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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
combat inflation/crime/racism etc
▪ To combat inflation, the government raised interest rates.
galloping inflation/consumption etc
▪ galloping inflation of 20 to 30%
inflation rate
▪ an annualized inflation rate of 15%
rampant inflation
rampant inflation
runaway inflation
runaway inflation
▪ At the end of 1990 the annual inflation rate stood at 1,800 percent, the highest ever recorded.
▪ Prices rose 8. 1 percent in 1995, compared to annual inflation of 14. 5 percent in 1994.
▪ The annual rate of inflation for June was lower at 3.9%, and the underlying trend appears downward.
▪ The annual rate of inflation is running at almost 13%.
▪ By 1973 the average annual inflation rate had risen to 7.8 percent.
▪ The budget has reached £54,500 for the year with annual increases outstripping inflation.
▪ The annual rate of inflation, at 21.5 percent in 1990, had fallen to 12 percent by August 1991.
▪ Its yield, a gauge of economic growth and inflation expectations, fell 8 basis points to 6. 07 percent.
▪ Longer-term maturities are more sensitive to expectations for economic growth and inflation.
▪ Stronger economic growth means inflation, which erodes the buying power of bonds' fixed payments, could be poised to rise.
▪ But if the expected rate of inflation changes then the Phillips curve will shift.
▪ One is the expected rate of inflation, and the other is the real rate of interest.
▪ In other words, an increase in expected inflation of 5 percentage points shifts the Phillips curve upwards by 5 percentage points.
▪ This followed because the expected inflation rates in the two examples were identical, namely and.
▪ The same mistake concerning the expected rate of inflation is made year in and year out.
▪ Madrid: Shares closed lower as the government posted worse than expected inflation figures.
▪ In symbols,, where is the expected rate of inflation.
▪ The implicit assumption of the naive Phillips curve was that the expected rate of inflation was zero.
▪ The result was not only an increase in real wages but also a higher rate of inflation.
▪ Sometimes high inflation is associated with rapid economic growth and structural changes in an economy.
▪ Who, after all, wants to hold a currency if it will be worth less because of high inflation?
▪ That provision is 9.2 percent. higher than was planned for 1991-92, and the increase is twice as high as inflation.
▪ A high inflation figure would work against an interest rate cut, Rosenberg said.
▪ Andrew Oxley, of Langbaurgh, said high inflation hit the less well off hardest.
▪ Ancient economies were routinely ravaged by high inflation, which almost always shakes the political structure until its leaders tumble down.
▪ The lower inflation and freer market, it is claimed, has generated an economic recovery.
▪ The bond market, which thrives on slow growth and low inflation, rallied Wednesday for the second straight day.
▪ A zone of low inflation, in which we can compete with the best.
▪ But the fundamentals of low inflation and low growth failed to assuage the bond market yesterday.
▪ The Prime Minister A commitment to pensions means nothing if it is not matched by a commitment to low inflation.
▪ Locking in these continuing increases would only be practical if we could guarantee continued low inflation and economic growth.
▪ Countries with lower inflation rates resisted revaluation as this would reduce export profitability.
▪ This should be rewarded with lower inflation in 1993, after five years in which it rose continuously, if slowly.
▪ The rampant inflation that followed Henry VIII's currency speculations and which his successors could hardly limit hit them most of all.
▪ The scourge of unemployment was added to that of rampant inflation.
▪ Taxes and customs duties were raised sharply, but were later scaled down after protests and because of fears of rising inflation.
▪ It suffers from current economic policy, with the holding down and restructuring of welfare benefits in the context of rising inflation.
▪ Bond-buyers have been spooked by rising inflation, most recently by April's 0.4% rise in core producer prices.
▪ In a time of rising inflation this had the potential of depriving the government of control over cash expenditure.
▪ From the mid-1970s the slow-down in economic growth and rising inflation sapped the confidence of policy-makers in demand management.
▪ After six years of rising unemployment, inflation dropped to a low point of 2.4% by July 1986.
▪ The underlying rate of inflation, excluding mortgage interest payments, rose from 3.2 percent in January to 3.4 percent in February.
▪ There was even better news on underlying inflation, which excludes mortgages.
▪ But take away the effect of the new council tax and underlying inflation has risen slightly.
▪ To find the underlying rate of inflation, it is necessary to look past such distortions.
▪ Earnings - up 4% in the year to March - are still rising faster than underlying inflation.
▪ Even more significant, is the fall in underlying inflation - down in the last year from 5.5 percent to 3.25 percent.
▪ Mr. Lamont My hon. Friend is drawing attention to an important point about the underlying rate of inflation.
▪ By promoting investment and improving skills, we will tackle the underlying causes of inflation.
▪ The inflation figures, and even pay settlements, have been less awful than might have been expected.
▪ The inflation figures suggest the economy can easily tolerate jobless levels once thought dangerous.
▪ John Major said the latest inflation figures provided the best basis for recovery, both for output and employment.
▪ Oil companies yesterday declared a gasoline price war, which should be reflected in lower inflation figures in future months.
▪ Gilts, meanwhile, surged by £2 on the inflation figures.
▪ Madrid: Shares closed lower as the government posted worse than expected inflation figures.
▪ At least, that was the argument before the poor inflation figures for January were published.
