Crossword clues for apartheid
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
The Collaborative International Dictionary
apartheid \apartheid\ n. [Afrikaans, fr. D. apart apart + -heid -hood.]
segregation by race; -- a term used in South Africa.
Syn: racial segregation
the official policy of strict segregation by race practised by the government of the Union of South Africa up to 199
Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary
1947 (policy begun 1948), from Afrikaans apartheid (1929 in a South African socio-political context), literally "separateness," from Dutch apart "separate" (from French àpart; see apart) + suffix -heid, cognate of English -hood. The official English synonym was separate development (1955). "Segregation" is such an active word that it suggests someone is trying to segregate someone else. So the word "apartheid" was introduced. Now it has such a stench in the nostrils of the world, they are referring to "autogenous development." [Alan Paton, "New York Times," Oct. 24, 1960]
n. 1 (context historical English) The discriminatory policy of racial separation used by South Africa from 1948 to 1990. 2 (context by extension English) Any similar policy of racial separation/segregation and discrimination. 3 (context by extension English) A policy or situation of segregation based on some specified attribute.
n. a social policy or racial segregation involving political and economic and legal discrimination against non-whites; the former official policy in South Africa
The term apartheid was coined in reference to South African apartheid. The term apartheid may also refer to:
- Crime of apartheid
- Gender apartheid
- Global apartheid
- Jim Crow laws
- Nuclear apartheid
- Occupational apartheid
- Religious apartheid
- Social apartheid in Brazil
- Technological apartheid
Apartheid (South African English: ; ; an Afrikaans word meaning "separateness", or "the state of being apart", literally "apart-hood") was a system of racial segregation in South Africa enforced through legislation by the National Party (NP), the governing party from 1948 to 1994. Under apartheid, the rights, associations, and movements of the majority black inhabitants and other ethnic groups were curtailed, and white minority rule was maintained. Apartheid was developed after World War II by the Afrikaner-dominated National Party and Broederbond organisations. The ideology was also enforced in South West Africa, which was administered by South Africa under a League of Nations mandate (revoked in 1966 via United Nations Resolution 2145), until it gained independence as Namibia in 1990. By extension, the term is currently used for forms of systematic segregation established by the state authority in a country against the social and civil rights of a certain group of citizens due to ethnic prejudices.
Racial segregation in South Africa began in colonial times under the Dutch Empire, and continued when the British took over the Cape of Good Hope in 1795. Apartheid as an officially structured policy was introduced after the general election of 1948. Legislation classified inhabitants into four racial groups"black", "white", " coloured", and "Indian", the last two of which were divided into several sub-classificationsand residential areas were segregated. From 1960 to 1983, 3.5 million non-white South Africans were removed from their homes, and forced into segregated neighbourhoods, in one of the largest mass removals in modern history. Non-white political representation was abolished in 1970, and starting in that year black people were deprived of their citizenship, legally becoming citizens of one of 10 tribally based self-governing homelands called bantustans, four of which became nominally independent states. The government segregated education, medical care, beaches, and other public services, and provided black people with services that were inferior to those of white people.
Apartheid sparked significant internal resistance, violence, and a long arms and trade embargo against South Africa. Starting in the 1950s, a series of popular uprisings and protests resulted in a retaliatory ban of all opposition, and the imprisonment of anti-apartheid leaders. As unrest spread and became more effective and militarised, state organisations responded with repression and violence. Along with the sanctions placed on South Africa by the international community, this made it increasingly difficult for the government to maintain the regime. Apartheid reforms in the 1980s failed to quell the mounting opposition, and in 1990 President Frederik Willem de Klerk began negotiations to end apartheid, culminating in multi-racial democratic elections in 1994, won by the African National Congress under Nelson Mandela. The vestiges of apartheid still shape South African politics and society. De Klerk began the process of dismantling apartheid with the release of Mandela's mentor and several other political prisoners in October 1989. Although the official abolition of apartheid occurred in 1991 with repeal of the last of the remaining apartheid laws, nonwhites were not allowed to vote until 1993 and the end of apartheid is widely regarded as arising from the 1994 democratic general elections.
Usage examples of "apartheid".
Slavery, servitude, and all the other guises of the coercive organization of labor-from coolieism in the pacific and peonage in Latin America to apartheid in South Africa-are all essential elements internal to the processes of capitalist development.
The groups Cavanaugh had meant were, presumably, being investigated through Washington: Russian hard-liners, Iranian warmongers, German neo-Nazis, South African white supremacists resenting the end of apartheid, South Americans with a grudge against the United States.
He was also a highly considered journalist and the deputy editor of the Golden City Mail, a large-circulation English-language newspaper which was stubbornly and outspokenly opposed to the Nationalist Afrikaner government of John Vorster and its policy of apartheid.
And likewise no way for the Congolese or their colleagues to determine that antiblack, apartheid South Africa was writing the checks to finance this whole operation.
The blacks of South Africa, once free, did not continue apartheid by voting for whites.
African National Congress brought about an end to apartheid with no violent revolution.
It worked for Nelson Mandela--he and the African National Congress brought about an end to apartheid with no violent revolution.
The chief opposition force to the apartheid regime in South Africa was the African National Congress.
When the world banned weapons exports to South Africa during apartheid, the boys just set about making their own gear and were now exporting more assault weapons and helicopters than the U.
And there you found the reverse apartheid of the drug economy, with the whites, in their frothing melee of malt beer, keeping the given distance from the sober but hot-faced brothers, who tended their Lucozades and Ribenas on the streetside bar.
Apartheid- Afrikaans for "apartness" or "segregation"- means, in theory, that different races should develop separately along their own paths.
There were half a dozen European passengers in the forward end of the bus, and in conformity with the creed of apartheid on public transport, a score or so of Coloureds and natives sat behind the wire-meshed dividing grill.
The biggest and oldest church in town was Dutch Reformed -- very stern, the church of the Boers and apartheid.
By the time he drives to the motor hotel where he is staying, he feels once more the weight of the oppressive apartheid in which he exists.
He has spoken out against apartheid, his country's policy of racial segregation with the minority group of whites in control.