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ground state

n. (context physics English) the stationary state of lowest energy of a particle or system of particles

ground state

n. (physics) the lowest energy state of an atom or other particle

Ground state

The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest- energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system. An excited state is any state with energy greater than the ground state. The ground state of a quantum field theory is usually called the vacuum state or the vacuum.

If more than one ground state exists, they are said to be degenerate. Many systems have degenerate ground states. Degeneracy occurs whenever there exists a unitary operator which acts non-trivially on a ground state and commutes with the Hamiltonian of the system.

According to the third law of thermodynamics, a system at absolute zero temperature exists in its ground state; thus, its entropy is determined by the degeneracy of the ground state. Many systems, such as a perfect crystal lattice, have a unique ground state and therefore have zero entropy at absolute zero. It is also possible for the highest excited state to have absolute zero temperature for systems that exhibit negative temperature.

Ground State (Angel)

"Ground State" is episode 2 of season 4 in the television show Angel. In this episode, Wesley, now a hardened demon-hunter/killer with his own gang, leads the search to Denza who tells them that the Axis talisman will aid him in their search for Cordelia. Meanwhile, Gwen Raiden, a young mercenary with uncontrollable electrical abilities, is also looking for the talisman at the request of her employer, a wealthy businessman with connections to Wolfram & Hart.

Usage examples of "ground state".

If the vacuum energy is the energy of the ground state, to what new state does the vacuum go, after energy is extracted?

Rather than being knocked into an excited state, as atoms that emit laser photons are, BEC atoms are cooled down to the ground state.

They moved on to the first chemistry exhibit, which showed the paraboloid bowl at the bottom of the well, with a translucent electric-blue bell-shape superimposed over it: the lepton wave in its lowest-energy, ground state.

When the universe formed, the big bang, that first great quantum leap was not to the lowest energy level, the ground state.

I winced as tickling sensations began dancing across my scalp, comparing my ongoing Soul Standing Wave to the basic ground state stored in memory.