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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
infrastructure
noun
COLLOCATIONS FROM CORPUS
■ ADJECTIVE
basic
▪ Many others provide the basic infrastructure on which towns and industries depend.
▪ In 1994 the chamber decided to use the same basic infrastructure to expand into other industries.
▪ Every fieldworker needs to acquire some insight into the basic infrastructure of the society he is studying.
economic
▪ These developments often failed because of the limited scale of the local social and economic infrastructure.
▪ The family needs an economic infrastructure that is consistent with the conditions under which it now has to function.
▪ From a Marxist viewpoint, behaviour is ultimately determined by the economic infrastructure.
▪ It controlled the economic infrastructure and used it as a means of exploitation.
industrial
▪ It specializes in electrical distribution and industrial control and automation for the electric power, industrial, infrastructure and construction markets.
▪ Much of the state-owned industrial infrastructure is beyond repair.
large
▪ States would have less money for large infrastructure projects such as grid extension or publicly funded large hydropower schemes.
▪ Decisions on large infrastructure projects are usually made by bankers, engineers and politicians.
▪ The Commission was attempting by these measures to reduce the past bias towards spending on large infrastructure projects favoured by national governments.
local
▪ Deficiencies in the local infrastructure were assumed to be the principal cause of community distress.
▪ In addition, cable telephone technology might also enhance local infrastructure in some countries.
▪ It is important to keep in mind that local infrastructure is a national issue for each of the countries involved.
▪ A good example is Washington, a city whose local infrastructure is controlled by blacks.
national
▪ For instance, porter's model implies that national infrastructure and other factors determine national performance.
▪ Verio supports its operations with highly reliable and scalable national infrastructure and systems including a facilities-based Tier One national network.
▪ It is responsible for the national infrastructure and standards for networking and the encouragement of the effective use of information systems.
▪ The sixth stage, national information infrastructure, or the I-way, is the ultimate goal.
▪ The telecommunications moguls are creating the national infrastructure for the next century.
necessary
▪ However, the costs of building and of providing the necessary infrastructure together with planning restrictions meant that it was less than ideal.
▪ A small modern city on the move, I thought, with all the necessary infrastructure.
new
▪ Other measures proposed include action to tackle traffic flows, and greater environmental considerations of spending on new transport infrastructure.
▪ These firms have begun making investments in technology to construct the new infrastructure.
▪ The building and operating of the new telecommunications infrastructure is expected to create hundreds of jobs for the area.
physical
▪ Local government will also require appropriate resources to run the physical and social infrastructure the UDCs will have provided.
▪ Recently money has been thrown at physical infrastructure.
public
▪ It wants the money spent on public infrastructure, providing lucrative contracts for business.
▪ The public health infrastructure of this country is poorly prepared for the emerging disease problems of a rapidly changing world.
▪ Improvements to public infrastructure were emphasized as a means of making depressed areas more attractive to private industry.
▪ These futuristic service industries need both a well-educated workforce and good public infrastructure.
social
▪ These developments often failed because of the limited scale of the local social and economic infrastructure.
▪ Its people are overburdened by religious riot, ethnic strife, corruption and the absence of social infrastructure.
▪ The reality of living here without the social infrastructure they're culturally used to would probably send a Blairy into trauma.
▪ The developers now need social facilities and infrastructure, such as schools, open space and leisure facilities to support their own schemes.
▪ Local government will also require appropriate resources to run the physical and social infrastructure the UDCs will have provided.
▪ The government planned to distribute farm implements and seeds, repair small-scale irrigation systems, and improve productive and social infrastructure.
▪ Finally, the corporation has become more interested in investing in social infrastructure.
urban
▪ This consortium will concentrate on establishing an integrated urban and regional infrastructure data base for London and the South East.
▪ At the same time the quantity and quality of the urban infrastructure was transformed.
■ NOUN
information
▪ This in itself raises issues of how the information infrastructure can best serve two models at once.
▪ To make advanced computing and communications information infrastructure available to-and usable by-a larger segment of the society.
▪ The sixth stage, national information infrastructure, or the I-way, is the ultimate goal.
▪ However, the Internet provides some invaluable models and lessons about key components of national and global information infrastructure.
network
▪ The future, therefore, lies in intellectual co-operation and communication as much as in network infrastructure. 13.
▪ To become a reality, electronic commerce needs a network infrastructure to transport the content.
▪ Transparency is essential for dealing with higher-level issues than physical media and interconnection that the underlying network infrastructure is in charge of.
▪ Let us summarize some of the business issues concerned with network infrastructure investments.
▪ The demands and requirements various participants place on the network infrastructure are bound to be very different.
▪ The Internet has transformed the way network infrastructures are conceptualized and created.
▪ Enormous capital flowed into these projects in the hope that the network infrastructure would eventually settle into place.
project
▪ Mr Norris said standards applied in reaching the decision were the same as those used for all other major transport infrastructure projects.
▪ Decisions on large infrastructure projects are usually made by bankers, engineers and politicians.
▪ These funds support infrastructure projects and training courses.
▪ Osaka has fought back with a splurge of infrastructure projects, most notably a new international airport perched upon a man-made island.
▪ The tunnelling is ahead of schedule and ahead of budget, in contrast to most big infrastructure projects.
▪ John Lowry reports on Britain's second-biggest infrastructure project.
▪ The Commission was attempting by these measures to reduce the past bias towards spending on large infrastructure projects favoured by national governments.
