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The Collaborative International Dictionary

Soma \So"ma\ (s[=o]"m[.a]), n. [NL., fr. Gr. sw^ma, sw`matos, the body.] (Anat.) The whole axial portion of an animal, including the head, neck, trunk, and tail.
--B. G. Wilder.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

name of an intoxicant used in ancient Vedic ritual, prepared from the juice of some East Indian plant, 1785, from Sanskrit soma, from PIE *seu- "juice," from root *seue- (2) "to take liquid" (see sup (v.2)). In "Brave New World" (1932), the name of a state-dispensed narcotic producing euphoria and hallucination.


Etymology 1 n. 1 (context anatomy English) The whole axial portion of an animal, including the head, neck, trunk, and tail. 2 (context cytology English) The bulbous part of a neuron, containing the cell nucleus. Etymology 2

n. 1 A ritual drink in ancient Vedic and continuing Hindu culture, obtained by pressing the Soma plant. 2 (context by extension English) any kind of intoxicating drug

  1. n. leafless East Indian vine; its sour milky juice formerly used to make an intoxicating drink [syn: haoma, Sarcostemma acidum]

  2. personification of a sacred intoxicating drink used in Vedic ritual

  3. alternative names for the body of a human being; "Leonardo studied the human body"; "he has a strong physique"; "the spirit is willing but the flesh is weak" [syn: human body, physical body, material body, build, figure, physique, anatomy, shape, bod, chassis, frame, form, flesh]

  4. [also: somata (pl)]


Soma or Haoma ( Avestan), from Proto-Indo-Iranian *sauma-, was a Vedic ritual drink of importance among the early Indo-Iranians, and the subsequent Greater Indian and Greater Iranian cultures. It is frequently mentioned in the Rigveda, whose Soma Mandala contains 114 hymns, many praising its energizing qualities. In the Avesta, Haoma has the entire Yasht 20 and Yasna 9-11 dedicated to it.

It is described as being prepared by extracting the juice from a plant, the identity of which is now unknown and debated among scholars. In both Hinduism and Zoroastrianism, the name of the drink and the plant are the same, and also personified as a divinity, the three forming a religious or mythological unity.

There has been much speculation concerning what is most likely to have been the identity of the original plant. There is no consensus on the question, although some proposed candidates include Amanita muscaria, Psilocybe cubensis, Peganum Harmala and Ephedra sinica. Western experts outside the Vedic and Avestan religious traditions now seem to favour a species of Ephedra, perhaps Ephedra sinica.

Soma (Steve Roach & Robert Rich album)

Soma (1992, sometimes spelled SoMa ) was the second collaborative album by the U.S. ambient musicians Steve Roach and Robert Rich, following their 1990 album Strata.

Soma (biology)

The soma (pl. somata or somas), perikaryon (pl. perikarya), cyton, or " cell body" is the bulbous end of a neuron, containing the cell nucleus. The word "soma" comes from the Greekσῶμα, meaning "body". There are many different specialized types of neurons, and their sizes vary from as small as about 5 micrometres to over 10 millimetre for some of the smallest and largest neurons of invertebrates, respectively.

The soma (main part of the neuron in which the dendrites branch off of) contains many organelles, including granules called Nissl granules, which are composed largely of rough endoplasmic reticulum and free polyribosomes. The cell nucleus is a key feature of the soma. The nucleus is the source of most of the RNA that is produced in neurons. In general, most proteins are produced from mRNAs that do not travel far from the cell nucleus. This creates a challenge for supplying new proteins to axon endings that can be a meter or more away from the soma. Axons contain microtubule-associated motor proteins that transport protein-containing vesicles between the soma and the synapses at the axon terminals. Such transport of molecules towards and away from the soma maintains critical cell functions.

The axon hillock is a specialized domain of the neuronal cell body from which the axon originates. A high amount of protein synthesis occurs in this region, as it contains a large number of Nissl granules (which are ribosomes wrapped in RER) and polyribosomes. Within the axon hillock, materials are sorted as either items that will enter the axon (like the components of the cytoskeletal architecture of the axon, mitochondria, etc.) or will remain in the soma. In addition, the axon hillock also has a specialized plasma membrane that contains large numbers of voltage-gated ion channels, since this is most often the site of action potential initiation.

