Find the word definition

Crossword clues for tradition

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
an age-old tradition/practice/custom etcBritish English
▪ age-old customs
cultural traditions
▪ The ceremony is an important cultural tradition for the tribe.
custom/tradition dictates sth
▪ On the island, custom still dictates the roles of men and women.
venerable tradition
▪ a venerable tradition
▪ A sizeable centre with ancient agricultural traditions, it is a typical example of the resourceful toils of the region.
▪ At the heart of each is an ancient tradition of devotion to a statue of the Black Virgin.
▪ One may on the other hand consider that the ancient traditions and methods of training for the Bar are worthy of preservation.
▪ This is certainly the product of very ancient traditions.
▪ It had been a democratic country and had ancient traditions of learning and libertarianism.
▪ The Samaritans are the last echo that remain in the world of the ancient Israelite tradition.
▪ Eventually the ancient traditions began to dilute the ideology.
▪ Protestants and Catholics certainly see themselves as different peoples with different histories, and for the most part maintain different cultural traditions.
▪ Parades can be rerouted, but changing them is an outrage to those who cherish their own cultural traditions.
▪ Despite strong regional cultural traditions, Tyne side was affected by these developments.
▪ And Los Descendientes del Presidio de Tucson recognize that pending milestone with a party in honor of our cultural traditions.
▪ Although accommodation between the two cultural traditions is often achieved, the conflicts provoked have also been intense.
▪ Vested interest groups protect their existence. Cultural traditions prevent an honest look at environmental realities.
▪ Family formation and family building patterns are reflections of various socio-economic and cultural institutions, traditions and conditions of development.
▪ They tend to restrict the causes of criminality to hereditary characteristics and overlook the effects of environmental influences and cultural traditions.
▪ Protestants and Catholics certainly see themselves as different peoples with different histories, and for the most part maintain different cultural traditions.
▪ But just as the white-ruled states followed different traditions, so would they take different paths.
▪ This approach proved impractical and inflexible and did not allow for innovation or different national traditions.
▪ But what is undoubtedly the case is that the possibilities of transcendent interpretation are differently characterized in different traditions.
▪ It is unusual to consider them in conjunction with the ostensibly different milieux and traditions of broadcasting.
▪ Why should not the validity of different traditions of discourse simply be allowed to coexist?
▪ C S Lewis comes from a different tradition: in the Narnia books he struggles with big ideas.
▪ The programs give her a glimpse of different traditions, such as a religious wedding ceremony and a school board election.
▪ In the best traditions of international competition she emphasized the importance of playing the game for its own sake.
▪ Carville bossed and barked and bullied in the best tradition of the sergeants he had known in the marines.
▪ He had been an excellent courtier of the very best tradition.
▪ In good old realpolitik tradition, the chairman controls the staff and the budget.
▪ In the best Maine Road tradition City had only themselves to blame.
▪ Some of the loudest voices there are not in the best tradition.
▪ Once a private mansion, it is a classic hotel in the best tradition.
▪ Who is to say which is the better tradition?
▪ It was to this great tradition, though as a self-confessedly very junior follower, that Lewis quite easily and naturally belonged.
▪ A scholar in the great Confucian tradition, Le Thanh Tong devoted much of his energy to the advancement of learning.
▪ Sutherland has a great sporting tradition.
▪ We have a great tradition of voluntary services and charitable giving.
▪ Now though, in the great tradition of comic actors, he wants to be taken seriously.
▪ However, even in the liberal humanist tradition of Leavis and Richards, there is a striking paradox.
▪ One was the simple protection of individual rights against an encroaching state, the basic defence of rights in the liberal tradition.
▪ A paper long allied to the Liberal tradition had been allowed to be taken over by the right-wing Mail.
▪ This latter ideology is in fact one which runs through most of the liberal adult education tradition in Britain.
▪ He has an impressive grounding in Western thought and argues that book-banning is an honorable part of the Western liberal tradition.
▪ In these circumstances it was easier for a liberal tradition to develop.
▪ It is as if by working in Weston Hall, Leapor came into contact with that family's modest literary tradition.
▪ I ask you: why did women think they could suppress a literary tradition of hundreds of years?
▪ The literary tradition associates the beginning of painting with Corinth and neighbouring Sicyon.
