each of these citation systems has its respective advantages and disadvantages relative to the trade-offs of being informative (but not too disruptive) and thus are chosen relative to the needs of the type of publication being crafted. Editors often specify the citation system to use.

Bibliographies, and other list-like compilations of references, are generally not considered citations because they do not fulfill the true spirit of the term: deliberate acknowledgement by other authors of the priority of one's ideas.

Usage examples of "citation".

Many of the tests specified in the Allen citation to determine the character of ink constituents, if made alone are practically valueless, because the same behavior occurs with different materials employed in the admixture of ink.

His master, on the other hand, scrutinized the murals carefully, and blessed his companions with a running commentary on the Mission of Art, replete with many citations from the ancients, the essential thrust of which was that Paul Gauphin was an arrant alphabetarian, a nugatory neophyte, a coarse catechumen, a posturing parvenu who thought to conceal his blatant ignorance of the classic methods of proportion, line, perspective and portraiture by his extravagant colorism, the which was nothing but a maneuver to dupe his patrons by passing off crudity as primitivism.

Aix--The Young Boarder--Lyons--Paris This citation, which did not promise to lead to anything agreeable, surprised and displeased me exceedingly.

I made haste with my toilette, for I felt curious to know the reason of this citation, and I was aware I had nothing to fear.

Medals are usually earned though the author cautions the general public that often woven into the formal citation is that germ of truth, surrounded by some degree of hyperbole and literary license.

Such instances are numerous in the older literature, and a mere citation of a few is considered sufficient here.

He tried to prove by copious citations from the rabbinical writers, and by arguments of various kinds, that the points, if not so ancient as the time of Moses, were at least as old as that of Ezra, and thus possessed the authority of divine inspiration.

Joe Raglan had first come to my attention when, as a rookie patrolman, he gave the Mayor a citation for speeding.

And just in time to receive your citation and cash award from Raynes Oceanic Resources for your part in bringing the Salvation successfully across the southern hemisphere.

Zev, Reigh Count, Gallant Fox, Twenty Grand, Cavalcade, Omaha, War Admiral, Whirlaway, Shut Out, Count Fleet, Citation and Assault, to mention only a few.

Humanitarian awards for Barnstorm from four different national organizations, a Congressional Citation, a successful worldwide lecture tour, the naming of a Lunar crater in his honor, a Black Hole award, and a star on Hollywood Boulevard.

The lawyers in my court so seldom use an out-of-state or federal citation, especially one of any precedential currency.

May 1618, conform to citation, Isabella Garry, servitrix, and Margaret Lamb, daughter-in-law to George Thompson, appeared before the session, and were asked if they had been at the well in the bank of Huntingtower the previous Sabbath, and if they drank thereof, and if they had left anything at it.

Emperor Maximilian promised his aid to the pope, and in order to expedite matters, the latter changed the summons to Rome to a citation before Cajetan at Augsburg, at the same time instructing the legate to seize the heretic if he did not recant.

The citations will follow the divisions made by the Bollandists, but in many important passages the Rinaldi-Amoni text gives better readings than that of the Bollandists.