Crossword clues for authority
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
The Collaborative International Dictionary
Authority \Au*thor"i*ty\, n.; pl. Authorities. [OE. autorite, auctorite, F. autorit['e], fr. L. auctoritas, fr. auctor. See Author, n.]
Legal or rightful power; a right to command or to act; power exercised buy a person in virtue of his office or trust; dominion; jurisdiction; authorization; as, the authority of a prince over subjects, and of parents over children; the authority of a court.
Thus can the demigod, Authority, Make us pay down for our offense.
By what authority doest thou these things ?
--Matt. xxi. 23.
Government; the persons or the body exercising power or command; as, the local authorities of the States; the military authorities. [Chiefly in the plural.]
The power derived from opinion, respect, or esteem; influence of character, office, or station, or mental or moral superiority, and the like; claim to be believed or obeyed; as, an historian of no authority; a magistrate of great authority.
That which, or one who, is claimed or appealed to in support of opinions, actions, measures, etc. Hence:
Testimony; witness. ``And on that high authority had believed.''
A precedent; a decision of a court, an official declaration, or an opinion, saying, or statement worthy to be taken as a precedent.
A book containing such a statement or opinion, or the author of the book.
Wilt thou be glass wherein it shall discern Authority for sin, warrant for blame.
Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary
early 13c., autorite "book or quotation that settles an argument," from Old French auctorité "authority, prestige, right, permission, dignity, gravity; the Scriptures" (12c.; Modern French autorité), from Latin auctoritatem (nominative auctoritas) "invention, advice, opinion, influence, command," from auctor "master, leader, author" (see author (n.)).\n
\nUsually spelled with a -c- in English till 16c., when it was dropped in imitation of the French. Meaning "power to enforce obedience" is from late 14c.; meaning "people in authority" is from 1610s. Authorities "those in charge, those with police powers" is recorded from mid-19c.
n. 1 (label en uncountable) The power to enforce rules or give orders. 2 (label en used in singular or plural form) Persons in command; specifically, government.
n. the power or right to give orders or make decisions; "he has the authority to issue warrants"; "deputies are given authorization to make arrests" [syn: authorization, authorisation, dominance, say-so]
(usually plural) persons who exercise (administrative) control over others; "the authorities have issued a curfew"
an expert whose views are taken as definitive; "he is an authority on corporate law"
freedom from doubt; belief in yourself and your abilities; "his assurance in his superiority did not make him popular"; "after that failure he lost his confidence"; "she spoke with authority" [syn: assurance, self-assurance, confidence, self-confidence, sureness]
an administrative unit of government; "the Central Intelligence Agency"; "the Census Bureau"; "Office of Management and Budget"; "Tennessee Valley Authority" [syn: agency, federal agency, government agency, bureau, office]
an authoritative written work; "this book is the final authority on the life of Milton"
The word authority (derived from the Latin word auctoritas) can be used to mean the right to exercise power given by the State (in the form of government, judges, police officers, etc.), or by academic knowledge of an area (someone that can be an authority on a subject).
When the word Authority is used in the name of an organization, this name usually refers to the governing body upon which such authority is vested; for example, the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority or the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. It is also the right to do something.
Authority is the legitimate or socially approved use of power. It is the legitimate power which one person or a group holds over another. The element of legitimacy is vital to the notion of authority and is the main means by which authority is distinguished from the more general concept of power. Power can be exerted by the use of force or violence. Authority, by contrast, depends on the acceptance by subordinates of the right of those above them to give them orders or directives.
Authority is a 2014 novel by Jeff VanderMeer. It is the second in a series of three books called the Southern Reach Trilogy. The book is said to focus on the Southern Reach agency. In an interview, VanderMeer states that, "if Annihilation is an expedition into Area X, then Authority is an expedition into the Southern Reach, the agency sending in the expeditions." It was released in May 2014.
Authority is the fifth studio album by British electronic music group Client, released on 21 March 2014 through German electronic music label Out of Line.