The survival of some sensory neurons depends on axon terminals making contact with sources of survival factors that prevent apoptosis. The survival factors are neurotrophic factors, including molecules such as nerve growth factor (NGF). NGF interacts with receptors at axon terminals, and this produces a signal that must be transported up the length of the axon to the nucleus. A current theory of how such survival signals are sent from axon endings to the soma includes the idea that NGF receptors are endocytosed from the surface of axon tips and that such endocytotic vesicles are transported up the axon.

Sōma (disambiguation)

Sōma may refer to:

  • Sōma, Fukushima, a city
  • Sōma District, Fukushima
  • Sōma, Aomori, a village
  • Sōma Station
  • Sōma ware
  • Sōma Domain
  • Argento Soma (Arujento Sōma), Japanese anime TV series
Soma (studio)

Soma Electronic Music Studios is a recording studio owned and operated by John McEntire in Chicago, Illinois.

Artists who have recorded there include: Bundy K. Brown, Brokeback, Broken Social Scene, Chicago Underground, Bobby Conn, David Grubbs, Isotope 217, Rob Mazurek, Nobukazu Takemura, Jim O'Rourke, Pivot, Radian, Phil Ranelin, Red Krayola, The Research (band), Royal Trux, Neil Michael Hagerty, The Sea and Cake, Stereolab, Teenage Fanclub, Tortoise, Wilco, Will Oldham, Papa M, Vaudevileins, and The Car Is on Fire.

Soma (video game)

Soma (stylized as SOMA) is a science fiction survival horror video game developed by Frictional Games and released on 22 September 2015. The game takes place on an underwater remote research facility with machinery that begins to take human characteristics.

Soma (song)

"Soma", originally called "Coma", is a track on the album Siamese Dream by The Smashing Pumpkins.

SoMa (novel)

SoMa is the bestselling debut novel of American author Kemble Scott. It was first published on February 1, 2007 by Kensington Books as a trade paperback original. It was later published in hardcover by the Doubleday Book Club’s InSightOut Books division.

The novel appeared on the top 10 bestsellers list of The San Francisco Chronicle shortly after it was released, and eventually reached number four on that same list. In the June 2007 catalog of Doubleday’s InSightOut Books SoMa was listed at the #1 bestseller. In June 2008 the novel was honored as a finalist for the national Lambda Literary award for debut fiction.

SoMa is a social satire novel that tells the interwoven stories of men and women in their 20s in search of fun in San Francisco’s gritty South of Market ( SoMa) neighborhood. The story takes place in the year’s following the 2001 dot-com bust, an economic collapse that hit the tech hub of San Francisco particularly hard and left the city with a swell of unemployed or underemployed young adults.

Although fiction, the novel features real San Francisco locations and is inspired by true tales. As a result, the book is a fairly graphic and unflinching portrayal of sexuality in all its forms. Publishers Weekly called SoMa "A fun, frisky novel of shock horror," and said that author Kemble Scott "has his ear to the underground of the sexual revolution."

Soma (Mallavoodoo album)

Soma is the second album of the Brazilian instrumental music group Mallavoodoo. It was produced by the bass player, Thales Silveira and released in 2006. This recording was financed by Recife city hall and took three months to get finished.

It was positively criticized by some Brazilian musical magazines, such as Cover Baixo and Teclado e Áudio.

Soma (band)

Soma is the dark ambient and techno musical project of Australian composers David Thrussell and Pieter Bourke. The collaboration began in 1993 when Thrussell approached Bourke about the possibility of remixing Eden tracks. The Eden remixing sessions yielded the first Soma compositions. Soma developed into a full-time project when Bourke moved in with Thrussell after a fire had destroyed his flat, allowing the two more time to work together. Their debut album Hollow Earth was issued on Extreme Records in 1994 and was well-received critically, with Dave Thompson of the Alternative Press comparing it favorably to Kraftwerk's late seventies material.

