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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
combat inflation/crime/racism etc
▪ To combat inflation, the government raised interest rates.
institutional racism
▪ accusations of institutional racism in the police force
institutionalized racism/sexism etc
▪ institutionalized corruption within the state
▪ The institutional racism model thus overlaps with an equal opportunities model which demands self-conscious meritocracy in spirit and in procedures.
▪ Black faculty members also accused the university of institutional racism and creating a hostile work environment.
▪ Both institutional and personal racism may be experienced by elderly people and their families.
▪ Indeed, the experience of institutional racism is one of the primary barriers to a united church.
▪ Syer discusses how deterministic thinking is one of the aspects of institutional racism, affecting all subject areas.
▪ Subliminal racism is also alive and well, as is institutional racism.
▪ Examples of some of the forms of institutional racism involved in the education system have been provided earlier in this article.
▪ By making institutional racism an impossibility in theory, this son of discourse justifies it in practice.
▪ He frequently attempted to deflect criticism of his administration and personal life by characterizing such allegations as the product of white racism.
▪ It is white racism that keeps ethnic minorities at the bottom of the hierarchy and separated from white society as a whole.
Whites have to confront the truth that white racism does indeed still exist, contrary to the notion that it has abated.
▪ In reality that would only increase white racism and try to solve with money a problem that can not be bribed away.
▪ A new race relations act had been introduced, supposedly to counter white racism.
▪ Ellen accused Bernard of being anti-feminist, and attempting to ghettoize ethnic minorities; he accused her of racism and white elitism.
▪ The company has turned over to plaintiffs' lawyers about 30 complaints in which customers accuse New Hanover of racism.
▪ And few are prepared to take this lobby on, for fear of being accused of racism themselves.
▪ All this was to combat racism in all its manifestations.
▪ Being black, female and having experienced racism can make you bitter.
▪ Q: You experienced racism in the South when it was physical and brutal.
▪ Most would not give their names, but said they had experienced racism in the town.
▪ He said he had never experienced racism in swimming.
▪ I experienced far more racism at primary school than I ever did at secondary, which was perhaps unusual.
▪ Aside from a few incidents in which her sons were harassed at school, she said, she experienced no racism.
▪ Travellers, a minority grouping within West Belfast were cited as a group who experience discrimination and racism.
▪ I have never experienced any racism in athletics.
▪ Institutionalized racism pervaded British society, and immigrant workers found themselves in unskilled jobs and with low social status.
▪ The company has been accused of racism after firing three Algerian workers.
▪ the struggle against racism in our society
▪ We will not tolerate racism.
▪ A Hmong hip-hop performer tours the country rapping about racism.
▪ A very dangerous man with his racism, his anti-Castro crusades.
▪ By playing down racism, Loury makes it possible for blacks to feel a part of their country.
▪ For his part the comedian says he understands why the man was so upset, though not his racism.
▪ How do these different ways of understanding contemporary racism relate to the ideologies of reading which were applied to the study texts?
▪ It is revealing in how clear f was and yet I managed to stop short of naming it as racism.
▪ White racism is not a bogyman.
Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

1936; see racist.


n. 1 The belief that each race has distinct and intrinsic attributes. 2 The belief that one race or group of races is superior or inferior to another race or group of races. 3 prejudice or discrimination based upon race.

  1. n. the prejudice that members of one race are intrinsically superior to members of other races

  2. discriminatory or abusive behavior towards members of another race [syn: racialism, racial discrimination]


Racism is a product of the complex interaction in a given society of a race-based worldview with prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination. Racism can be present in social actions, practices, or political systems (e.g., apartheid) that support the expression of prejudice or aversion in discriminatory practices. The ideology underlying racist practices often includes the idea that humans can be subdivided into distinct groups that are different in their social behavior and innate capacities and that can be ranked as inferior or superior. Racist ideology can become manifest in many aspects of social life. Associated social actions may include xenophobia, otherness, segregation, hierarchical ranking, supremacism, and related social phenomena.

While race and ethnicity are considered to be separate in contemporary social science, the two terms have a long history of equivalence in popular usage and older social science literature. "Ethnicity" is often used in a sense close to one traditionally attributed to "race": the division of human groups based on qualities assumed to be essential or innate to the group (e.g. shared ancestry or shared behavior).

Racism and racial discrimination are often used to describe discrimination on an ethnic or cultural basis, independent of whether these differences are described as racial. According to a United Nations convention, there is no distinction between the terms "racial" and "ethnic" discrimination. The UN convention further concludes that superiority based on racial differentiation is scientifically false, morally condemnable, socially unjust and dangerous, and there is no justification for racial discrimination, anywhere, in theory or in practice.

Today, the use of the term "racism" does not easily fall under a single definition. It is usually found in, but usage is not limited to, law, the social and behavioral sciences, humanities, and popular culture.

Usage examples of "racism".

She is calling racism, sexism, class ism ageism, homophobia, and colonialism by the name of body hatred, and She is linking the politics of control back to the abuse of Flerself.

The opposite of racism is antiracism, of course, or what we might call racial idealism or equalitarianism, and it is still not clear whether it will prevail.

Russia and China had racism, oppression, state-mandated feticide, imperialism, gulags, religious intolerance, expanding nuclear stockpiles and enough murdered dissidents and purged peasants to make the Altamont Rock Festival look like a half-filled phone booth.

She said that even though paying five cents more for a bag of gingko biloba rings might not seem like much to some of us, victims of real racism, like the Armenians and the Rwandans and the Ugandans and the Bosnians, would recognize that that five cents was only the first step on the road to genocide.

Orientalism has been subjected to imperialism, positivism, utopianism, historicism, Darwinism, racism, Freudianism, Marxism, Spenglerism.

Similarly, texts would be read in the context of racism, sexism, elitism, speciesism, jingoism, imperialism, logocentrism, phallocentrism.

If there is truly a lingering racism in California, then one need go no further than the state universities, where so much money and power has been handed over to an elite class of racialists who in return have created a curriculum designed to guarantee failure for the children of migrants.

It was this, allied to his bellicose racism and anti-Semitism, that led people to see him as a proto-Nazi.

It was embarrassing at times and always boring, but her view was that casual racism, sexism and homophobia always had to be confronted.

You would have thought he was guilty of racism, homophobia, antienvironmentalism, antivegetarianism and anti-Americanism.

The high court, throughout its long and distinguished history, has helped usnot always perfectly or swiftlythrough crises of institutional racism, religious intolerance, McCarthyism, systematic malapportionment, presidents who deemed themselves above the law, and governors who defied the Constitution.

KOVEL, JOVEL White Racism V-459 LANDAU, SAUL, PAUL JACOBS WITH EVE PELL To Servet he Devil: Natives and Slaves Vol.

Here racism is the same as tribalism, and we are all blatant tribalists, especially the blacks.

Shadow is clearly at work in the midst of the horrors of war, racism, sexism, agism, and the technological destruction of the biosphere.

The opposite of racism is antiracism, of course, or what we might call racial idealism or equalitarianism, and it is still not clear whether it will prevail.