▪ The period of emancipation, the flowering of literary tradition, the Holocaust.
▪ What they do have, though, is a literary tradition, which reveres the short story.
▪ Fly fishing has a literary tradition, too.
▪ The literary tradition is valued in so far as it offers a critical evaluation of this transformation and its consequences.
▪ This implies a local tradition already current in the twelfth century and might be based on a lost source.
▪ Before leaving for Brixton, Inspectors should brief their men on local customs and traditions.
▪ Many of the local traditions have passed away since those days.
▪ In so doing he may have had access to local traditions.
▪ The design of farm buildings was also affected by the local building tradition.
▪ A wonderful combination of holiday activity and local tradition all within reach of the sun-soaked beaches.
▪ The Black Death and subsequent outbreaks of the plague account for the smallest number of desertions, despite all the local traditions.
▪ And when we run out of local traditions to invent, we can import from abroad.
▪ Tamayo's insistence on using new materials to construct his prints is very much part of a long tradition in modern art.
▪ Vanderbilt is an excellent team, strong, quick and deep, a team with a long winning tradition.
▪ They have a long tradition of solid trade union organisation.
▪ Some therapists cast their patients as different from themselves by joining the long tradition of not believing what their patients tell them.
▪ Established in 1912, Olympus has a long tradition of good design, using the finest materials and quality craftsmanship.
▪ The Senate has a long and courtly tradition of etiquette and member privilege.
▪ Educated privately at her homes at Parkwern and Hendrefoilan she inherited a long family tradition of unorthodox and innovative ideas.
▪ Social History Ulster has a long tradition of rural industry and peasant agriculture.
▪ Maybe the tide will start to turn shortly as the avant-garde begin to lead the way back to the old traditions.
▪ Yes, some of the old tradition has worn away over the years.
▪ In the event, however, the crisis served mainly to demonstrate the dominance of older pacifist traditions over revolutionary ideas.
▪ The Vale of White Horse Hunt maintains a centuries old tradition.
▪ The consequence was that good old New York tradition: cronyism, corruption and graft.
▪ Here the structure of the older morality tradition is most neatly challenged by images which question its norms.
▪ They relied on oral tradition, a doubtful guide concerning such a hated institution as the forest.
▪ There was a time when law was entirely based on the oral tradition.
▪ The study of the oral tradition is called form criticism.
▪ Its history has come down to us only through oral traditions, archaeological research and the accounts of occasional outside observers.
▪ In many ways information in such systems resembles oral tradition more closely than the object-based holdings of archives and libraries.
▪ But oral tradition is not just a process.
▪ In fact, they obey the conventions of the oral tradition, reducing complex phenomena to single comprehensible causes.
▪ Even if we can identify the relevant society, we also need to be able to identify the content of that political tradition.
▪ At least one House Republican freshman maintains a hoary political tradition by staging town meetings with his constituents.
▪ Such opposite intellectual and political traditions must be welcomed.
▪ Institutions, customs, political and cultural traditions stemming from a long pagan past, were still very much alive in it.
▪ The last representative of the four-hundred-year-old Cecil family political tradition left at the 1987 election.
▪ It is a discussion of a concept which is deeply embedded in the philosophical and political traditions of our culture.
▪ None the less, different social and religious traditions make the influence of this very difficult to assess.
▪ But the abuses of our religious traditions should not keep us from affirming their call to compassion.
▪ Clearly none of the religious traditions we have examined asserts the latter.
▪ And modern life, in almost all its aspects, represents a break with religious tradition.
▪ This is less distant from the other religious traditions discussed than might be supposed.
▪ The proposed immigration policy would compromise the First Amendment, which forbids the identification of the United States with any religious tradition.
▪ The openness Gandhi shows to the plurality of religious traditions is commendable.
▪ Increased possibilities of travel together with the effects of immigration have also made possible a wider knowledge of the world's religious traditions.
▪ Despite strong regional cultural traditions, Tyne side was affected by these developments.
▪ Ogontz was a school with a strong conservative tradition.
▪ There is a strong tradition of smuggling, illicit goods being brought from nearby Flookburgh on the coast.
▪ In the first place, the left has a strong tradition of defying authority, and smoking fits neatly into this.
▪ But things are much the same in countries with strong constitutional traditions.
