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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
put forward a theory/hypothesis
▪ Many theories have been put forward as to the building’s original purpose.
refute a hypothesis/a claim/an idea etc
▪ an attempt to refute Darwin’s theories
▪ An alternative hypothesis, which has considerable intuitive plausibility, needs to be refuted before this assumption can be justified.
▪ Thus no evidence to support this alternative hypothesis is available.
▪ Friedman's statement of the natural rate hypothesis went a long way towards reconciling such evidence with basic classical theory.
▪ In later versions of the natural rate hypothesis, Friedman was tacitly to abandon this view altogether.
▪ This gives variables of exactly known distribution, so that we can calculate the significance of any given peak under the null hypothesis.
▪ The researcher may actually expect that the null hypothesis is faulty and should be rejected in favor of the alternative H1.
▪ The null hypothesis that can then be tested by using the F distribution as explained in chapter 3.
▪ The use of the null hypothesis does have one very practical use.
▪ When this indicated a probability of less than 0.05 for the null hypothesis Student-Newman-Keuls analyses were performed to determine which values differed significantly.
▪ Departures from the null hypothesis were assessed at the 5% significance level.
▪ For the short observations, the null hypothesis is that only Poisson noise is present.
▪ The null hypothesis of no heterogeneity can not be rejected in any of the variants of the model.
▪ We first consider tests of the rational expectations hypothesis in those relatively few cases when the expected variable is directly measured.
▪ It was this criticism of the adaptive expectations hypothesis that led to the development of the rational expectations hypothesis.
▪ Possession of such direct observations on expectations would allow us to test the validity of the rational expectations hypothesis in two ways.
▪ This aggregate supply curve is of fundamental importance to the macroeconomic policy conclusions often drawn from the rational expectations hypothesis.
▪ Therefore the rational expectations hypothesis suggests a valid method of incorporating additional information when estimating macroeconomic models which contain expectation terms.
▪ Direct observations on what people are expecting allow a second and stronger test of the rational expectations hypothesis.
▪ Studies using those that do exist provide little support for the rational expectations hypothesis.
▪ Like Laplace in his famous reply to Napoleon, Humean atheists have no need for the theistic hypothesis.
▪ The third, theistic, hypothesis of creation is by far the best explanation for the existence of the universe.
▪ Far from this being the case, it is exactly what might be expected if the theistic hypothesis is true.
▪ It points us to the theistic hypothesis rather than to the necessity hypothesis.
▪ The theistic hypothesis postulates one necessarily actual reality, the mind that conceives all possibilities.
▪ Some interpretations, at least, of the hypothesis of natural selection do conflict with the theistic hypothesis on three main counts.
▪ The ultimate evolutionary victory, on the theistic hypothesis, does not go to the most ruthless exterminators and most fecund replicators.
▪ The counsellor constructs a working hypothesis which attempts to see meaning and connections in the counsellee's social performance.
▪ The working hypothesis is tested and refined through the process of discussion and questioning.
▪ But on the whole, a gradually rising population throughout the ninth century seems an acceptable working hypothesis.
▪ Recognizing the internalized self-image of the counsellee is an important perceptual skill in arriving at a working hypothesis.
▪ A recurrent working hypothesis of gene-culture coevolutionary theory is that the epigenetic rules are shaped by natural selection over many generations.
▪ The evidence, particularly of Willis, would support this working hypothesis.
▪ Romaine, Le Page and Tabouret-Keller and others have raised serious theoretical objections to the continuum hypothesis itself, as described above.
▪ Friedman's statement of the natural rate hypothesis went a long way towards reconciling such evidence with basic classical theory.
▪ In later versions of the natural rate hypothesis, Friedman was tacitly to abandon this view altogether.
▪ This project will help us to confirm or reject this hypothesis.
▪ The magnetic hypothesis of homing is not yet confirmed.
▪ The olfactory hypothesis has not been confirmed either.
▪ An experiment of Charles Brown has confirmed Marler's hypothesis.
▪ This study can not provide data to confirm or refute this hypothesis, however.
▪ She first confirmed Watson's hypothesis that in the tobacco mosaic virus small protein sub-units were arranged in a helical fashion.
▪ Do our results confirm this hypothesis?
▪ Such results may be explained by the hypothesis that serotonin is more responsible for regulating mood than for controlling alcohol cravings.
▪ This bizarre behavior is explained by the efficient-market hypothesis, which we will discuss at the end of this chapter.
▪ The scientist should try to prove the hypothesis wrong.
▪ This project will help us to confirm or reject this hypothesis.
▪ As previously suggested, a researcher is usually interested in setting up a hypothesis which he really would like to reject.
▪ Decisions to retain or reject an hypothesis are fairly straightforwardly determined by the results of experimental tests.
▪ Baillie etal. reject the speculative efficiency hypothesis in all cases.
▪ The application of these tests may increase the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is in fact true.
▪ Animal research has been much more consistent in suggesting this hypothesis than human research has.
▪ Subsequent studies have supported the hypothesis that population mixing can influence the incidence of childhood leukaemia.
▪ These results support the hypothesis that individuals are willing to pay more in order to live in communities that provide high-quality services.
▪ This supports the hypothesis that adaptation is due to visual change.
▪ Some epidemiological studies support the Fathalla hypothesis.
▪ This tends to support the hypothesis that although customers will complain about price increases it does not necessarily alter their visiting behaviour.
▪ As a result, this supports the hypothesis that men are more specialised in the left-brain than women.
▪ Seventeen pages of notes support his hypothesis.
▪ The finding that their number is neither affected by ranitidine nor by cisapride treatment does not support this hypothesis.
▪ The project will test this hypothesis using data collected from teachers and from pupils.
▪ In Hawaii, many efforts were made to test the vaccination hypothesis.
▪ Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that postoperative pain decreases subcutaneous oxygen partial pressure.
▪ Thereafter he would be testing his hypothesis.
▪ However, to fully test this hypothesis, it was necessary to investigate more than one domain.
▪ A serious problem arises in attempting to test this hypothesis empirically: how can trade union militancy be measured?
▪ If the cases of so called paradoxical pain were opioid sensitive why not test that hypothesis directly?
▪ Julia set out to test this hypothesis.
▪ Our hypothesis is that the dolphins ate contaminated fish, and this affected the dolphins' immune system.
▪ The results of our experiment confirmed this hypothesis.
▪ Possession of such direct observations on expectations would allow us to test the validity of the rational expectations hypothesis in two ways.
▪ That, the authors conclude, casts doubt on the refuge hypothesis.
▪ The evidence, particularly of Willis, would support this working hypothesis.
▪ This hypothesis generates an infinite set of indifference curves which are convex to the L axis.
▪ What this means is that there is no way that any hypothesis drawn from Marxist theory can be disproved by empirical investigation.
▪ What we are attempting is a hypothesis in which I answer for him, while you ask me questions.
The Collaborative International Dictionary