▪ The considerable price inflation between these two dates, for example, had an effect on the figures.
▪ The December retail price inflation report is due Thursday.
▪ There will be inflation, an increase in the money supply and, especially, house price inflation.
▪ I was going to ask the Chancellor whether his views about defeating inflation apply to house price inflation.
▪ This shows how far general price inflation has eroded the level of spending shown in the detailed cash figures.
▪ Widespread wage reductions were imposed during the recession of 1906-9 and price inflation thereafter impeded the recovery of real wage levels.
▪ The earnings cap, originally £60,000, was supposed to increase each year in line with retail price inflation.
▪ This implies that the original Phillips curve is the appropriate curve only when the expected rate of price inflation is zero.
▪ This aided the operation of the fixed exchange rate system and helped to maintain a low inflation rate in the international economy.
▪ The current contracts are priced based on an 8 percent inflation rate for college tuition in Virginia.
▪ The government puts particular blame on car makers and pharmaceutical companies for an inflation rate that in December was nearly 20%.
▪ As a result, the value of the dollar has little impact on either domestic costs of living or the inflation rate.
▪ Does my right hon. Friend by any chance recollect the average inflation rate under the last Labour Government?
▪ Over time the structure of interest rates may change in response to changes in the inflation rate and the anticipated inflation rate.
▪ There will exist no inflation rate differentials which could justify exchange rate changes, if they were available.
▪ The real rate of interest is simply the difference between the market rate of interest and the inflation rate.
▪ The inflation target was set at 30 percent.
▪ He set a 2 percent inflation target for the medium-term, covering about five years, as in previous years.
▪ Few economists now take seriously the central bank's inflation target of 6.5 % this year.
▪ Few people will be cajoled into spending more by the announcement of an inflation target.
▪ The markets, and the employers who are busy fuelling wage inflation, expect a depreciation.
▪ To try to preserve industrial peace and control wage inflation governments were forced to adopt a carrot-and-stick approach to the trade unions.
▪ So long as full employment was sustained by government policy, wage inflation was a natural consequence.
▪ This wage inflation can exist even when there is high unemployment and when there are no inflationary expectations.
▪ Plus, enter your cash flow assumptions, operating statistics ratios, and project Cost, Sales and Wage inflation separately.
▪ At the same time accelerating inflation was making it difficult to take advantage of the improving atmosphere.
▪ Sluggish economic growth means interest rates will stay low amid tepid demand for loans and a reduced risk of accelerating inflation.
▪ So the interest rate should also be adjusted for inflation.
▪ Even serial killers get cost-of-living raises if they happen to have a pension adjusted for inflation.
▪ The 1992 equivalent, simply adjusting for inflation, would be £25.50 per child.
▪ Technically, Gingrich is correct that the numbers go up if not adjusted for inflation.
▪ Real disposable incomes of partners-#adjusted for inflation and progressive income taxation-have stabilised.
▪ The Watergate investigation received an initial authorization of $ 1. 8 million, adjusted for inflation.
▪ These dividends have provided most of the return on shares, if capital values are adjusted for inflation.
▪ The costs, which were not adjusted for inflation, outstripped median household incomes over the same period by 152 percentage points.
▪ The domestic authorities can simply allow internal inflation to push down the rate of exchange.
▪ We are providing more support than ever before - £14 for every £10 spent in 1979, after allowing for inflation.
▪ Even allowing for inflation both these posts did well, but the gain in real terms was not enormous.
▪ Even allowing for inflation will not bring this down to less than twenty years.
▪ I shall be looking here at the effect of adjusting their published accounts between 1972 and 1991 to allow for inflation.
▪ Even after allowing for inflation, they should have made 16.1 per cent from holding Treasury bonds.
▪ And the owners say allowing for inflation, that's not enough.
▪ Thus, setting annual targets for M3 would lead directly to bringing inflation under control.
▪ Unless, that is, he wants to be branded as the man who brought double-digit inflation back to Britain.
▪ Any attempt to reduce unemployment below this rate was sure to fail, according to monetarists, and would bring about higher inflation.
▪ By the early 1980s, it took an unemployment rate of 11% to bring inflation down.
▪ The government claimed that the policy had brought inflation down from 84 percent per month to 5 percent.
▪ The wage freeze was part of a campaign to bring down inflation from 2,000-2,500 percent to a target of 13 percent.
▪ Appropriate fiscal policies to combat this demand-pull inflation would be a cut in government spending, or an increase in taxation.
▪ Peso-dollar parity, introduced in 1991 to combat three-figure inflation, is now working against the country's interests.
▪ In order to combat inflation the government imposed strict controls on foreign currency.
▪ Speaking at the end of the two days of talks, Mrs Thatcher said it had helped some countries combat inflation.
▪ A senior official in the State Statistical Bureau warned that demand had to be controlled to avoid runaway inflation.
▪ They say the Fed ultimately controls only inflation, not growth.
▪ Failure to control inflation meant that pensioners' incomes from savings were cut under the last Labour Government.
▪ This means controlling the money supply to control inflation.