▪ In Asturias there was a strong tradition of early migration in the poor mountain villages.
▪ Consequently in Britain there is a strong tradition of investigating the prevalence of ill health and specific medical conditions among older people.
▪ Within government there will be strong traditions which have to be overcome if a new culture is to develop.
▪ And that the Western psychotherapeutic tradition could learn a great deal from the work of people like the Good Doctor of Jharsetli.
▪ It is not that Western tradition has been wholly free of references to celestial phenomena.
▪ The Western tradition, however, has never subscribed to such an extreme theology of silence and unknowing.
▪ C., Alexander the Great set a Western tradition for royal philanthropy.
▪ One aspect of illusion is perspective, much valued in the Western tradition.
▪ Are they able to look without too dominant a preconception coming from the Western tradition?
▪ He has an impressive grounding in Western thought and argues that book-banning is an honorable part of the Western liberal tradition.
▪ Both brothers followed the family tradition and became mullahs.
▪ We may put together special meals for religious holidays, but usually only as a family tradition.
▪ Ben was following family tradition by sending him here.
▪ Chocolate turns this into a family tradition and a story celebrating life and family.
▪ Creating flower wreaths and circles is a family tradition - Elizabeth Jane has been making them for as long as she can remember.
▪ Law school of course, because of the family tradition, was a possibility.
▪ Educated privately at her homes at Parkwern and Hendrefoilan she inherited a long family tradition of unorthodox and innovative ideas.
▪ He felt that to have any chance of preserving the family tradition, a single individual must inherit.
▪ This is a view which would accord with the dualistic tradition to which his novels predominantly belong.
▪ Mary was according to tradition a young girl, engaged to an Older Man Joseph.
▪ So, breaking with tradition, are several of the national missions.
▪ For that reason, Apple broke tradition and did not include a programming language along with the machine.
▪ Not that he broke with all tradition.
▪ Unexpectedly, one of the House conferees decided that this action left her free to break with tradition as well.
▪ To cross them was to break tradition, to sever one's links and become an outsider.
▪ In 1940 Roosevelt broke with tradition and stood for a third term of office.
▪ The Taft administration failed to break tradition on the issues critical to the black man.
▪ The sense of adventure felt by the pioneers of flight still remains with those who carry on the tradition of ballooning today.
▪ In it, he demonstrates his intention of carrying on the traditions of Veronese and Tintoretto.
▪ Younger members of the Denning family are carrying on the tradition of working at Sharpness docks.
▪ Young Merriam, carrying on the tradition, had pushed for liberal and progressive reforms.
▪ Probably publicans were just carrying on an old tradition of involvement in popular sports.
▪ None of their three sons Roy, Robert and Clive have decided to carry on the family tradition.
▪ The Government will convince no one that they too wish to continue that tradition.
▪ The ads continue a NutraSweet celebrity tradition that has included Cher and Lauren Hutton.
▪ And down on the River Thames, 1,000 oarsman and women continue the rowing tradition at the Wallingford Regatta.
▪ Of all the styles it is the most laborious and there are few professionals able or willing to continue the tradition.
▪ Augustine, in all essentials continued the tradition.
▪ They simply continue a tradition established by Arthur Liberty, the firm's Victorian founder.
▪ In 1961, Harry's grandson Bobby continued the family tradition by winning on Nicolaus Silver.
▪ The fact that Stein established a tradition of building pianos without checks requires an explanation.
▪ In my family, we established traditions for talking on long drives.
▪ Two schools for the deaf which were opened in the 1900s were both from the start to establish a pure oralist tradition.
▪ This magnificent abundance established one tradition that we are still struggling to overcome.
▪ Carville established a tradition of recognizing the War Room employee of the week.
▪ We have followed that noble tradition over the centuries, and that category certainly exists.
▪ Scharf says she is following in the tradition of Dinah, who in Diamant's novel became a midwife.
▪ It will thus follow the path of tradition - and this becomes the vehicle which protects us against deviation.
▪ But just as the white-ruled states followed different traditions, so would they take different paths.
▪ A recent discovery has shown that in kindred matters they followed a tradition current in Athens, at least in the fourth century.
▪ The Tet Offensive followed this tradition.
▪ In this, they followed a venerable tradition.
▪ Niece, will keep the family tradition going into next generation.
▪ But John Sunier and a few others are keeping the tradition alive in the United States.