▪ The infrastructure projects unveiled yesterday were not unexpected, but will give a welcome fillip to the construction sector.
transport
▪ Mr Norris said standards applied in reaching the decision were the same as those used for all other major transport infrastructure projects.
▪ Provisions for cyclists will therefore require both the use of existing transport infrastructure and special facilities for cyclists.
▪ Other measures proposed include action to tackle traffic flows, and greater environmental considerations of spending on new transport infrastructure.
▪ That is why the Government are committed to an expanded roads programme and continuing major investment in our transport infrastructure.
▪ We support the location of new industrial and commercial developments in areas already well-served by good transport infrastructure and public transport.
▪ Over the next three years we are committed to the biggest investment in Britain's transport infrastructure in our history.
▪ But he also believes that some public money will be needed to develop the transport infrastructure necessary to complement development.
■ VERB
build
▪ Everett expects 6,000 sailors and their families to arrive when it is finished, and has built most of the infrastructure.
▪ Huntsville continues to build its high-tech infrastructure and should add jobs in that sector at a steady pace.
▪ These debates were also useful in reallocating resources in order to set up and build an infrastructure in some specific areas.
▪ Major capital investments are being made to build an ReD infrastructure in these industries.
create
▪ The developers told councillors they would pay £3.5m to create an infrastructure for the settlement, between Hurworth and Neasham.
▪ The telecommunications moguls are creating the national infrastructure for the next century.
▪ Priority was given to the Health and Education ministries and a new budgetary allocation was created for road infrastructure.
develop
▪ Capital expenditure in 1990 was set at F$122,600,000, of which 40 percent would be spent on developing the infrastructure.
▪ Currently, the application of choice among the cable and telecom providers who are developing the infrastructure is video on-demand.
▪ Teams attempting to develop the service infrastructure undoubtedly try to liaise with and support voluntary groups, as the Nottinghamshire experience shows.
▪ In other words, they must develop a defensive political infrastructure of their own.
▪ But he also believes that some public money will be needed to develop the transport infrastructure necessary to complement development.
▪ After developing the infrastructure and getting the ball rolling, the mine churned out great quantities of lead and silver.
establish
▪ But first they must overcome the high set-up costs in building the technology and product marketing to establish a strong commercial infrastructure.
▪ Today: The community -- with its central location and established infrastructure -- is well along on the path to a resurgence.
exist
▪ The plan argues that each country should get the best out of its existing infrastructure and human capital.
▪ In other words, national ISPs extend high-speed connections to users just about anywhere, bypassing the existing telco infrastructure.
▪ Where existing infrastructure is inadequate or nonexistent, new alternatives tend to take off faster.
▪ The principal shortcoming of the existing communications infrastructure lies in its inability to provide integrated voice, data, and video services.
▪ Groups are often forced to move into areas in which they are not welcome and where the existing infrastructure is inadequate.
▪ As might be expected, the existing service delivery infrastructure geared up to help them.
improve
▪ Priority would be given to improving the country's infrastructure and boosting production.
▪ The government planned to distribute farm implements and seeds, repair small-scale irrigation systems, and improve productive and social infrastructure.
▪ It will also help to improve the general infrastructure.
▪ The government would in turn have undertaken various projects to improve the region's infrastructure.
need
▪ The developers now need social facilities and infrastructure, such as schools, open space and leisure facilities to support their own schemes.
▪ The family needs an economic infrastructure that is consistent with the conditions under which it now has to function.
▪ For example, a young society will need educational infrastructures.
▪ To become a reality, electronic commerce needs a network infrastructure to transport the content.
provide
▪ What percentage of workers are employed in providing the infrastructure?
▪ Diamond does land deals, while Colangelo does jocks -- buying and selling, with you providing the infrastructure.
▪ However, the costs of building and of providing the necessary infrastructure together with planning restrictions meant that it was less than ideal.
▪ So, armed with consultants' reports on the favorable economic impact, they offer to provide buildings or infrastructure.
▪ It was achieved only because the senior ranks were there and able to provide the infrastructure and necessary training.
▪ Many others provide the basic infrastructure on which towns and industries depend.
▪ The company claims that the hardware-software system provides an infrastructure for messaging applications across all types of network.
spend
▪ It wants the money spent on public infrastructure, providing lucrative contracts for business.
▪ Capital expenditure in 1990 was set at F$122,600,000, of which 40 percent would be spent on developing the infrastructure.
▪ Other measures proposed include action to tackle traffic flows, and greater environmental considerations of spending on new transport infrastructure.
▪ The Commission was attempting by these measures to reduce the past bias towards spending on large infrastructure projects favoured by national governments.
support
▪ It is a strategy which is not supported by an appropriate infrastructure.
▪ These foundations support the infrastructure needed to address the ongoing, but often changing, threats from emerging infections.
▪ These funds support infrastructure projects and training courses.
EXAMPLES FROM CORPUS
▪ If anything the situation is worse, with sharp cutbacks in government investments in education, infrastructure, and research.
▪ More can be done to cut excess infrastructure and support.
▪ So, some aspects of the technical infrastructure for electronic commerce are already in place.
▪ These developments often failed because of the limited scale of the local social and economic infrastructure.
▪ Urban life depends upon an invisible stratum of people who repair the city's infrastructure while all the rest are abed.
▪ Were this not all, the new sources of energy lie in regions devoid of infrastructure and population.
▪ Where existing infrastructure is inadequate or nonexistent, new alternatives tend to take off faster.
Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary
infrastructure