Authority may refer to:
- Authority (management), formal or legitimate, specified in a charter
- Authority (sociology), the legitimate or socially approved use of power
- Authority (textual criticism), its reliability as a witness to the author's intentions
- Appeal to authority, type of argument in logic
- Authority control, term used in library and information science
- High Authority (disambiguation), refers to several executive organizations or branches
- Police authority (UK), body charged with securing efficient and effective control of a territorial police area
- Public authority, a government chartered corporation such as a transit authority
- The Palestinian National Authority, the administrative organization established to govern the West Bank and Gaza Strip as a consequence of the 1994 Oslo Accords.
There are several different types of authority that project managers can leverage:
- Positional authority (also referred to as formal or legitimate authority): refers to the project manager's authority enforced through the project charter or some other organizational means (organizational level, reporting relationship, etc).
- Coercive authority (also referred to as penalty authority): refers to motivating staff by negative reinforcement such as fear of losing a bonus, assigning unappealing work, losing status, issuing a formal reprimand or possibly even losing their job.
- Expert authority: achieved through formal mechanisms such as certifications or education. Project Managers have several formal certifications available from global certification bodies such as the Project Management Professional (PMP) or Prince2 Foundation. In addition, degrees or diplomas from universities or educational institutes can further confer expertise on a project manager. Finally, validated experience in a relative field and industry can associate a project manager as an expert in their field.
- Referent authority: for project managers this typically refers to the authority earned by displaying integrity, fairness and respect to others. This power enables project managers to gain the confidence of their teams even in the absence of formal/reward or penalty power. Referent authority is also associated with being accessible or approachable and possessing the necessary charisma to enable team members to share their ideas, feelings and concerns. Another perspective on referent authority is provided by French and Raven based on the groups or affiliations that the project manager belongs to, this can either be positive or negative.
- Reward authority: refers to positive reinforcement and the ability to award something of value.
Due to the temporary nature of projects, most project managers will rely primarily on expert and referent authority.
"Authority" is the seventeenth episode of the ninth season of the American police procedural Law & Order: Special Victims Unit, and the 200th overall. "Authority" first aired on April 29, 2008 on NBC in the United States. The episode's plot sees Detectives Elliot Stabler ( Christopher Meloni) and Olivia Benson ( Mariska Hargitay) investigating a caller who impersonates a police officer and asks people to do illegal things. The detectives learn that the caller is audio engineer Merritt Rook ( Robin Williams), a man who opposes authority due to a tragic event in his past. After Rook seizes an opportunity to kidnap Benson, he asks Stabler to inflict pain on her or watch him do it.
The episode was co-written by Neal Baer and Amanda Green, while David Platt directed. It was inspired by the 2004 Mount Washington strip search phone call scam, the Milgram experiments and the New York performance art group Improv Everywhere's "Frozen Grand Central" event. Williams was cast after his friend Richard Belzer ( John Munch), approached the producers and told them Williams would like to appear on the show. Executive producer Neal Baer stated that they only developed the story after learning that Williams was available. Filming for the episode began in late March on location at Bryant Park, Grand Central Terminal and Long Island City.
"Authority" was seen by 12.06 million viewers, winning the 10pm hour with a 4.1 Nielsen rating in the 18–49 demographic. Critical response was mixed, with some reporters branding the plot implausible, unsatisfying and inane. Others enjoyed the episode, saying it was "tremendously tense" and chilling. For his portrayal of Rook, Williams won the Favorite Scene Stealing Guest Star accolade at the 35th People's Choice Awards. He also received a nomination for Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Guest Actor in a Drama Series, while Karen Stern earned a nomination for Best Edited One-Hour Series for Commercial Television at the 2009 American Cinema Editors Awards.
The authority of a text is its reliability as a witness to the author's intentions. These intentions could be initial, medial or final, but intentionalist editors (most notably represented by Fredson Bowers and G. Thomas Tanselle editing school) generally attempt to retrieve final authorial intentions. The concept is of particular importance for textual critics, whether they believe that authorial intention is recoverable, or whether they think that this recovery is impossible.