▪ Central bank officials said they agreed to cut rates after a better-than-#expected fourth quarter inflation report.
▪ Some analysts expect growth and inflation, and others anticipate recession and bad earnings.
▪ His comments came minutes after the release of official figures showing a higher-than-#expected rise in inflation last month.
▪ Inflation in Britain, excluding oil and petrol, is 1.6 %, and prices of goods are falling.
▪ Investors gained a reason to bet on falling inflation rates today, when prices of commodities slipped.
▪ Queues have lengthened, real incomes have fallen and inflation has soared.
▪ Frankfurt: Prices fell sharply on inflation worries after news that wholesale prices surged by 1.1 percent.
▪ The growth rate fell, inflation soared.
▪ Competition will help to keep inflation down.
▪ Loan restrictions have helped cut the inflation rate in part by curbing money supply.
▪ A modest rise would help to hold down inflation and so reduce the need to raise interest rates.
▪ That would be good for bond investors, since a slowing economy would help contain inflation.
▪ Britain's flexible labour market and low taxation helped push unemployment and inflation to the lowest level for a generation.
▪ The plan helped cut inflation to 23 percent in 1995, from 941 percent the year before.
▪ Speaking at the end of the two days of talks, Mrs Thatcher said it had helped some countries combat inflation.
▪ The stronger peseta helps limit inflation by keeping down the price of imports.
▪ Another participant pointed out that the Northern Ireland budget over the last five years had only increased in line with inflation.
▪ Hence the increase in demand that occurs when the growth rate of money increases drives up the inflation rate.
▪ Local authorities increased their spending much faster than inflation, which meant that business rates had increased faster than inflation.
▪ Mr Yeltsin does have some options to increase spending without higher inflation.
▪ Furthermore, with the passage of time land values generally would increase, especially if inflation continued.
▪ Perhaps by now that minimum has been increased to reflect inflation.
▪ These problems of themselves have increased inflation and indebtedness.
▪ But this was based on the assumption that the current tax relief limit of £30,000 would be increased in line with inflation.
▪ Most years pocket money has kept well ahead of inflation, and this year is no exception.
▪ Every year after that a cost-of-living adjustment would be made to the wage to keep it current with inflation.
▪ The policy of economic rigour and monetary stability, which had kept inflation to around 3 percent, would nevertheless be maintained.
▪ They can afford not to keep up with inflation.
▪ The Reserve Bank Act, which guarantees the bank's independence and commits it to keeping inflation low, remains intact.
▪ The central bank may raise rates in order to keep inflation in check.
▪ Competition will help to keep inflation down.
▪ A: Money in savings accounts has no risk, but earns barely enough to keep up with inflation.
▪ Excessive government borrowing can lead to inflation.
▪ The Bundesbank tracks M3 money-supply growth as a leading indicator of inflation.
▪ Thus, setting annual targets for M3 would lead directly to bringing inflation under control.
▪ If repeated often enough, the stimulus will lead to uncontrollable inflation.
▪ The flight of capital into dollars undermined the Rupiah and led to a rapid inflation of company debts.
▪ Monetarists argue that without monetary growth to finance the increased payments, higher production costs will lead to unemployment rather than inflation.
▪ Yet competitive devaluations cancel each other out; they lead only to inflation.
▪ The Government have reduced inflation only by imposing the second Tory slump in 10 years.
▪ Sluggish economic growth means interest rates will stay low amid tepid demand for loans and a reduced risk of accelerating inflation.
▪ That policy has been manifestly successful over the past 12 months in reducing the rate of inflation to 3.7 percent.
▪ Slow economic growth reduces the likelihood inflation will accelerate and erode the value of bonds' fixed payments.
▪ Thus Burton concludes from his discussion of employment subsidies in general that they are likely to increase rather than reduce the rate of inflation.
▪ Meantime, the government is already spending less, helping to reduce the threat of inflation and lifting bonds.
▪ Is he worried that it has taken such a deep and prolonged recession to reduce inflation to its current level?
▪ This was followed by a long expansion and sharply reduced inflation.
▪ Property prices continued to rise substantially faster than inflation, and there was evidence of increasing public resentment towards speculators.
▪ Velocity rose as inflation raised the cost of holding money. 5.
▪ Among the best hedges against rising rates and rising inflation are real things.
▪ Earnings - up 4% in the year to March - are still rising faster than underlying inflation.
▪ Take-home pay rose persistently during the inflation of the 1960s and early 1970s.
▪ Bond buyers will demand higher interest payments to offset the fear of rising inflation.
▪ With inflation running at 3.6 percent, that means they are being asked to accept an effective pay cut of 2.1 percent.
▪ Besides menu costs, economists also discuss shoe-leather costs, because inflation makes people run around more, wearing down their soles.
▪ With inflation running at 600%, it remains a market in which it is all too easy to get lost.
▪ When Cardoso began his program as finance minister in 1994, inflation was running at 5, 000 percent annually.
▪ However, with inflation running at nearly 13 percent, the increase in real terms was much lower.
▪ According to the Middle East Times of Sept. 24-30, the country's annual inflation rate was running at around 700 percent.
▪ With inflation expected to run at about 5 percent, these boosts represent real gains.
▪ In Britain, in November 1990, inflation was running at 10.5 percent.
The Collaborative International Dictionary