▪ It would be nice if some way could be found of keeping this tradition alive in modern society.
▪ They run to keep alive a tradition started by colonial Brits 58 years ago.
▪ Must keep up the family tradition you know.
▪ We have to keep the traditions alive, but we have to make money to survive in society.
▪ Moreover, whatever their political allegiance, they in fact did their country a favour by keeping the vanguard tradition alive.
▪ Throughout these changes, the people of Miyako had continued their relaxed lifestyle and kept up a tradition of hospitality.
▪ Protestants and Catholics certainly see themselves as different peoples with different histories, and for the most part maintain different cultural traditions.
▪ At least one House Republican freshman maintains a hoary political tradition by staging town meetings with his constituents.
▪ If Britain is to maintain its tradition of excellent clinical research adequate support must be provided for the clinical costs of research.
▪ The Vale of White Horse Hunt maintains a centuries old tradition.
▪ What mattered were, first, to maintain the tradition of worship in the parish, and second, reconciliation.
▪ Clearly the News of the World strongly maintained the tradition of the crime broadsheets through most of the twentieth century.
▪ Drama has maintained its strong tradition, with a major performance each year.
▪ Unfortunately, the number of cheese-making farms has dwindled and there are now only four or five left to maintain the tradition.
▪ It's not exactly steeped in tradition is it?
▪ Craving a meal steeped in tradition?
▪ Most parents, and not only black ones, are steeped in their old traditions, the old ways of doing things.
▪ The staff writers seem to be a conglomeration of music diehards steeped in the traditions of classic rock.
▪ Deerfield in the late fifties was a conservative school steeped in tradition.
be steeped in history/tradition/politics etc
▪ Both are clifftop courses that are steeped in history.
▪ The area is steeped in history.
▪ The Hotel has great character and is steeped in history.
▪ They brought with them a heritage and culture that is steeped in history and literature.
break with tradition/the past
▪ After a point, you break with the past.
▪ Although people complained about the volume, the rhythmic concept represented his biggest break with the past.
▪ Can the break with the past be more vividly described?
▪ However, the changes were not a complete break with the past.
▪ She has broken with the past.
▪ Thinking they were breaking with the past, the early Christians re-enacted it.
▪ Would there be a total break with the past?
▪ Yet the plan represents an important break with the past.
break with tradition/the past
▪ After a point, you break with the past.
▪ Although people complained about the volume, the rhythmic concept represented his biggest break with the past.
▪ Can the break with the past be more vividly described?
▪ However, the changes were not a complete break with the past.
▪ She has broken with the past.
▪ Thinking they were breaking with the past, the early Christians re-enacted it.
▪ Would there be a total break with the past?
▪ Yet the plan represents an important break with the past.
custodian of tradition/moral values etc
old habits/traditions/customs die hard
▪ But old habits die hard, and Apple has shown a proclivity to chase market share while hand-wringing over shrinking gross margins.
▪ It was probably unnecessary, she thought, but old habits died hard.
▪ Perhaps because it's an island old customs die hard here.
▪ Things were going well, but old habits die hard.
▪ This is an area where old customs die hard.
snow-bound/strike-bound/tradition-bound etc
▪ a family tradition
▪ A lot of the old traditions are dying out.
▪ By tradition, it is the bride's parents who pay for the wedding.
▪ Every village has its own traditions.
▪ Indian spiritual traditions
▪ It's still the tradition here that the eldest son inherits all the family's money and land.
▪ The region has a tradition of winemaking which goes back to Roman times.
▪ There is a lot of tradition connected to this school.
▪ There is great respect for tradition among the older members of the community.
▪ They come from very different Christian traditions.
▪ We always go for a long walk on Christmas morning - it's a family tradition.
▪ Of course that's not to say that tradition doesn't have a place.
▪ Once claimed, the spots are protected by tradition -- and fear.
▪ Out of which great religious or philosophical tradition does the call of compassion come to you?
▪ The great cantors developed their own special variations on the liturgy, largely on the basis of folk tradition.
▪ There was a long-standing tradition of professionalism, which centred around jockeys and pugilists for the most part.
▪ There was a place for tradition but it was not here.
▪ These little creatures are mostly white, in the tradition of the popular white child-like Snowbabies.
▪ They impose liturgical traditions, organisational structures, communication methods and leadership models which are alien to their environment.
The Collaborative International Dictionary