Here are some examples of authority:
- The only authority for the works of the Roman poet Catullus derives from a lost manuscript, of which three copies reside in the National Library in Paris, the Bodleian Library at Oxford, and the Vatican Library in Rome (the Codex Vaticanus). No one knows, or can ever know, how close this manuscript comes to Catullus' intentions—in other words, how great its authority is.
- It is generally thought that the Q1 (' Bad quarto') edition of Shakespeare's Hamlet is an unauthorized copy, reconstructed from memory by one of the actors. If this is so, then it has some authority, but much less than the first authorized quarto, Q2 (1602). In comparison, however, it might be a useful authority to the cuts and adaptations made in the performance it was based on.
- The First Folio edition of Julius Caesar (1623) is the only authoritative source, since it is the copy-text of all future editions.
- A diary which is probably authentic has total authority.
A text's authority is made more problematic when it has more than one author, when it falsely asserts itself to be someone else's work, or when it is revised many times. For instance:
- The forged diaries of Adolf Hitler have no authority as the work of their supposed author, but they do have authority as a witness to the intentions of Konrad Kujau, the forger.
- A page on Wikipedia could be said to indicate the intentions of the aggregate of users who have edited it up to that point: it has multiple authority. But many of its editors will disagree with one another about what the page should contain. The idea of 'final intention' does not easily apply, since the page is never complete, and since a recent change (e.g. a piece of vandalism) might not be satisfactory to any of the other editors except the one who made it.
- The quarto edition of Shakespeare's King Lear differs from the later folio edition in many ways. Most modern versions collate the two, preferring one edition in one passage and the other in another. But some editors, such as Stanley Wells, argue they are separate works with different artistic intentions, and that neither of them has more authority.
Authority can also be related to a particular edition, especially if this edition reaches a degree of popularity.
Usage examples of "authority".
That during the existing insurrection, and as a necessary measure for suppressing the same, all rebels and insurgents, their aiders and abettors within the United States, and all persons discouraging volunteer enlistments, resisting militia drafts, or guilty of any disloyal practice affording aid and comfort to rebels against the authority of the United States, shall be subject to martial law, and liable to trial and punishment by courts-martial or military commissions.
Carthage, who was invested with civil and military power, provoked the sectaries, and even the Catholics of the Roman province, to abjure the religion as well as the authority of their tyrants.
And aboard this ship a bold look, one that even hints at a challenge to authority, counts as insolence.
Court, in conformity with the aforementioned theories of economics and evolution, was in fact committed to the principle that freedom of contract is the general rule and that legislative authority to abridge the same could be justified only by exceptional circumstances.
But instead of abusing, or exerting, the authority of the state, to revenge his personal injuries, Julian contented himself with an inoffensive mode of retaliation, which it would be in the power of few princes to employ.
Social Democrats have for the most part been treated by the authorities with repressive laws and abusive epithets.
Federal authorities obtained a murder warrant yesterday against fugitive Glenn Alien Abies in the shooting death of Deputy U.
Such treatment by the authorities soon led some socialist leaders to despair of ever achieving their goals by parliamentary means and to embrace more radical ideologies, such as syndicalism and anarchism.
Mere precedent is a dangerous source of authority, and should not be regarded as deciding questions of constitutional power, except where the acquiescence of the people and the States can be considered as well settled.
Secondly, with some, the authority of great minds, renowned for scientific knowledge and speculative acumen, goes far.
For the strict materiality of the fire of hell we might adduce volumes of authorities from nearly every province of the Church.
Many additional authorities in favor of this view might be adduced, enough to balance, at least, the names on the other side.
United States, might not, without any special authority for that purpose, in the then existing state of things, have empowered the officers commanding the armed vessels of the United States, to seize and send into port for adjudication, American vessels which were forfeited by being engaged in this illicit commerce.
The size or bore of the adjutage was strictly regulated by law, and under the authority of the aediles.
He pulls up before a sign: RIVER THAMES WATER AUTHORITY No Admittance At a control barrier Steed inserts a card.