n. (context chemistry English) any cyclic monoterpenoid based on 1-isopropyl-2,3-dimethylcyclopentane
Iridoids are a type of monoterpenes in the general form of cyclopentanopyran, found in a wide variety of plants and some animals. They are biosynthetically derived from 8-oxogeranial. Iridoids are typically found in plants as glycosides, most often bound to glucose.
The chemical structure is exemplified by iridomyrmecin, a defensive chemical produced by the Iridomyrmex genus, for which iridoids are named. Structurally, they are bicyclic cis-fused cyclopentane-pyrans. Cleavage of a bond in the cyclopentane ring gives rise to a subclass known as secoiridoids, such as oleuropein and amarogentin.