Soma (company)

Soma is a company that designs eco-friendly water filtration systems. It was founded by Mike Del Ponte, Ido Leffler, Rohan Oza, and Zach Allia in 2012.

Sōma (surname)

The Japanese-language surname Sōma (also transliterates as Sohma or Soma) may be a transliteration of 相馬, 操真 or 草摩. It may refer to:

SOMA (architects)

SOMA is a New York based firm of architects founded in 2004, with a portfolio and expertise in refurbishment and sustainability. In 2009, SOMA opened another office all the way in Beirut, Lebanon, where the principal and founder Michel Abboud, originates from. SOMA’s work, mainly in New York, Dubai, Qatar, Erbil, and Lebanon, covers projects across several industries as well. SOMA is known for extending the boundaries of architectural design by introducing the newest digital technologies and in doing so invariable succeeds.

SOMA architects are renowned for designing the highly controversial Park51 Islamic Cultural Center in Manhattan, New York, infamously dubbed the Ground Zero Mosque, which they unveiled the long-awaited designs to in October 2010. The firm was also awarded first place in the ‘Best Restaurant and Bar Design in the Americas’ category in the international 2013 Restaurant & Bar Design Awards in 2013. ‘ Workshop Kitchen + Bar’ is located in Palm Springs, California.

The firm's portfolio contains several residential projects, such as the 50 Lispenard, luxury residential lofts in the TriBeCa neighborhood, and 93 Crosby lofts in the SoHo neighborhood both located in New York. The practice is currently exploring expansion of its activities into the Middle East, having several projects underway abroad, such as the upcoming Shaza Kempinski in Doha, Qatar. A mega project in Erbil, Kurdistan, named Aura, consists of a city centre, and rises high amidst the dry dessert that surrounds it.

Usage examples of "soma".

A neuron consists of a soma, which is its central cell body, and an axon and dendrites.

The axon and dendrites are thin branching tubes that form tree-like structures coming out of the soma.

Bertram, Bedel of the Fowlers, has announced that if this so-called guru can cure his blindness, he will take the soma.

Nyce had ever worn to the Cacodemonic Carnivals on Soma Plume: sixty-one outfits, all set with precious jewels and sewn with Thread of Sirius.

In much the same manner that you arrived long years ago with your supposed holy men who wished to give all soma and make clannless ones of them, so now you attempt to cozen us with lofty praise of your laws.

On the desk lay a pin, which Jarrock picked up with one hand while with the other he reached to a vase containing soma roses.

But with the final avatara of Lord Vishnu, that of Kalian, soma was again found by a great guru who deciphered the ancient writings of Mohenjo-Daro, in the Indus valley of Mother Earth.

Soma, Lota, take the little ones to the banyan tree and finish telling them their story.

Oudeni gar eoike to anthropou soma ton epi sarkophagia gegonoton, ou grupotes cheilous, ouk ozutes onuchos, ou traxutes odontos prosestin, ou koilias eutonia kai pneumatos thermotes, trepsai kai katergasasthai dunate to baru kai kreodes all autothen e phusis te leioteti ton odonton kai te smikroteti tou stomatos kai te malakoteti tes glosses kai te pros pepsin ambluteti tou pneumatos, exomnutai ten sarkophagian.

In the province of Shimosa, and the district of Soma, Hotta Kaga no Kami was lord of the castle of Sakura, and chief of a family which had for generations produced famous warriors.

In the Santa Barbara hacienda, Brandy and me found Benzedrine and Dexedrine and old Quaaludes and Soma and some Dialose capsules that turned out to be a fecal softener.

Lord Vishnu, in his first avatara as Lord Matsya, gave to man the blessing of soma.

But with the final avatara of Lord Vishnu, that of Kalian, soma was again found by a great guru who deciphered the ancient writings of Mohenjo-Daro, in the Indus valley of Mother Earth.

And here perhaps I can do the work of Kalkin, the final Avatara of Vishnu, by urging you and others to take the holy soma.

In the Santa Barbara hacienda, Brandy and me found Benzedrine and Dexedrine and old Quaaludes and Soma and some Dialose capsules that turned out to be a fecal softener.