n. (context genetics English) A group of alleles that are transmitted together. vb. (context genetics English) To characterize with respect to haplotype.
A haplotype ( haploid genotype) is a group of genes in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent. A haplogroup is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor with a single-nucleotide polymorphism mutation. Mitochondrial DNA passes along a maternal lineage that can date back thousands of years. There are, however, several specific definitions of the term being used in the field of genetics. First, it is a portmanteau word for haploid genotype, which is a collection of specific alleles (that is, specific DNA sequences) in a cluster of tightly-linked genes on a chromosome that are likely to be inherited together—that is, they are likely to be conserved as a sequence that survives the descent of many generations of reproduction.
A second specific meaning of the term haplotype: a set of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on one chromosome that tend to always occur together, i.e., that are associated statistically. It is thought that identifying these statistical associations and few alleles of a specific haplotype sequence can facilitate identifying all other such polymorphic sites that are nearby on the chromosome. Such information is critical for investigating the genetics of common diseases; which in fact have been investigated in humans by the International HapMap Project.
Another specific definition of haplotype: Many human genetic testing companies use the term 'haplotype' to refer to an individual collection of specific mutations within a given genetic segment; (see short tandem repeat mutation). The term ' haplogroup' refers to the SNP/ unique-event polymorphism (UEP) mutations that represent the clade to which a collection of particular human haplotypes belong. (Clade here refers to a set of people sharing a common ancestor.)
Usage examples of "haplotype".
DNA, but if you find a suspect and get his dog, we can use these hairs to match the mitochondrial haplotype of the dog.
A very slight variation in haplotype number, the kind of subtle, meaningless mutation that happened in the DNA of a germ cell.
To way oversimplify, you have a haplotype 5 where you had a haplotype 4, that is, five repeats of a specific sequence instead of four, but nothing material changes in the organism that is born.
In sexual reproduction, rearrangement of parental haplotypes produces a genotype different from either, although cut from the same constituent stuff.
Laurie let the woman drone on about genes and how certain traits could be linked with other traits to form specific haplotypes that were inherited over generations.