Tradition \Tra*di"tion\, v. t. To transmit by way of tradition; to hand down. [Obs.]

The following story is . . . traditioned with very much credit amongst our English Catholics.


Tradition \Tra*di"tion\, n. [OE. tradicioun, L. traditio, from tradere to give up, transmit. See Treason, Traitor.]

  1. The act of delivering into the hands of another; delivery. ``A deed takes effect only from the tradition or delivery.''

  2. The unwritten or oral delivery of information, opinions, doctrines, practices, rites, and customs, from father to son, or from ancestors to posterity; the transmission of any knowledge, opinions, or practice, from forefathers to descendants by oral communication, without written memorials.

  3. Hence, that which is transmitted orally from father to son, or from ancestors to posterity; knowledge or belief transmitted without the aid of written memorials; custom or practice long observed.

    Will you mock at an ancient tradition begun upon an honorable respect?

    Naught but tradition remains of the beautiful village of Grand-Pr['e].

  4. (Theol.)

    1. An unwritten code of law represented to have been given by God to Moses on Sinai.

      Making the word of God of none effect through your tradition, which ye have delivered.
      --Mark vii. 13.

    2. That body of doctrine and discipline, or any article thereof, supposed to have been put forth by Christ or his apostles, and not committed to writing.

      Stand fast, and hold the traditions which ye have been taught, whether by word or our epistle.
      --2 Thess. ii. 1

  5. Tradition Sunday (Eccl.), Palm Sunday; -- so called because the creed was then taught to candidates for baptism at Easter.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

late 14c., "statement, belief, or practice handed down from generation to generation," especially "belief or practice based on Mosaic law," from Old French tradicion "transmission, presentation, handing over" (late 13c.) and directly from Latin traditionem (nominative traditio) "delivery, surrender, a handing down, a giving up," noun of action from past participle stem of tradere "deliver, hand over," from trans- "over" (see trans-) + dare "to give" (see date (n.1)). The word is a doublet of treason (q.v.). Meaning "a long-established custom" is from 1590s. The notion is of customs, ways, beliefs, doctrines, etc. "handed down" from one generation to the next.\n\n"Nobody can make a tradition; it takes a century to make it."

[Hawthorne, "Septimius Felton," 1872]


n. A part of culture that is passed from person to person or generation to generation, possibly differing in detail from family to family, such as the way to celebrate holidays. vb. (context obsolete English) To transmit by way of tradition; to hand down.

  1. n. an inherited pattern of thought or action

  2. a specific practice of long standing [syn: custom]


A tradition is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past. Common examples include holidays or impractical but socially meaningful clothes (like lawyers' wigs or military officers' spurs), but the idea has also been applied to social norms such as greetings. Traditions can persist and evolve for thousands of years—the word "tradition" itself derives from the Latin tradere or traderer literally meaning to transmit, to hand over, to give for safekeeping. While it is commonly assumed that traditions have ancient history, many traditions have been invented on purpose, whether that be political or cultural, over short periods of time. Certain scholarly fields, such as anthropology and biology, have adapted the term "tradition," defining it more precisely than its conventional use in order to facilitate scholarly discourse.

The concept of tradition, as the notion of holding on to a previous time, is also found in political and philosophical discourse. For example, it is the basis of the political concept of traditionalism, and also strands of many world religions including traditional Catholicism. In artistic contexts, tradition is used to decide the correct display of an art form. For example, in the performance of traditional genres (such as traditional dance), adherence to guidelines dictating how an art form should be composed are given greater importance than the performer's own preferences. A number of factors can exacerbate the loss of tradition, including industrialization, globalization, and the assimilation or marginalization of specific cultural groups. In response to this, tradition-preservation attempts have now been started in many countries around the world, focusing on aspects such as traditional languages. Tradition is usually contrasted with the goal of modernity and should be differentiated from customs, conventions, laws, norms, routines, rules and similar concepts.

Tradition (journal)

Tradition: A Journal of Orthodox Jewish Thought is a quarterly Orthodox Jewish academic journal published by the Rabbinical Council of America in association with Yeshiva University in New York City. It contains essays about the history, philosophy, and practice of Orthodox Judaism.

Tradition (Michael Angelo Batio album)

Tradition is the third studio album by American heavy metal musician Michael Angelo Batio. Recorded at Monster Mix Studio in Chicago, Illinois, it was released in 1998 by his own label M.A.C.E. Music as a companion to the video release Jam with Angelo. Batio performed all instruments on the release, as well as producing, engineering and mixing the album.