Hypothesis \Hy*poth"e*sis\, n.; pl. Hypotheses. [NL., fr. Gr. ? foundation, supposition, fr. ? to place under, ? under + ? to put. See Hypo-, Thesis.]

  1. A supposition; a proposition or principle which is supposed or taken for granted, in order to draw a conclusion or inference for proof of the point in question; something not proved, but assumed for the purpose of argument, or to account for a fact or an occurrence; as, the hypothesis that head winds detain an overdue steamer.

    An hypothesis being a mere supposition, there are no other limits to hypotheses than those of the human imagination.
    --J. S. Mill.

  2. (Natural Science) A tentative theory or supposition provisionally adopted to explain certain facts, and to guide in the investigation of others; hence, frequently called a working hypothesis.

    Syn: Supposition; assumption. See Theory.

    Nebular hypothesis. See under Nebular.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

1590s, from Middle French hypothese and directly from Late Latin hypothesis, from Greek hypothesis "base, basis of an argument, supposition," literally "a placing under," from hypo- "under" (see sub-) + thesis "a placing, proposition" (see thesis). A term in logic; narrower scientific sense is from 1640s.


n. 1 (context sciences English) Used loosely, a tentative conjecture explaining an observation, phenomenon or scientific problem that can be tested by further observation, investigation and/or experimentation. As a scientific term of art, see the attached quotation. Compare to theory, and quotation given there. 2 (context general English) An assumption taken to be true for the purpose of argument or investigation. 3 (context grammar English) The antecedent of a conditional statement.

