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Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
▪ Compliance and response to a gluten free diet were assessed at each visit by careful questioning.
▪ Hardness refers to gluten and protein, which form the cell structure of the dough.
▪ In 20, the biopsy was repeated and showed improvement after the beginning of a gluten free diet.
▪ In this study the antigliadin antibody-IgG test was often abnormal on gluten free diet and showed almost no correlation with the microchallenge.
▪ It will have an open gluten network, a nutty flavor, and a wonderful character.
▪ The gluten is in the process of setting and the crust is deceptively crisp, hiding the immature bread within.
▪ The gluten should be providing a stretchable medium in which the dough can sustain its rise and hold its dome.
▪ The development of the gluten free diet was based on these discoveries.
The Collaborative International Dictionary

Gluten \Glu"ten\, n. [L., glue: cf. F. gluten. See Glue.] (Chem.) The viscid, tenacious substance which gives adhesiveness to dough.

Note: Gluten is a complex and variable mixture of glutin or gliadin, vegetable fibrin, vegetable casein, oily material, etc., and is a very nutritious element of food. It may be separated from the flour of grain by subjecting this to a current of water, the starch and other soluble matters being thus washed out.

Gluten bread, bread containing a large proportion of gluten; -- used in cases of diabetes.

Gluten casein (Chem.), a vegetable proteid found in the seeds of grasses, and extracted as a dark, amorphous, earthy mass.

Gluten fibrin (Chem.), a vegetable proteid found in the cereal grains, and extracted as an amorphous, brownish yellow substance.

Douglas Harper's Etymology Dictionary

1630s, "any sticky substance," from Middle French gluten (16c.) or directly from Latin gluten "glue" (see glue (n.)). Used 16c.-19c. for the part of animal tissue now called fibrin; used since 1803 of the nitrogenous part of the flour of wheat or other grain; hence glutamic acid (1871), a common amino acid, and its salt, glutamate.


n. 1 (context obsolete English) fibrin (formerly considered as one of the "animal humours"). (16th-19th c.) 2 The major protein in cereal grains, especially wheat; responsible for the elasticity in dough and the structure in baked bread. (from 19th c.) 3 (context rare geology English) A gluey, sticky mass of clay, bitumen etc. (from 19th c.)


n. a protein substance that remains when starch is removed from cereal grains; gives cohesiveness to dough


Gluten (from Latin gluten, " glue") is a mixture of proteins found in wheat and related grains, including barley, rye, oat, and all their species and hybrids (such as spelt, kamut, and triticale). Gluten is appreciated for its viscoelastic properties. It gives elasticity to dough, helping it rise and keep its shape and often gives the final product a chewy texture.

Gluten is a composite of storage proteins termed prolamins. It is conjoined with starch in the endosperm of various grass-related grains. Wheat prolamins are called gliadins and glutenins, barley prolamins are hordeins, rye prolamins are secalins and oats prolamins are avenins.

Gluten proteins have low biological and nutritional value, as opposed to the grains of pseudocereals (gluten free), which are rich in proteins with high biological value ( albumins and globulins).

The fruit of most flowering plants have endosperms with stored protein to nourish embryonic plants during germination. True gluten is limited to certain members of the grass family. The stored proteins of maize and rice are sometimes called glutens, but their proteins differ from true gluten.

Usage examples of "gluten".

That some matter is absorbed from the gluten, we have clear evidence in the length of time during which the tentacles remain inflected, and in the greatly changed colour of the glands.

All plants, moreover, have the power of dissolving albuminous or proteid substances, such as protoplasm, chlorophyll, gluten, aleurone, and of carrying them from one part to other parts of their tissues.

The secretion, as we have seen, completely dissolves albumen, muscle, fibrin, areolar tissue, cartilage, the fibrous basis of bone, gelatine, chondrin, casein in the state in which it exists in milk, and gluten which has been subjected to weak hydrochloric acid.

We see the influence of the nature of different substances in bits of meat, albumen, and fresh gluten acting very differently from equalsized bits of gelatine, areolar tissue, and the fibrous basis of bone.

When you stir water into flour, the glutenin and gliadin come alive, connecting with the water and with each other to form gluten, a tough and stretchy substance that, when kneaded or stirred or stretched, forms the elastic network that gives structure to bread, but turns pastry and cakes tough and rubbery.

By coating the little particles of flour, shortening waterproofs the protein, prevents the water from reaching the gliadin and glutenin, and thus makes it impossible for them to combine and form gluten.

The flounces of mangroves, the sparse, grassy epaulettes on the shoulders of the hills the fragrant forest, the dim jungle, the piled up rocks, the caves where the rare swiftlet hatches out her young in gloom and silence in nests of gluten and moss--all are mine to gloat over.

Suppose no mercury is found in the dialyzed fluid, owing to the fact that corrosive sublimate enters into insoluble compounds with albumin, fibrin, mucous membrane, gluten, tannic acid, etc.

European millers like it to mix with the Eastern wheats that have more gluten than ours.

The secretion, as we have seen, completely dissolves albumen, muscle, fibrin, areolar tissue, cartilage, the fibrous basis of bone, gelatine, chondrin, casein in the state in which it exists in milk, and gluten which has been subjected to weak hydrochloric acid.

Gluten, therefore, excites the glands greatly, but is dissolved with much difficulty, exactly as in the case of Drosera.

It may be partly due to changed texture, and partly to changed chemical nature, that albumen, which had been kept for some time, and gluten which had been subjected to weak hydrochloric acid, act more quickly than these substances in their fresh state.

Utricularia nelumbifolia, 442 Gelatin, impure, action on Drosera, 80 , pure, its digestion by Drosera, 110 Genlisea africana, 451 filiformis, 451 Genlisea ornata, structure of, 446 , manner of capturing prey, 450 Glandular hairs, absorption by, 344 , summary on, 353 Globulin, its digestion by Drosera, 120 Gluten, its digestion by Drosera, 117 Glycerine, inducing aggregation in Drosera, 52 , action on Drosera, 212 Gold chloride, action on Drosera, 184 GorupBesanez on the presence of a solvent in seeds of the vetch, 362 Grass, decoction of, action on Drosera, 84 Gray, Asa, on the Droseraceae, 2 Groenland, on Drosera, 1, 5 Gum, action of, on Drosera, 77 Guncotton, not digested by Drosera, 125 H.

The effects of a milk and vegetable diet, of gluten bread in diabetes, of cod-liver oil in phthisis, even of such audacious innovations as the water-cure and the grape-cure, are only hints of what will be accomplished when we have learned to discover what organic elements are deficient or in excess in a case of chronic disease, and the best way of correcting the abnormal condition, just as an agriculturist ascertains the wants of his crops and modifies the composition of his soil.

For example, many children have difficulty digesting proteins, such as casein and gluten, contained in cows' milk and wheat.