Tradition (Port St. Lucie)

Tradition, Florida is a master-planned community in Port St. Lucie, Florida established in 2003. It covers in Florida's Treasure Coast, with seven residential neighborhoods surrounding a town square, neighborhood parks, lakes and a retail shopping center. A few years after its establishment, it was incorporated as an in-city town of Port St. Lucie. It is under development by Core Communities.

Tradition (song)

"Tradition" is the opening number for the Broadway musical Fiddler on the Roof. In the song, the main character, Tevye, explains the roles of each social class (fathers, mothers, sons, and daughters) in the village of Anatevka, and how the traditional roles of people like the matchmaker, the beggar, and the rabbi contribute to the village. The song also mentions the constable, the priest, and the other non-Jews with whom they rarely interact. Later in the song, an issue involving an argument between two men about the issue of selling the other person a horse and delivering a mule creates a ruckus in the village. Overall, the song sets up the major theme of the villagers trying to continue their traditions and keep their society running as the world around them changes.

Tradition (disambiguation)

Traditions are customs practiced from one generation to the next.

Tradition may refer to:

  • In religion:
    • Sacred Tradition, the deposit of faith on which some Christian churches' dogma is based
    • Traditionalist School, the school of thought incorporating the perennial philosophy
    • Tradition (journal), a quarterly journal of Orthodox Jewish thought
    • Tradition (Anglicanism), a school of thought within Anglican Christianity
    • A lineage or denomination of Wicca
  • In music:
    • "Tradition" (song), the opening number of Fiddler on the Roof
    • Tradition (Michael Angelo Batio album), 1999
    • Tradition (Doc Watson album), 1977
    • Tradition (band), a United Kingdom-based reggae band
  • Places:
    • Tradition, Florida, a community in the United States
  • other uses

Traditions may also refer to:

  • Traditions (Mage: The Ascension), an alliance of secret societies in the Mage: the Ascension role-playing game
Tradition (Doc Watson album)

Tradition (subtitled The Doc Watson Family) is the title of a recording by Doc Watson and Family. It was recorded in 1964 - 1965 and not released until 1977.

Tradition (band)

Tradition are a United Kingdom-based reggae band. They enjoyed success with UK reggae audiences in the late 1970s, and were signed by RCA Records. They split up in 1983 but reformed over twenty years later.

Usage examples of "tradition".

Experience is of no account, neither is history, nor tradition, nor the accumulated wisdom of ages.

This tradition, as we saw in Part V, contained values for the rate of precessional motion that were so accurate and so consistent it was extremely difficult to attribute them to chance.

Nevertheless I could hardly forget that out of this very same Heliopolitan tradition the great myth of Isis and Osiris had flowed, covertly transmitting an accurate calculus for the rate of precessional motion.

It cannot be truly international unless it accords to its affiliated bodies full freedom in matters of policy and forms of struggle on the basis of such program and principles, so that the Socialists of each country may work out their problems in the light of their own peculiar economic, political and social conditions as well as the historic traditions.

The analytic of man is not a resumption of the analysis of discourse as constituted elsewhere and handed down by tradition.

France, where he came next in 1882, the traditions of the Commune had nourished a militant Anarchist movement of which there was a flourishing group in Lyons.

The fixing of the tradition under the title of apostolic necessarily led to the assumption that whoever held the apostolic doctrine was also essentially a Christian in the apostolic sense.

It was only after the apostolic tradition, fixed in the form of a comprehensive collection, seemed to guarantee the admissibility of every form of Christianity that reverenced that collection, that the hellenising of Christianity within the Church began in serious fashion.

Tertullian, nor thinks it necessary to prove that the Church had presented the apostolic tradition intact.

Marcionite Church had compelled orthodox Christianity to make a selection from tradition and to make this binding on Christians as an apostolical law.

Again, the most immediately familiar example of this archetype comes from the traditions of Christian iconography.

I rose out of the long traditions of Europe where artistry runs deep in the marrow of the selected few.

Verily, the Eighteenth Congress had the courage to destroy the assimilationist tradition whose chief characteristic is a reliance on others and appeals to others .

This alternative tradition, together with the ideas of genetic epistemology developed over the same period by the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget, became a serious competitor to associationism, especially in western Europe.

The Anglophone tradition in this century, which in almost every other respect has made a powerful and prolific contribution to revolutionary historiography, has a particularly egregious record of silent embarrassment, rather as though a dinner guest had met with an unfortunate but inexplicable accident in the college common room.