1887, from French infrastructure (1875); see infra- + structure (n.). The installations that form the basis for any operation or system. Originally in a military sense.

Wiktionary
infrastructure

n. 1 An underlying base or foundation especially for an organization or system 2 The basic facilities, services and installations needed for the functioning of a community or society

WordNet
infrastructure
  1. n. the basic structure or features of a system or organization [syn: substructure]

  2. the stock of basic facilities and capital equipment needed for the functioning of a country or area; "the industrial base of Japan" [syn: base]

Wikipedia
Infrastructure

Infrastructure refers to structures, systems, and facilities serving the economy of a country, city, or area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function. It typically characterises technical structures such as roads, bridges, tunnels, water supply, sewers, electrical grids, telecommunications, and so forth, and can be defined as "the physical components of interrelated systems providing commodities and services essential to enable, sustain, or enhance societal living conditions." the word infrastructure has been used in English since at least 1887 and in French since at least 1875, originally meaning "The installations that form the basis for any operation or system".

The word was imported from French, where it means subgrade, the native material underneath a constructed pavement or railway. The word is a combination of the Latin prefix "infra", meaning "below", and "structure". The military use of the term achieved currency in the United States after the formation of NATO in the 1940s, and was then adopted by urban planners in its modern civilian sense by 1970.