Inflation \In*fla"tion\, n. [L. inflatio: cf. F. inflation.]

  1. The act or process of inflating, or the state of being inflated, as with air or gas; distention; expansion; enlargement.

  2. The state of being puffed up, as with pride; conceit; vanity.
    --B. Jonson.

  3. Persistent expansion or increase in the general level of prices, usually caused by overissue of currency, and resulting in a reduced value of the currency. It is contrasted with deflation, and is when it occurs to a very high degree is called hyperinflation. [U.S.]

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

mid-14c., "swelling caused by gathering of 'wind' in the body; flatulence;" figuratively, "outbursts of pride," from Latin inflationem (nominative inflatio) "a puffing up; flatulence," noun of action from past participle stem of inflare "blow into, puff up," from in- "into" (see in- (2)) + flare "to blow" (see blow (v.1)). Monetary sense of "enlargement of prices" (originally by an increase in the amount of money in circulation) first recorded 1838 in American English.


n. 1 An act, instance of, or state of expansion or increase in size, especially by injection of a gas. 2 (context economics English) An increase in the general level of prices or in the cost of living. 3 (context economics English) A decline in the value of money. 4 (context economics English) An increase in the quantity of money, leading to a devaluation of existing money. 5 Undue expansion or increase, as of academic grades. 6 (context cosmology English) An extremely rapid expansion of the universe, theorised to have occurred very shortly after the big bang.

  1. n. a general and progressive increase in prices; "in inflation everything gets more valuable except money" [syn: rising prices] [ant: deflation, disinflation]

  2. (cosmology) a brief exponential expansion of the universe (faster than the speed of light) postulated to have occurred shortly after the big bang

  3. lack of elegance as a consequence of being pompous and puffed up with vanity [syn: ostentation, ostentatiousness, pomposity, pompousness, pretentiousness, splashiness]

  4. the act of filling something with air [ant: deflation]

Inflation (cosmology)

In physical cosmology, cosmic inflation, cosmological inflation, or just inflation is a theory of exponential expansion of space in the early universe. The inflationary epoch lasted from 10 seconds after the Big Bang to sometime between 10 and 10 seconds. Following the inflationary period, the Universe continues to expand, but at a less rapid rate.

Inflation theory was developed in the early 1980s. It explains the origin of the large-scale structure of the cosmos. Quantum fluctuations in the microscopic inflationary region, magnified to cosmic size, become the seeds for the growth of structure in the Universe (see galaxy formation and evolution and structure formation). Many physicists also believe that inflation explains why the Universe appears to be the same in all directions ( isotropic), why the cosmic microwave background radiation is distributed evenly, why the Universe is flat, and why no magnetic monopoles have been observed.