  1. n. a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations

  2. a tentative theory about the natural world; a concept that is not yet verified but that if true would explain certain facts or phenomena; "a scientific hypothesis that survives experimental testing becomes a scientific theory"; "he proposed a fresh theory of alkalis that later was accepted in chemical practices" [syn: possibility, theory]

  3. a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence [syn: guess, conjecture, supposition, surmise, surmisal, speculation]

  4. [also: hypotheses (pl)]

Hypothesis (album)

Hypothesis is a 1978 album by the Greek electronic music composer Vangelis.


A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it. Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on previous observations that cannot satisfactorily be explained with the available scientific theories. Even though the words "hypothesis" and " theory" are often used synonymously, a scientific hypothesis is not the same as a scientific theory. A working hypothesis is a provisionally accepted hypothesis proposed for further research.

A different meaning of the term hypothesis is used in formal logic, to denote the antecedent of a proposition; thus in the proposition "If P, then Q", P denotes the hypothesis (or antecedent); Q can be called a consequent. P is the assumption in a (possibly counterfactual) What If question.

The adjective hypothetical, meaning "having the nature of a hypothesis", or "being assumed to exist as an immediate consequence of a hypothesis", can refer to any of these meanings of the term "hypothesis".

Hypothesis (drama)

In its ancient usage, a hypothesis is a summary of the plot of a classical drama. These hypotheses were often copied as a preface to the text of the surviving Athenian tragedies in Medieval manuscripts. They also indicated whether any other tragic poets had dramatised the story, gave its setting, identified the chorus and the character who delivered the prologue, and indicated the date of its first production and the titles of the poet's other plays performed that year, as well as the poet's rivals in the dramatic competition and the prize awarded.

Hypothesis (disambiguation)

A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.

Hypothesis may also refer to:

  • Hypothesis (album), music by Vangelis
  • Hypothesis (drama), in ancient usage, a summary of the plot of a classical drama
  • Hypothesis of a theorem, in mathematics
  •, a website annotation software

Usage examples of "hypothesis".

A third hypothesis, which may be seen as complementary to the second, is that today capital continues to accumulate through subsumption in a cycle of expanded reproduction, but that increasingly it subsumes not the noncapitalist environment but its own capitalist terrain-that is, that the subsumption is no longer formal but real.

Whereas our attention was first drawn to the intensity of the elements of virtuality that constituted the multitude, now it must focus on the hypothesis that those virtualities accumulate and reach a threshold of realization adequate to their power.

Christians reject the allegorizing of the Jews, and yet traditionally accept, on their authority, doctrines which can be deduced from their Scriptures in no other way than by the absurd hypothesis of a double or mystic sense.

We have no experimental method by which anthropic hypotheses may be tested.

The young man told him the various antipathy stories, about the evil-eye hypothesis, about his horse-taming exploits, his rescuing the student whose boat was overturned, and every occurrence he could recall which would help out the effect of his narrative.

Wu more or less admitted that the Chi is similar to terrestrial bacteria, it is odd that a mammalian paramyxovirus rather than a bacteriophage was chosen, but Mariella dismisses it as a minor mystery, is more concerned with proving her hypothesis that, after infection, the Chi altered the virus.

There is no method of reasoning more common, and yet none more blameable, than, in philosophical disputes, to endeavour the refutation of any hypothesis, by a pretence of its dangerous consequences to religion and morality.

The presence of frost rings in the bristlecone pines, indicating a normal growing season interrupted by a sudden hard frost, supports this hypothesis.

But the instincts of our common humanity indignantly remonstrate against the testing of clumsy or unimportant hypotheses by prodigal experimentation, or MAKING THE TORTURE OF ANIMALS AN EXHIBITION TO ENLARGE A MEDICAL SCHOOL, or for the entertainment of students--not one in fifty of whom can turn it to any profitable account.

The first is a hypostatized legend, the second a metaphysical personification, the third a philosophical hypothesis.

According to the nebular hypothesis, the entire creation was once a measureless chaos confusion, conflict, collisions, explosions, making a universal hell of matter.

Their genetic code had been based on triplet base sequences strung on a DNA double helix, reinforcing the modified HoyleWickramasinghe panspermia hypothesis that all life in the Solar System, including the long-extinct Martian microflora, had a common ancestor.

Thus, ordinary, commonsense, firsthand experience is taken as seriously as scientific, third-person observations, and even the most cherished principles of scientific materialism, such as monism, are treated simply as hypotheses.

Being unable to find the monomer, he abandoned the hypothesis in 1942.

But eventually we have to develop a specific hypothesis about what musicality is: what it means, and how the brain perceives it.