The term came to prominence in the United States in the 1980s following the publication of America in Ruins, which initiated a public-policy discussion of the nation's "infrastructure crisis", purported to be caused by decades of inadequate investment and poor maintenance of public works. This crisis discussion has contributed to the increase in infrastructure asset management and maintenance planning in the US.

That public-policy discussion was hampered by lack of a precise definition for infrastructure. A US National Research Council panel sought to clarify the situation by adopting the term "public works infrastructure", referring to:

"... both specific functional modes – highways, streets, roads, and bridges; mass transit; airports and airways; water supply and water resources; wastewater management; solid waste treatment and disposal; electric power generation and transmission; telecommunications; and hazardous waste management – and the combined system these modal elements comprise. A comprehension of infrastructure spans not only these public works facilities, but also the operating procedures, management practices, and development policies that interact together with societal demand and the physical world to facilitate the transport of people and goods, provision of water for drinking and a variety of other uses, safe disposal of society's waste products, provision of energy where it is needed, and transmission of information within and between communities."

In Keynesian economics, the word infrastructure was exclusively used to describe public assets that facilitate production, but not private assets of the same purpose. In post-Keynesian times, however, the word has grown in popularity. It has been applied with increasing generality to suggest the internal framework discernible in any technology system or business organisation.

Infrastructure (number theory)

In mathematics, an infrastructure is a group-like structure appearing in global fields.

Usage examples of "infrastructure".

Moreover, he had to feed these people--and his own--somehow, and the agricultural and aquacultural infrastructure was too spread out for centralized labor forces.

The oil infrastructure had to be renovated or replaced to handle the new hydrogen and biofuel paradigm.

Shadows clung like billows of smoke to the curled, hornlike capitals and, above them, the infrastructure of the massive three-tiered architrave.

In political terms, the global information infrastructure might be characterized as the combination of a democratic mechanism and an oligopolistic mechanism, which operate along different models of network systems.

It is not possible for us, at this stage of Plutonian national and industrial development, to assume the operation and servicing of vital life and community support systems, nor has the Planet Pluto Government the technical skills and facilities at this time to produce and deliver infrastructure and commodities essential for a self-sustaining economy.

Turkey to the Iraqi border, where the United States would have to build nearly all of the facilities needed to support an invasion because the infrastructure of the area is woefully inadequate.

Despite the pledges of the two major American political parties to maintain or expand the current level of defense capability, both the force structure and defense infrastructure are too large to be maintained at even the present levels and within the defense budgets that are likely to be approved.

The naval districts handled administrative matters within their territories: the pursuit and apprehension of deserters, trials and court-martials, formal and informal JAG investigations, the appointment and support of CACOs, administration of transient barracks and brigs, and the general personnel and administrative infrastructure support for all the Navy commands located within the district.

Ideally, a combination of manned aircraft, cruise missiles and special-forces operations would be used in a sustained campaign to destroy the Al Qaeda infrastructure in Afghanistan, hunt down Al Qaeda personnel there, and destroy Taliban military capabilities.

Yet, progress in these operational directions may be in danger of faltering if only old Cold War yardsticks are used to make future force investments and to direct studies about future force structure and associated infrastructure.

Viet Cong infrastructure we would attempt to determine how accurate the information was.

These threat assessments and targeting analyses amounted to a classified catalog of vital national assets, from communication and transportation infrastructure to key research centers and records archives.

With the discovery of the Western Aquifer the dowsing expeditions lost their urgency, and more emphasis was placed on tapping and pumping the aquifers already found, and constructing the infrastructure of the rim settlements.

This means that there will be few brickmakers near Grantville, but more importantly for the short term, there will be no infrastructure in place for the production of bricks in volume.

There were briefings for the president on securing and repairing Iraqi oil infrastructure, on collateral damage estimates for hardened and underground facilities in Iraq, and on hydrology—how Saddam might use dams and flooding to destroy critical regions in his country and interfere with U.