The detailed particle physics mechanism responsible for inflation is not known. The basic inflationary paradigm is accepted by most scientists, who believe a number of predictions have been confirmed by observation; however, a substantial minority of scientists dissent from this position. The hypothetical field thought to be responsible for inflation is called the inflaton.

In 2002, three of the original architects of the theory were recognized for their major contributions; physicists Alan Guth of M.I.T., Andrei Linde of Stanford, and Paul Steinhardt of Princeton shared the prestigious Dirac Prize "for development of the concept of inflation in cosmology".

Inflation (disambiguation)

Inflation commonly refers to a rise in the general price level over a period of time (also known as price inflation).

Inflation may also refer to:


In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in the general price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.See:

  • (Glossary);

  • (Glossary)

  • (Glossary)

  • (Glossary)

When the price level rises, each unit of currency buys fewer goods and services. Consequently, inflation reflects a reduction in the purchasing power per unit of money a loss of real value in the medium of exchange and unit of account within the economy. A chief measure of price inflation is the inflation rate, the annualized percentage change in a general price index, usually the consumer price index, over time. The opposite of inflation is deflation.

Inflation affects an economy in various positive and negative ways. Negative effects of inflation include an increase in the opportunity cost of holding money, uncertainty over future inflation which may discourage investment and savings, and if inflation were rapid enough, shortages of goods as consumers begin hoarding out of concern that prices will increase in the future. Positive effects include reducing the real burden of public and private debt, keeping nominal interest rates above zero so that central banks can adjust interest rates to stabilize the economy, and reducing unemployment due to nominal wage rigidity.

Economists generally believe that high rates of inflation and hyperinflation are caused by an excessive growth of the money supply. However, money supply growth does not necessarily cause inflation. Some economists maintain that under the conditions of a liquidity trap, large monetary injections are like "pushing on a string". Views on which factors determine low to moderate rates of inflation are more varied. Low or moderate inflation may be attributed to fluctuations in real demand for goods and services, or changes in available supplies such as during scarcities. However, the consensus view is that a long sustained period of inflation is caused by money supply growing faster than the rate of economic growth.

Today, most economists favor a low and steady rate of inflation. Low (as opposed to zero or negative) inflation reduces the severity of economic recessions by enabling the labor market to adjust more quickly in a downturn, and reduces the risk that a liquidity trap prevents monetary policy from stabilizing the economy. The task of keeping the rate of inflation low and stable is usually given to monetary authorities. Generally, these monetary authorities are the central banks that control monetary policy through the setting of interest rates, through open market operations, and through the setting of banking reserve requirements.

Usage examples of "inflation".

In Wisconsin, for example, there was little difference between Democrats and Greenbackers on the currency question, and even the Republicans in their platform leaned toward inflation, although the candidates declared against it.

General Jourge Videla, head of the army, proclaimed a new military junta to oust Isabelita Peron, citing the chronic inflation and massive unemployment as the reason for their intervention.

America reached full employment while simultaneously nullifying inflation, making obsolete the renowned Phillips Curve of the Keynesian school of economics, which graphically demonstrated that there was a necessary trade-off between unemployment and inflation, i.

It causes the wage-price spiral which is generally mislabeled inflation.

The main factor in its favor is its impact on prices, its suppressing of price inflation.

Adjusted for inflation, the wages paid by Wal-Mart have declined by about 35 percent since 1970, about in line with the decline in the real value of the minimum wage over this period.

The rich have done fine because they had significant amounts of wealth in hard currency, often outside the country, that actually increased their purchasing power in Iraq as a result of the inflation.

Yet those charlatans, those obscurers of the truth, blame inflation on everybody elseunions, business-anyone, anything, except themselves.

The borrowing interest rate was low, rents were low, inflation was high, and creditors were in no hurry to call in debts.

Inflation theory explains the ripples and eddies that make our universe possible.

Due to gross original underestimates, cost over-runs and inflation, the likely bill will probably be in excess of nine billion guilders - and this massive sum for a project that some crigineering experts say will not work anyway.

She it is who proposes the correcting of pretentiousness, of inflation, of dulness, and of the vestiges of rawness and grossness to be found among us.

Magnus, otherwise known to his fellows as Caput, because of his supposed cerebral inflation.

They'd had food coupons, breadlines, fuel shortages, and inflation higher than the World Trade Center.

Boettger declined to set an annualized rate, stating, “This unprecedented increase in the rate of inflation is a purely temporary phenomenon which cannot be tolerated.